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The Greville Memoirs 

A JOURNAL OF THE REIGNS 

OF 

KING GEORGE IY. 

VND 

KING WILLIAM IV 

P\ 1H1 LATE 

CHARLES C F GREVILLE, Ewj 

GIEttK or THE COUNCIT TO THOSE SOVEREIGNS 

LDllM) BA 

HENRY REEVE 

km i tpar Di nrr rnv\ cdum.ii 

IN mRhiL VOLUMES 
^ 0 L II 

FIFTH hDiriQh 


LONDON 

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO 

1875 




CONTENTS 

Ot 

THE SECOND VOLUME 


CHAPTER XI 

Uces&ion of William IV — The King’s Pioceedmgs — His Populanty — 
Funeral of Geoige IV — Dislike of the Duke of Cumberland — The King’s 
Simplicity and Good-nature — Reviews the Guaids — The First Coiut — 
The King m St James’s Street — Dissolution of Parliament — The King 
dines at Apslej House — 1 he Duke of Gloucester — The Quakers Address — 
The Ordinances of July — The Fiench Revolution — Biougham’s Election 
foi Yorkshire— Struggle m Pans — Elections adveise to Government — 
The Duke of Wellington on the French Revolution — Duke of Cumber- 
land lesigns the Gold Stick and the Blues — Geoige IV ’s Wardiobe — 
Fall of the Bourbons*—’ W eakness of the Dukes Mmistij — The King 
at Windsor — The Duke of Oileans accepts the Ciown of Fiance — 
Chambei of Peers remodelled —Prince Pohgnac — The Ntw Parliament 
—Virgin! i W atei — Det tils ot Geoige IV ’s Illness and Death— S) mptoras 
of Opposition — Biougham — Chailes \ m England — Dmnei m St 
George’s Hall — Lambeth — Marshal Mnimont — His Conversation — 
Campaign of 1814 — The Conflict m Pans — Dinner at Lend Dudley’s 

patfi 1 


CHAPTER XII 

The Belgian Revolution— The Duke of Wellington and Canning — The 
King’s Plate — Gloomy Foiebodings — Retreat of the Pimce of Orange — 
Prince Talleyrand — Position of the Government — Death of Huslnsson — 
His Character — The Duke of Wellington and Peel — Meeting of Parlia- 
ment — The Duke’s Declaration — The King’s Visit to the City aban- 
doned —Disturbances m London— Duchesse do Dmo— The Choleia — 
Southt}, llemy laaloi, John Stuait Mill — Dmnu at Tallcviaud’s— ' Hit 



\1 


CONI MS rs 01 


Duke of Wellington lesigns — Mr Bathurst made Jumoi Cleik of the 
Council — Loid Spencer and Lord Giey sent foi — Foimation of Loid 
Giev’s Administration — Discontent of Biougham — Brougham takes the 
Gieat Seal — Chaiaetei of the New Ministers — Piospects of the Oppo- 
sition — Distui bances m Sussex and TTampshue — Loid Grey and Loid 
Biougnam — Loid Sefton’s Dmnei — I lie New Mmisteis swoin at a 
Council p«r/( 40 


CHAPTER XIII 

V Pioclamation against Rioteis — Appointments — Duke of Wellington m 
Hampshire — Geneial Excitement — The Tory Part) — State of Ireland— 
Moie Distuibances — Loid Giey’s Colleagues — Election at Liveipool — 
The Black Book — The Duke of Wellington’s Position and Chaiactei — 
A Council on a Capital Sentence — Biougham in the House of Loids — 
The Oleiks of the Council — Loid Giey and Loid Lyndhurst — The 
Ghancelloi of Ireland — Loid Melbourne — Duke of Richmond — Sir Tames 
Giaham— Lyndhuist Loid Chief Baion — Tudge AJlan Pailv — Loid 
Lyndhurst and the Whigs — Duke of Wellington and Pohgnac — The 
lung and Ins Sons — Polish R evolution — Mechanics’ Institute — Repeal 
of the Union — King Louis Philippe — Loid Anglesey and O’Connell — 
A Dmnei at the Athenaeum — Canning and Geoige IV — Foimation ot 
Canning’s Go\ eminent— Negotiation with Loid Melbourne— Count 
Walewski— Ciokei’s Boswell — State of Iieland — Brougham and Sugden 
— Anest of 0 Connell' — Colonel Napiei and the Trades Unions— The 
Cml List — Hunt m the House of Commons— Southey’s Lettei to 
Biougham on Literaiy Honoius — The Budget — O’Connell pleads guilt) 
-Achilla Muiat — -Weakness of the Government — Lady Jeisey and Loid 
Duiham — Lord Duncannon — Inland- Wordswoith 73 


CHAPTER XIV 

Iutioduction of the Reform Bill — Attitude of the Opposition — Refoirn De- 
bites — Peel — Wilbei force and Canning — Old Sn Robeit Peel — The City 
Address — Agitation for Reform — Effects of the Reform Bill — Biougham 
as Chancelloi — Biougham at the Horse Guaids — Miss Kemble — \ otc on 
the Timbei Duties — Loid Lansdowne’s* Opinion of the Bill — Refonn 
Bill earned by one Vote — The King m Mourning — The Pimce of 
Change — PteT* Reserve — Mmisteis beaten — Pailiament dissolved by 
the King m Person — Tumult m both Houses — Failuic of the Whig 
Mmistiy— The King m their HaacU — The Elections — Illumination m 
the City — The Queen alaimed — Loid Lyndhuist’s View of the Bill — 
Lord Giey tikes the Gaitei — The King at Ascot— Windsor undei 
ttt ■d * -vi.or, at Whitbread s Bieweiy and at the British 



THE SECOND VOLUME Vll 

Peers — -New Pailiament meets — Opened by* tlie King — ‘Hem am ’ at 
Bridgewater House — The Second Refoim Bill — The King’s Coionation 
— Oobbett’s Trial — Punce Leopold accepts the Ciown of Belgium — 
Peel and the Tones — A Rabble Opposition — A Council for the Coro- 
nation * • . * • • page 121 


CHAPTER XV* 

Preparations for the Coronation — Long Wellesley committed by tlie 
Chancellor foi Contempt — Aldeiman Thompson and his Constituents — 
Prince Leopold goes to Belgium — Royal Tombs and Remains — The Lieu- 
tenancy of the Tower — The Choleia — The Belgian Foitiesses— Secret 
Negotiations of Canning with the Whigs — Ti insactions before the Close 
of the Liverpool Admimstiation — Duke of Wellington and Peel — The 
Dutch invade Belgium — Defeat of the Belgian Army — The Fiench enter 
Belgium — Loid Giey’s Composuie — Audience at Windsor — Dangei of 
Reform — Ellen Tree — The French in Belgium — Goodwood— The Duke 
of Richmond — The Reform Bill m Difficulties — -Duke of Wellington 
calls on Lord Giey — The King declines to be kissed by the Bishops — 
Talley land’s Conveisation — Stvte of Euiope and France — Coionation 
Squabbles — The King divides the old Great Seal between Biougham and 
Lyndhuist — Relations of the Duchess of Kent to George IV and Willi ini 
IV —The Coronation — Imtition of the King — The Choleia — A Dinnei 
at St James’s — State of the RefoimBill — Sn Augustus d’Este — Madame 
Junot— State of France— Poland . • . * , * 105 


CHAPTER XVI 

Whig and Tory Meetings on Reform— Resolution to cany the Bill— Holland 
— Radical Jones — Reform Bill thrown out by tlie Lords — Doisetshire 
Election —Division among tbe Tories — Bishop Phillpotts — Piospects of 
Reform— Its Dangers — Riots at Bristol — The Cholera at Sunderland — 
An Attempt at a Compiomise on Refoim — Lord Wharncliffe negotiates 
with the Mmisteis— Negotiation with Mr Baines — Proclamation against 
the Unions — Baibarism of Sunderland — Disappointment of Lord Wham- 
ehffe — Bristol and Lyons — Commeicial Negotiations with Fiance — 
Poulett Thomson — Lord Wharncliffe’s Proposal to Lord Grey — Dis- 
approved by the Dube of Wellington — Modeiation of Loid John Russell 
— The Appeal of Diax v Grosvenoi — The Second Reform Bill — 
Violence of Loid Duiham — More Body-snatchers — Duke of Richmond 
and Sir Henry Parnell — Pansbanger — Creation of Peeis — Division of 
Opinion — Negotiation to avoid the Creation of Peers — Loid “VVham- 
clifte’s Interview with the King — Opposition of the Duke of Wellington 
— The Waverers lesolve to separate hom the Duke # # 197 



via 


CO^TLNIS OF 


CHAPTER XVII 

Measures for cauyrag tlie Second Reading of tlie Refoun Bill m the House 
of Loids — The Party of the Waverers — The Russo-Butch Loan — Resist- 
ance of the Tory Peeu — Loid Melbourne’s Views on the Government — 
Macaulay at Holland House — Reluctance of the Government to create 
p eer s — Babe of Wellington intractable — Peels Despondency — Loid 
Grey on the Measuies of Conciliation — Lord WharncMe sees the Kmg 
— Piospects of the Waverers — Conventions with Loid Melbourne and 
Lord Palmerston — Duke of Richmond on the Creation of Peeis — Inter- 
view of Lord Grey with the Wavereis — Minute drawn up — Bethnal 
Gieen — The Aichbishop of Canterbury vacillates — Violence of Extreme 
Paities — Princess Lieven’s Journal— Lord Holland for making Peers — 
lush National Education — Seizure of Incana— Reform Bill passes the 
House of Commons — Loid Dudley’s Madness— Debate m the Loids 

$>age 237 


CHAPTER XVIII 

Debate in the House of Loids— Lord Hano^by’s Position — Hopes of a Com- 
promise — Lord Melbourne’s View — Disturbances caused by the Oholeia 
— The Disfranchisement Clause — The Numbei 1 56 ’—Peeis contem- 
plated — The King’s Hesitation — f The Hunchback ’ — Ciitical Position of 
the Waveieis — Bill earned by Nine in the Loids — The Cholera m Paris 
— Model ate Speech of Loid Grey — End of the Secession — Conciliatory 
Oveitures — Negotiations carried on at Newmarket— Hostile Division m 
the Lords — Lord Wharncliffe’s Account of his Failure — Lord Grey re- 
signs — The Duke of Wellington attempts to form a Ministry — Peel 
declines — Hostility of the Court to the Whigs — A Change of Scene — The 
Duke fails — History of the Cnsis— Lord Grey returns to Office — The 
King’s Excitement — The King writes to the Opposition Peers — Defeat 
and Disgrace of the Tories — Conversation of the Duke of Wellington — 
Louis XVHI — Madame du Cay la — Weakness of the King — Moitality 
among Great Men — Petition against Lord W Bentmek’s Prohibition of 
Suttee heard by the Privy Council — O’Connell and the Cholera — Irish 
Tithe Bill — Irish Difficulties — Mr Stanley — Concluding Debates of the 
Parliament — Quarrel between Brougham and Sugden— Holland and 
Belgium — Biougham’s Revenge and Apology — Dinner at Holland House 
— Anecdotes of Johnson — Death of Mr Greville’s Fathei — Madame de 
Flahaut’s Account of the Princess Charlotte— Prmce Augustus of 
Prussia— Captain Hess — Hostilities in Holland and m Portugal — The 
Duchesse de Bern — Conveisation with Loid Melbourne on the State of 
the Government, , , » , , . 274 



THE SECOND VOLUME 


XX 


CHAPTER, XIX 

Foieign Difficulties — Conduct of Peel on the Resignation of Loid Grey — 
Manners Sutton proposed as Tory Piemier — Coolness between Peel and 
the Duke — Embaigo on Dutch Ships — Death of Lord Tenteiden — 
Denman made Lord Chief Justice— Sketch of Holland House — The 
Speakeiship — Horne and Campbell Attorney- and Sohcitor-Geneial — The 
Court at Brighton — Loid Howe and the Queen — Elections under the 
Reform Act — Mi Gully — Pet worth — Loid Egremont — Attempt to re- 
instate Loid Howe— Namik Pacha — Lord Lyndhurst’s Version of what 
occurred on the Resignation of Lord Grey — Lord Denbigh appointed 
Chamberlain to the Queen — Brougham’s Privy Council Bill — Talley- 
rand’s Relations with Fox and Pitt — Negro Emancipation Bill — State of 
the West Indies — The Reformed Parliament meets — Russian Intrigues — 
Four Days Debate on the Addi ess— Peel’s Political Caieer page 324 


CHAPTER XX 

Appointment of Sir Stratfoid Canning to the Russian Embassy — Cause of 
the Refusal — Slavery m the West Indies — The Reformed Parliament — 
Duke of Wellington’s View of Affairs — The Coercion Bill — The Puvy 
Council Bill — Lord Durham made an Earl — Mi Stanley Secietary foi the 
Colonies — The Russians go to the Assistance of the Porte — Lord Goderich 
has the Privy Seal, an Eaildom,and the Gaiter — Embarrassments of the 
Government — The Appeal of Drax v Grosvenor at the Privy Council 
— Hobhouse defeated m Westminster — Bill for Negro Emancipation — 
The Russians on the Bosphorus — Mr Littleton Chief Secretarv for 
Ireland — Respect shown to the Duke of Wellington — Moral of a 1 Book 
on the Derby’ — The Oaks — A Betting Incident — Ascot — Government 
beaten m the Lords on Foreign Policy — Vote of Confidence m the 
Commons — Drax v Grosvenor decided — Lord Eldon’s Last Judgment — 
His Charactei — Duke of Wellington as Leader of Opposition — West 
India Affairs — Irish Church Bill — Appropnation Clause — A Fancy 
Bazaar — The King writes to the Bishops — Local Court Bill — 
Mirabeau . • • 357 




A JOURNAL 


OF THE 

REIGN OF KING WILLIAM THE FOURTH. 


CHAPTER XI 

Accession of Will am IV — The King’s Pioceedings — Ills Populanty — 
Funeialof Geoige IV — Dislike of the Duke of Cumberland — The King’s 
Simplicity and Good-natuie — Reviews the Guaids — rhe First Couifc— 
The King m St James’s Sti eet — Dissolution of Parliament— The King 
dines at Apsley House— The Duke of Gloucester— The Quakers’ Address — 
The Ordinances of July — The French Revolution — Brougham’s Election 
for Yoikslnre — Stiuggle in Pans —Elections Adveise to Government — 
The Duke of Wellington on the French Revolution — Duke of Cumber- 
land resigns the Gold Stick and the Blues — Geoige IV *s Wardrobe — 
Fall of the Bourbons — Weakness of the Duke’s Ministry — The King 
At Windsor— The Duke of Oi leans accepts the Crown of Fiance — 
Chamber of Peeis remodelled — Pnnce Polignac— The New Parliament 
— Vngima Water — Details of George IV ’s Illness and Death— Symptoms 
of Opposition — Brougham — Charles X m England — Dinner m St 
Geoige’s Hall — Lambeth — Maisbal Marmont — His Conversation — 
Campaign of 1814 — The Conflict in Pans— Dinner at Lord Dudley’s 

1830 

London , July 1 6th — I returned here on the 6th of this 
month, and have waited these ten days to look about me 
and see and hear what is passing The present King and 
his proceedings occupy all attention, and nobody thinks 
any more of the late King than if he had been dead fifty 
years, unless it be to abuse him and to rake up all his 
vices and misdeeds Never was elevation like that of King 
William IV His life has been hitherto passed in obscurity 

VOL II B 



2 


REIGN OE WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XI 


and neglect, in miserable poverty, surrounded by a numerous 
progeny of bastards, without eonsideiation 01 friends, and 
he was ridiculous from his grotesque ways and little meddling 
curiosity Nobody ever invited him into their house, 01 
thought it necessary to honour him with any maik of atten- 
tion or lespect , and so he went on for above foity yeais, till 
P anning brought him into notice by making him Lord High 
A dmir al at the time of his grand Ministenal schism In 
that post he distinguished himself by making absurd speeches, 
by a morbid official activity, and by a general wildness which 
was thought to indicate incipient insanity, till shortly aftei 
C anning ’s death and the Duke’s accession, as is well known, 
the latter dismissed him He then dropped back into 
obscurity, but had become by this time somewhat more of 
a personage than he was before His brief administration 
of the navy, the death of the Duke of Toik, which made him 
heir to the throne, his increased wealth and regular habits, 
had piocured him more consideration, though not a great 
deal Such was his position when George IV broke all at 
once, and after thiee months of expectation William finds 
himself King 

July Y%th — King George had not been dead three days 
before everybody discovered that he was no loss, and King 
William a great gam Certainly nobody evei was less 
regretted than the late King, and the breath was hardly out 
of his body before the press burst forth in full cry against 
him, and raked up all his vices, follies, and misdeeds, which 
were numerous and glaring enough 

The new King began very well Everybody expected he 
would keep the Ministeis m office, but he threw himself 
into the aims of the Duke of Wellington with the strongest 
expressions of confidence and esteem He proposed to all 
the Household, as well as to the members of Government, to 
keep their places, which they all did except Lord Conyngham 
and the Duke of Montrose He soon after, howevei, dis- 
missed most of the equeines, that he might fill then places 
with the members of his own family Of course such a King 
wanted not due praise, and plenty of anecdotes were raked 



1830 ] 


KING WILLIAM’S ACCESSION 


3 


up of his foiiner generosities and kindnesses His first 
speech to the Council was well enough given, but his burlesque 
character began even then to show itself Nobody expected 
from him much real gi lef, and he does not seem to know 
how to act it consistently, he spoke of his bi other with all 
the semblance of feeling, and m a tone of voice properly 
softened and subdued, but just afterwards, when they gave 
him the pen to sign the declaration, he said, m his usual tone, 

‘ This is a damned bad pen you have given me 5 My worthy 
colleague Mr James Bullei began to swear Privy Councillois 
m the name of 6 King Geoige IV — William, I mean/ to the 
great diversion of the Council 

A few days aftei my return I was sworn m, all the Minis- 
ters and some otheis being piesent His Majesty presided 
very decently, and looked like a respectable old admiral The 
Duke [of Wellington] told me he was delighted with him — 
e If I had been able to deal with my late master as I do with 
my present, I should have got on much better 5 — that he 
was so leasonable and tractable, and that he had done more 
business with him m ten minutes than with the other m as 
many days 

I met Geoige Pitzclaience, afterwaids Eail of Minister , 1 
the same day, and repeated what the Duke said, and he told 
me how delighted his fathei was with the Duke, his entue 
confidence m him, and that the Duke might as entirely 
depend upon the King , that he had told his Majesty, when 
he was at Pans, that Polignac and the Duke of Orleans had 
both asked him whether the Duke of Clarence, when he 
became King, would keep the Duke of Wellington as his 
Minister, and the King said, ‘What did you leply ‘ I 

1 [Eldest son of King William IV by Mrs Jordan, wlio was shoitly 
after the accession created an earl by bis fathei The lank of ‘ Marquis’s 
younger childien 7 was conferred upon the rest of the family The King 
had nine natural children by Mrs Jordan 1, George, a xnajoi-general m 
the army, afterwards Earl of Munstex , 2, Fiedenek, also m the army, 3, 
Adolphus, a rear- admix al , 4, Augustus, m holy orders , 5, Sophia, married 
to Loid de l’lsle , 6, Mary, niarned to Colonel Fox , 7, Elizabeth, mained 
to the Earl of Enol, 8, Augusta, married first to the Hon John Kennedy 
Erskme, and secondly to Lord John Frederick Gordon, 9, Amelia, married 
to Viscount Falkland ] 



4 


RJEIGN OS' WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XI 


replied that you ceitamly would, did not I do light 9 ’ 
‘ Certainly, you did quite right ’ 

He began immediately to do good-natured things, to 
provide foi old friends and professional adherents, and he 
bestowed a pension upon Tierney’s widow The great offices 
of Chambeilam and Steward he abandoned to the Duke of 
Wellington There never was anything like the enthusiasm 
with which he was greeted by all lanks, though he has 
trotted about both town and country for sixty-foui yeais, 
and nobody evei turned lound to look at him, he cannot stu 
now without a mob, patucian as well as plebeian, at his heels 
All the Park congregated round the gate to see him drive 
into town the day befoie yesterday But m the midst of all 
this success and good conduct certain indications of strange- 
ness and oddness peep out which are not a little alarming, 
and he promises to realise the feais of his Ministers that he 
will do and say too much, though they flattei themselves 
that they have muzzled him m his approaching progiess by 
reminding him that his woids will be taken as his Ministers’, 
and he must, therefore, be chary of them 

At the late King’s funeral he behaved with great in- 
decency That ceremony was very well managed, and a fine 
sight, the military part particularly, and the Guards were 
magnificent The attendance was not very numeious, and 
when they had all got together m St George’s Hall a gayei 
■company I never beheld, with the exception of Mount Charles, 
-who was deeply affected, they weie all as merry as grigs 
'The King was chief mourner, and, to my astonishment, as he 
entered the chapel directly behind the body, m a situation 
in which he should have been apparently, if not really, 
absorbed m the melancholy duty he was performing, he 
darted up to Strathaven, who was ranged on one side below 
the Dean’s stall, shook him heartily by the hand, and then 
went on nodding to the right and left He had previously 
gone as chief mourner to sit for an hour at the head of the 
body as it lay m state, and he walked m procession with his 
household to the apartment I saw him pass from behind 
the screen Lord Jersey had been in the morning to Bushey 



1830] DISLIKE OP THE DUKE OP CUMBERLAND 

to lass hands on being made Chamberlain, when he had 
received inm very graciously, told him it was the Duke and 
not himself who had made him, but that he was delighted 
to have him At Windsor, when he arrived, he gave 
Jeisey the white wand, 01 lather took one from him he had 
piovided foi himself, and gave it him again with a little 
speech When he went to sit m state, Jersey preceded him, 
and he said when all was leady, ‘ Go on to the body, Jersey, 
you will get your diess coat as soon as you can * The 
morning after the funeral, having slept at Erogmore, he 
went all over the Castle, into every room m the house, which 
he had never seen before except when he came there as a 
guest, aftei which he received an address from the ecclesias- 
tical bodies of Windsor and Eton, and returned an answer 
quite unpremeditated which they told me was excellent 

He is veiy well with all his family, particularly the Duke 
of Sussex, but he dislikes and seems to know the Duke of 
Cumberland, who is furious at his own disciedit The King 
has taken fiom him the Gold Stick, by means of which he 
had usuiped the functions of all the other colonels of the 
regiments of the Guards, and put himself always about the 
late King He says the Duke’s lank is too high to peifoim 
those functions, and has put an end to his sei vices He has 
only put the Gold Sticks on then foimei footing, and they are 
all to take the duty m turn 

In the meantime the Duke of Cumberland has shown his 
teeth m another way His horses have lntheito stood m the 
stables which aie appropriated to the Queen, and the other day 
Lord Errol, hei new Master of the Hors* 1 , went to her Majesty 
and asked her where she chose hei horses should be, she 
said, of course, she knew nothing about it, but m the proper 
place Errol then said the Duke of Cumbeiland’s horses 
were m her stables, and could not be got out without an 
order from the King The King was spoken to, and he 
commanded the Duke of Leeds to ordei them out The 
Duke of Leeds took the order to the Duke of Cumberland, 
who said tf he would be damned if they should go/ when the 
Duke of Leeds said that he trusted he would have them 



6 


EEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XI 


taken out tlie following day, as unless lie did so he should 
be under the necessity of oideung them to be lemoved by 
the King’s grooms, when the Duke was obliged sulkily to 
give way When the King gave the ordei to the Duke of 
Leeds, he sent for Tajloi that he might be piesent, and said 
at the same time that he had a very bad opinion of the Duke 
of Cumberland, and he wished he would live out of the 
country 

The King’s good-nature, simplicity, and affability to all 
about him are ceitamly very striking, and m his elevation 
he does not foiget any of his old friends and companions 
He was m no hurry to take upon himself the dignity of King, 
nor to throw off the habits and manners of a country gentle- 
man When Lord Chesteiheld went to Bushey to kiss his hand 
and be presented to the Queen, he found Sir John and Lady 
Gore there lunching , and when they went away the King called 
for their carnage, handed Lady Goie into it, and stood at 
the door to see them off When Loid Howe came ovei fiom 
Twickenham to see him, he said the Queen was gomg out 
driving, and should c diop him’ at his own house The 
Queen, they say, is by no means delighted at hei elevation 
She likes quiet and retuement and Bushey (of which the King 
has made her Rangei), and does not want to be a Queen 
However, * l’appetit viendia en mangeant ’ He says he does 
not want luxury and magnificence, has slept m a cot, and he 
has dismissed the King’s cooks, ‘ renverse la marmite ’ He 
keeps the stud (which is to be diminished) because he thinks 
he ought to suppoit the turf He has made Mount Charles 
a Lord of the Bedchambei, and given the Robes to Sn C 
Pole, an admiral Altogethei he seems a kind-hearted, well- 
meaning, not stupid, builesque, bustling old fellow, and if 
he doesn’t go mad may make a veiy decent King, but he 
exhibits oddities He would not have his servants m mourn- 
ing — that is, not those of his own family and household — but 
he sent the Duke of Sussex to Mrs Fitzherbeit to desire 
she would put hers m mourning, and consequently so they 
are The King and she have always been friends, as she 
has, m fact, been with all the Royal Family, but it was very 



1830] 


THE Kina’S ODDITIES 


7 


strange Yesteiday morning lie sent foi the officei on 
guard, and ordered him to take all the muffles off the drums, 
the scarfs off the regimentals, and so to appear on parade, 
where he went himself The colonel would have put the 
officer under anest for doing this without his orders, hut the 
King said he was commanding officei of his own guard, 
and forbade him All odd, and people are frightened, but 
his wits will at least last till the new Parliament meets 
I sent him a veiy respectful request through Taylor that he 
would pay 300Z , all that remained due of the Duke of York’s 
debts at Newmarket, which he assented to directly, as soon 
as the Privy Puise should be settled — very good-natuied In 
the meantime it is said that the bastards are dissatisfied 
that more is not done foi them, but he cannot do much for 
them at once, and he must have time He has done all he 
can he has made Enol Master of the Horse, Sidney a 
Guelph and Equeny, George Eitzclarence the same and Adju- 
tant-General, and doubtless they will all have their turn Of 
course the stones told about the rapacity of the Conynghams 
have been innumerable The King’s will excited much 
astonishment, but as yet nothing is for certain known about 
the money, 01 what became of it, 01 what he gave away, and 
to whom, m his lifetime 

July 20 th — Yesterday was a very busy day with his 
Majesty, who is going much too fast, and begins to alarm 
his Mimsteis and astonish the woild In the morning he 
inspected the Coldstream Guaids, dressed (foi the first time 
m his life) m a military uniform and with a gieat pair of 
gold spuis half-way up his legs like a game-cock, although 
he was not to ride, foi having chalk-stones m his hands he 
can’t hold the rems The Queen came to Lady Bathuist’s to 
see the leview and hold a sort of drawing-room, when the 
Ministers’ wives were presented to her, and official men, to 
which were added Lady Bathurst’s relations , everybody was 
m undiess except the officers She is very ugly, with a 
horrid complexion, but has good manners, and did all this 
(which she hated) very well She said the part as if she 
was acting, and wished the green curtain to diop After 



8 


FEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XI 


the review the King, with the Dubes of Cumbeiland, Sussex, 
and Gloucester, and Prince George and the Prince of Prussia, 
and the Duchess of Cumberland’s son, came in through the 
garden gate, the Duchess of Gloucester and Pimeess Augusta 
were already theie , they breakfasted and then went away, the 
Duke of Gloucestei bowing to the company while nobody was 
taking any notice of him 01 thinking about him Nature must 
have been merry when she made this Punce, and m the sort 
of mood that ceitam great artists used to exhibit m then 
comical caricatures , I never saw a countenance which that 
line m Dry den’s JPMecknoe would so well describe — 

And lambent dulness plays around his face 

At one theie was to be a Council, to sweai m Pnvy 
Councillors and Loi ds-Lieutenant, and receive Oxford and 
Cambridge addresses The review made it an houi latei, 
and the Lieutenants, vho had been summoned at one, and who 
are great, selfish, pampeied aristocrats, weie funous at being 
kept waiting, particularly Lord Grosvenoi and the Duke 
of Newcastle, the foimer veiy peevish, the latter bitter- 
humoured I was glad to see them put to inconvenience 
I never saw so full a Court, so much nobility with acade- 
mical tagrag and bobtail After considerable delay the 
King received the Oxford and Cambridge addresses on the 
throne, which (having only one tin one between them) he 
then abdicated foi the Queen to seat heiself on and receive 
them too She sat it very well, surrounded by the Princesses 
and her ladies and household When this mob could be got 
rid of the table was brought in and the Council held The 
Duke was twice sworn as Constable of the Tower and Lieu- 
tenant of Hants , then Jersey and the new Privy Councillors * 
and then the host of Lieutenants six or seven at a time, 
or as many as could hold a bit of the Testament I begged 
the King would, to expedite the business, dispense with their 
kneeling, which he did, and so we got on rapidly enough , 
and I whispered to Jersey, who stood by me behind the King 
with his white wand, 6 The farce is good, isn’t it?’ as they 
each kissed his hand I told him their name or county, or 



1830] 


THE KING IN ST JAMES S STREET 


9 


both, and lie bad a civil word to say to eveiybody, inviting 
some to dmnei, piomismg to visit others, reminding them of 
formei visits, or something good-humoui ed , he asked Loid 
Egiemont’s perrmssion to go and live m his county, at 
Brighton 

All this was veiy well, no gieat haim m it, nioie 
affable, less dignified than the late King, but when this 
was ovei, and he might veiy well have sat himself quietly 
down and rested, he must needs put on his plamei clothes 
and stait on a 1 amble about the streets, alone too In 
Pall Mali he met Watson Taylor, and took his aim and 
went up St James’s Street Theie he was soon followed 
by a mob making an uproai, and when he got near White’s 
a woman came up and kissed him Belfast (who had 
been sworn m Pnvy Councilloi in the morning), who saw 
this from White’s, and Clinton thought it time to interfere, 
and came out to attend upon him The mob increased, and 
always holding W Tayloi’s aim, and flanked by Clinton 
and Belfast, who got shoved and kicked about to their m- 
expiessible wiath, he got back to the Palace amid shouting 
and bawling and applause When he got home he asked 
them to go m and take a quiet walk in the gaiden, and said, 
‘ Oh, nevei mind all this , when I have walked about a few 
times they will get used to it, and will take no notice ’ 
There aie other stones, but I will put do.vn nothing I do not 
see or heai, 01 heai from the witnesses Belfast told me this 
in the Park, fiesh fiom the scene and smaitmg from the 
buffeting he had got All the Park was ringing with it, and 
I told Lady Bathurst, who thought it so serious she said she 
would get Lord Bathuist to write to the Duke duectly about 
it Loid Combermere wanted to be made a Pnvy Coun- 
cillor yesterday, but the Duke would not let it be done , he 
is m a sort of half-disgiace, and is not to be made yet, but 
will be by-and-by 

Grove Road , July 2 1 st — I came and established myself 
here last night after the Duchess of Bedford’s ball Lady 
Bathurst told me that the Queen spoke to her yesterday 
morning about the King’s walk and being followed, and 



10 


KEIG-N OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XI 


said that for the future he must walk early m the morning, 
01 m some less public place, so there are hopes that his 
activity may be tamed He sent George Pitzclarence off 
fiom dinner m his silk stockings and cocked hat to Boulogne 
to invite the King of Wuitemberg to come here , he was 
back m fifty-six horns, and might have been m less He 
employs him m eveiy thing, and I keaid Eitzelaience yester- 
day ask the Duke of Leeds for two of his fatkei’s horses to 
lide about on his jobs and lelieve his own, which the Duke 
agreed to, but made a wry face Mount Charles has refused 
to be Lord of the Bedchamber , his wife can’t bear it, and he 
doesn’t like to go to Windsor under such alteied circum- 
stances 1 haidly ever record the scandalous stories of the 
day, unless they relate to characters oi events, but what re- 
lates to public men is diffeient from the loves and friendships 
of the idiots of society 

July 2Uh — Went to St James’s the day before yesterday 
fox a Council foi the dissolution, but there was none Yes- 
terday morning theie wis an idea of having one, but it is 
to-day instead, and early m the morning, that the Ministers 
may be able to go to their fish dinner at Gieenwich I 
called on the Duke yesterday evening to know about a Coun- 
cil, but he could not tell me Then came a Mr Moss (or his 
caid) while I was there c Who is he & ’ I said c Oh, a man 
who wants to see me about a canal I can’t see him Every- 
body will see me, and how the Devil they think I am to see 
eveiybody, and be the whole morning with the King, and to 
do the whole business of the country, I don’t know I am 
quite worn out with it ’ I longed to tell him that it is this 
latter part they would willingly relieve him from 

I met Yesey Pitzgeiald, just come from Pans, and had 
a long conversation with him abont the state of the Govern- 
ment , he seems aware of the difficulties and the necessity 
of acquiring more strength, of the universal persuasion that 
the Duke will be all m all, and says that m the Cabinet 
nobody can be more reasonable and yielding and deferential 
to the opinions of his colleagues But Murray’s appoint- 



1830] THE KING GOES DOWN TO PARLIAMENT 11 

ment, lie says, was a mistake , 1 and no personal consideiation 
should induce the Duke to sacrifice the niterests of the 
country by keeping him , it may be disagreeable to dismiss 
him, but he must do it Hay told me that foi the many 
years he had been m office he had never met with any public 
officei so totally inefficient as he, not even Warrender at the 
Admiralty Board 

In the meantime the King has had his levee, which was 
crowded beyond all precedent He was veiy civil to the 
people, particularly to Sefton, who had quarrelled with the 
late King 

Yesteiday he went to the House of Loids, and was 
admirably received I can fancy nothing like his delight at 
finding himself m the state coach sunounded by all his 
pomp He dehvered the Speech veiy well, they say, for I 
did not go to heai him He did not wear the crown 
which was cained by Loid Hastmgs Etiquette is a thing 
he cannot compiehend He wanted to take the King of 
Wurtemberg with him in his coach, till he was told it was 
out of the question In his pnvate carnage he continues 
to sit backwaids, and when he goes with men makes one 
sit by him and not opposite to him Yesteiday, after the 
House of Loids, he drove all ovei the town m an open 
caliche with the Queen, Princess Augusta and the King of 
Wurtemberg, and coming home he set down the King 
(dropped Inm , as he calls it) at Grillon’s Hotel The King of 
England dropping another king at a tavern 1 It is im- 
possible not to be struck with his extreme good-nature and 
simplicity, which he cannot or will not exchange foi the 
dignity of his new situation and the trammels of etiquette, 
but he ought to be made to understand that his simplicity 
degenerates into vulgarity, and that without depaitmg from 
his natural uibamty he may conduct himself so as not to 
lower the character with which he is invested, and which 
belongs not to him, but to the country 

1 [Sn George Muiray was Secietaiy of State foi the Colonial Depart- 
ment] 



12 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XI 


At his dinner at St James’s the othei day moie people 
weie invited than theie was 100m fox, and some half-dozen 
were forced to sit at a side table He said to Lord Brown- 
low, * Well, when yon are flooded (he thinks Lmcohishne is 
all fen) yon will come to us at Windsor * To the Eiee- 
rnasons he was lathei good The Duke of Sussex wanted 
him to receive their address m a solemn audience, which he 
refused, and when they did come he said, ‘ Gentlemen, if my 
love for you equalled my ignorance of eveiytlnng concerning 
you, it would be unbounded, 5 and then he added something 
good-humoured The consequence of his tiottmg about, and 
saying the odd things he does, is that theie aie all soits of 
stories about him which aie not true, and he is always ex- 
pected everywhere In the meantime I believe that poli- 
tically he relies implicitly on the Duke, who can make him 
do anything Agai Ellis (who is bustling and active, always 
wishing to play a part, and gets mixed up with the politics 
of this and that paity thiough his vanous connections) 
told me the other dav that he knew the Duke was Knocking 
at every door, hitherto without success, and that he must 
be contented to take a party, and not expect to strengthen 
himself by picking out individuals I think this too, but 
why not open his doors to all comers ^ There aie no ques- 
tions now to stand m his way, his Government must be le- 
modelled, and he may last for ever personally 

July 25 th — Yesterday at Court at eleven, a Council fox 
the dissolution This King and these Councils aie very un- 
like the last — few people present, frequent, punctual, less 
ceremony observed Though these Ministers have been m 
office all then lives, nobody knew how many days must elapse 
before Parliament was summoned, some said sixty, some 
seventy days, but not one knew, nor had they settled the 
mattei pieviously , so Lord Eosslyn and I were obliged to 
go to Bridgewater House, which was near, and consult the 
journals It has always been fifty-two days of late 

In the afternoon another embarrassment We sent the 
proclamations to the Chancellor (one foi England and one 

for Ireland), to have the Great Seal affixed to them, he 
» 



1830 ] 


THE KING HINES AT APSLEY HOUSE 


13 


would only affix tlie Seal to the English, and sent back the 
Irish unsealed The Secretary of State would not send it to 
Ireland without the Gieat Seal, and all the Mimsteis weie 
gone to the fish dinner at Greenwich, so that there was no 
getting at anybody At last we got it done at Lincoln’s Inn 
and sent it off The fact is, nobody knows his business, and 
the Chancellor least of all The King continues very active , 
he went aftei the Council to Buckingham House, then to the 
Thames Tunnel, has immense dinners eveiy day, and the 
same people two or three days lunmng He has dismissed 
the late King’s band, and employs the bands of the Guaids 
every night, who aie ready to die of it, for they get no pay 
and aie pi evented earning money elsewhere The othei 
night the King had a party, and at eleven o’clock he dis- 
missed them thus 6 Now, ladies and gentlemen, I wish you 
a good night I will not detain you any longer fiom youi 
amusements, and shall go to my own, which is to go to bed , 
so come along, my Queen ’ The other day he was veiy 
angiv because the guaid did not know him m hi° plain 
clothes and turn out for him — the first appearance of jealousy 
of his gieatness he has shown — and he ordered them to be 
more on the alert for the futuie 

July 2 6th — Still the King, his adventures (for they aie 
nothing else) furnish matter of continual amusement and 
astonishment to his liege subjects Yesterday morning, or 
the e\ emng before, he announced to the Duke of Wellington 
that he should dme with him yesterday , accordingly the 
Duke was obliged, in the midst of prepaiations for his 
breakfast, to get a dinner leady foi him In the morning 
he took the King of Wurtemberg to Windsor, and just at the 
horn when the Duke expected him to dinner he was driving 
through Hyde Park back from Windsor — three barouches- 
and-four, the horses dead knocked up, m the front the two 
Kings, Jersey, and somebody else, all covered with dust The 
whole mob of carriages and horsemen assembled near Apsley 
House to see him pass and to wait till he leturned The 
Duke, on hearing he was there, rushed down without his hat 
and stood m his gate m the middle of servants, mob, &c , to 



14 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XI 


see him pass He diove to Grillon’s ‘to drop 5 the King of 
Wurtemberg, and at a qnartei past eight he ai rived at 
Apsley House There were about forty-five men, no women, 
half the Ministers, most of the foreign Mmisters, and a 
mixture lather mdiscinninate In the evening I was at 
Lady Salisbuiy’s, when ai lived the Duke of Sussex, who 
gave a short account to Sefton of what had passed, and of 
the King’s speech to the company ‘You and I, 5 he said, ‘aie 
old Whigs, my Loid, and I confess I was somewhat as- 
tonished to hear his Majesty’s speech ’ I went afteiwaids 
to Croekfoid’s, wheie I found Matuscewitz, who gave me a 
whole account of the dinner The two Kings went out to 
dinner arm-in-arm, the Duke followed, the King sat between 
the King of Wurtemberg and the Duke After dinner his 
health was drunk, to which he returned thanks, sitting, but 
briefly, and promised to say more by-and-by when he should 
give a toast In process of time he desired Douro to go and 
tell the band to play the merriest waltz they could foi the 
toast he was about to give He then gave ‘ The Queen of 
Wurtembeig,’ with many eulogiums on hei and on the 
connubial felicity of her and the King, not a veiy agreeable 
theme for his host, for conjugal fidelity is not his forte At 
length he desired Douro to go again to the band and order 
them to play * See the conqueung hero comes,’ and then he 
rose All the company rose with him, when he ordered 
everybody to sit down Still standing, he said that he had 
been so short a time on the thione that he did not know 
whether etiquette required that he should speak sitting or 
standing, but, howevei this might be, he had been long 
used to speak on his legs, and should do so now , he then 
proposed the Duke’s health, but prefaced it with a long 
speech — instituted a comparison between him and the Duke 
of Marlborough , went back to the reign of Queen Anne, and 
talked of the great support the Duke of Marlboiough had 
received from the Crown, and the little support the Duke of 
Wellington had had in the outset of his caieer, though after 
the battle of Yimeiro he had been backed by all the eneigies 
of the country , that, notwithstanding his difficulties, his 



1830] THE KINO’S SPEECH AT APSLEY HOUSE 15 

career had been one continued course of victory over the 
armies of France, and then recollecting the presence of 
Laval, the French Ambassadoi, he said, ‘ Remember, Due de 
Laval, when I talk of victories over the French armies, they 
were not the aimies of my ally and friend the King of 
France, but of him who had usurped his throne, and 
against whom you yourself were combating , 5 then going 
back to the Duke’s career, and again referring to the com- 
parison between him and Marlborough, and finishing by 
adverting to his political position, that he had on mounting 
the throne found the Duke Minister, and that he had re- 
tained hrm because he thought his Administration had been 
and would be highly beneficial to the country , that he gave 
to him his fullest and most cordial confidence, and that he 
announced to all whom he saw around him, to all the Am- 
bassadors and Ministers of foreign Powers, and to all the 
noblemen and gentlemen present, that as long as he should 
sit upon the throne he should continue to give him the same 
confidence The Duke returned thanks m a short speech, 
thanking the King for his confidence and support, and de- 
claring that all his endeavouis would be used to keep this 
country m relations of haimony with other nations The 
whole company stood aghast at the King’s extiaordmaiy 
speech and declaration Matuscewitz told me he never was 
so astonished, that for the world he would not have missed 
it, and that he would never have believed m it if he had not 
heard it 

Falck 1 gave me a delightful account of the speech and 
of Laval He thought, not understanding one woid, that 
all the King was saying was complimentary to the King of 
France and the French nation, and he kept darting torn his 
seat to make his acknowledgments, while Esteihazy held 
him down by the tail of his coat, and the King stopped him 

1 [Baron Falck, Dutch Mimstei at the Court of St James’s 31 de 
Laval was the French Amhassadoi This dinner took place on the da} after 
the publication of the Ordinances of July Three days later Charles X had 
ceased to reign M de Laval instantly left London on the receipt of 
the intelligence, leaving M de Vaudieuil as Charge d’ Affaires ] 



REIGN OR WILLIAM 17 


16 


[Chip XI 


with his hand outstretched, all with gieat difficulty He 
said it was very comical 

July 27 th —Review m the morning (jesteiday), bieakfast 
at Apsley House, chaptei of the Gartei, dmnei at St 
James’s,, party m the evening, and ball at Apsley House I 
don’t hear of anything remarkable, and it was so hot I could 
not go to anything, except the breakfast, which I just looked 
m to for a minute, and found everybody sweating and stuffing 
and the loyalties just going away The Duke of Gloucester 
keeps up his quairel with the Duke , the Duke of Cumber- 
land won’t go to Apsley House, but sent the Duchess and 
his boj The Queen said at dinner the other day to the 
Duke of Cumberland, £ I am veiy much pleased with you foi 
sending the Duchess to Apsley House,’ and then turned to 
the Duke of Gloucester and said, * but I am not pleased with 
you for not letting the Duchess go there ’ The fool answered 
that the Duchess should never go theie , he would not be 
reconciled, foigettmg that it matters not twopence to the 
Duke of Wellington and a great deal to himself 

I have been emplojed m settling half-a-dozen disputes of 
different sorts, but generally without success, trifling matters, 
foolish or violent people, not worth remembering anj of 
them The Chancellor, who does not know his own business, 
has made an attack on my office about the proclamations, 
but I have vindicated it m a letter to Lord Bathurst 

July 28 th — Yesterday Charles Wynn and I settled the 
dispute between Olive and Charlton about the Ludlow 
matters Charlton agrees to retire fiom the contest both in 
the Borough and Corporation, and Chve agrees to pay him 
1,1251 towards his expenses, and not to oppose the reception 
of any petition that may be presented to the House of Com- 
mons for the purpose of re-opemng the question of the right 
of voting Both parties are very well satisfied with this 
termination of their disputes Met the Chancellor at Lady 
Ravensworth’s breakfast yesterday, who told me he had sent 
a rejoinder to my letter to Lord Bathurst about the pro- 
clamations 

July 29th — Yesterday a standing Council at the levee, 



1830] 


ORDINANCES OF CHARLES X 


17 


to swear m Lord Hereford and Vesey Fitzgei aid, and to 
declaie Lord Bathurst President of the Council and the 
Duke of Northumberland Lord- Lieutenant of Ireland Pre- 
viously the King leceived the address of the dissenting 
mimsteis, and then that of the Quakers, presented by 
William Allen, they weie veiy pum and respectable persons , 
then hats were taken off by each other m the 100m before 
the Throne Hoorn, and they did not bow, though they seemed 
half-mclmedto do so, they made a veiy loyal address, but 
without ‘ Majesty/ and said ‘ 0 King * There was a question 
after his answer what they should do I thought it was 
whether they should kiss hands, foi the King said something 
to Peel, who went and asked them, and I heard the King 
say, c Oh, just as they like , they needn’t if they don’t like , 
it’s all one ’ 

But the gieat event of the day was the reception of the 
King of Prance’s two decrees, and the address of his 
Ministers, who produced them, nothing could suipass the 
universal astonishment and consternation Palck told me 
he was leading the newspaper at his bieakfast regularly 
through, and when he came to this the teacup almost 
diopped from his hands, and he rubbed his eyes to see 
whethei he read coirectly Such was the secresy with which 
this measure was conceived and acted on, that Pozzo, who is 
quickei and has better intelligence than anybody, had not a 
notion of it, as Matuscewitz told me Aberdeen learnt it 
through the * Times,’ and had not a line from Stuart That, 
howevei, is nothing extraordinary I suspect somebody had 
it, for Eaikes wrote me a note the day before, to ask me if 
there was not something lad from Prance Matuscewibz told 
me that Eussia would not affoid Charles X the smallest 
support m his new crusade against the Constitution of 
Prance, and this he pronounced openly d gm voulaii V en- 
tendre I suspect the Duke will be desperately annoyed 
The only Minister I had a word with about it was Lord 
4 Bathurst, whose Toiy blood bubbled a little quickei at such 
a despotic act, and while owning the folly of the deed he 
could not help adding that * he should have repressed the 

VOL ix o 



REIGN OE WILLIAM IV 


18 


[Chap XI 


press when lie dissolved the Chambers, then he might have 
done it ’ 

July 30 th — Eveiybody anxious for news fiom Trance 
A few hope, and still fewer think, the King of France will 
succeed, and that the French will submit, but the press 
here 30ms m giand chorus against the suppiession of the 
liberty of that ovei the water Matuscewitz told me he had 
a conference with the Duke, who was excessively annoyed, 
but what seems to have stiuck him moie than anything is 
the extraordinary secresy of the business, and neither Pozzo 
nor Stuart having known one woid of it Up to the last 
JBohgnac has deceived everybody, and put such woids into 
the King’s mouth that nobody could expect such a coup 
"The King assured Pozzo di Borgo the day before that 
nothing of the sort was m contemplation This, like every- 
thing else, will be judged by the event — desperate fatuity if 
it fails, splendid eneigy and accurate calculation of oppo- 
site moral foices if it succeeds I judge that it will fail, 
because I can see no maiks of wisdom m the style of execu- 
tion, and the State paper is singularly puerile and weak m 
argument. It is passionate and not dexterous, not even 
iplausible All this is wonderfully interesting, and will give 
.us a lively autumn. 

The King has been to Woolwich, inspecting the artillery, 
to whom he gave a dinner, with toasts and hip, hip, hurrahing 
and three times three, himself giving the time I tremble 
for him, at piesent he is only a mountebank, but he bids fair 
to be a maniac 

Brougham will come in for Yorkshire without a contest, 
ftus address was very eloquent He is rather mad without a 
doubt, his speeches this year have been sometimes more 
brilliant than ever they were , but who with such stupendous 
talents was evei so little considered? We admire him as 
we do a fine actoi, and nobody ever possessed such enormous 
means, and displayed a mind so versatile, fertile, and com- 
prehensive, and yet had so little efficacy and influence 
He told me just before he left town that Yorkshire had been 
proposed to him, but that he had written word he would no 



1830] 


REVOLUTION IN PARIS 


19 


stand, noi spend a guinea, nor go theie, noi even take tiie 
least trouble about the concerns of any one of his constituents, 
if they elected him , but he soon changed his note 

July 31 $t — Yesterday morning I met Matuscewitz in St 
James’s Street, who said, c You have heard the news ** But 
I had not, so I got into his cabriolet, and he told me that 
Bulow had just been with him with an account of Roth- 
schild’s estafette, who had brought intelligence of a desperate 
conflict at Pans between the people and the Royal Guard, m 
which 1,000 men had been killed of the former, and of the 
eventual revolt of two regiments, which decided the business, 
that the Swiss had refused to fire on the people , the King is 
gone to Rambouillet, the Ministers are missing, and the Depu- 
ties who were at Pans had assembled in the Chambers, and 
declared then sittmgs permanent Nothing can exceed the 
interest and excitement that all these proceedings create here, 
and unless there is a reaction, which does not seem probable, 
the game is up with the Bourbons They richly deserve 
then fate It remains to be seen what pait Bourmont and 
the Algerian army will take , the latter will probably side with 
the nation, and the former will be guided by his own interest, 
and is not unlikely to endeavour to direct a spirit which he 
could not expect to conti ol He may reconcile himself to the 
country by a double treachery 

At mght — To-day at one o’clock Stuart’s messenger 
arrived with a meagre account, having left Paris on the 
night of the 29th The tucolouied flag had been raised, the 
National Guaid was up, commanded by old Lafayette (their 
chief forty years ago), who ruled in Pans with Gerard, 
Odier, Casimir Pener, Lafitte, and one or two more The 
Tuileries and the Louvre had been pillaged , the King was at 
Rambouillet, where Marshal Maimont had retired, and had 
with him a large force Nobody, however, believed they would 
fight against the people The Deputies and the Peers had met, 
and the latter separated without doing anything , the former 
had a stormy discussion, but came to no lesolution Some 
were for a republic, some for the Duke of Orleans, some for 
the Duke of Bordeaux with the Duke of Orleans as Regent 



20 


KEIGN OF -WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XI 


Rothschild had anothei courier with later intelligence The 
King had desired to tieat, and that proposals might he made 
to him, all the Mmisteis escaped fiom Pans by a subtei- 
ranean passage which led from the Tuilenes to the nvei, 
and even at St Cloud the Duke told Matuscewitz that c Mar- 
mont had taken up a good militaiy position/ as if it was a 
military and not a moial question Stiange he should think 
of such a thing, hut they aie all ternfied to death at the 
national flag and colouis, because they see m its tram 
revolutions, invasions, and a thousand alaims I own I 
would rathei have seen an easy transfer of the crown to 
some other head undei the white flag There was Lady 
Tankerville going about to-day enquiring of everybody for 
news, trembling foi hei brother 4 and his bngade * Late m 
the day she got Lady Jersey to go with her to Rothschild, 
whom she saw, and Madame Rothschild, who showed her all 
their letters Tankei \ llle, who is a sour, malignant httle Whig 
(since become an ultia-Tory), loudly declares Polignac ought 
to be hung The elections here aie going against Govern- 
ment, and no candidate will avow that he stands on Govern- 
ment interest, or with the mtention of supporting the Duke s 
Ministry, which looks as if it had lost all its popularity 

August 2nd — Yesteiday (Sunday) we had no news and no 
reports, except one that Mai mont was killed I nevei be- 
lieve reports The elections still go against Government G 
Dawson returned from Dublin , all the Peels lose their seats 
Pordwich beat Baring at Canterbuiy by 370 votes It is 
said the King was m a state of great excitement at Wool- 
wich the othei day, when it was very hot, and he drank a 
good deal of wine 

Evemng — This morning, on going into town, I read m 
the £ Times ? the news of the day — the pioclamation of the 
Provisional Government, the invitation to the Duke of 
Orleans, his proclamation, and the account of the con- 
versation between Lafitte and Marmont It is m vain to look 
foi private or official information, for the * Times 5 always 
has the latest and the best , Stuart sends next to nothing 
Soon after I got to George Street the Duke of Wellington 
came m, m excellent spirits, and talked over the whole 



1830] WELLINGTON ON THE EBENCH IiE VOLUTION 


21 


mattei He said lie could not comprehend how the Royal 
Guard had been defeated by the mob, and paiticularly how 
they had been forced to evacuate the Tuilenes , that he had 
seen English and French troops hold houses whole days not 
one-fourth so strong I said that theie could not be a 
shadow of doubt that it was because they would not fight, 
that if they would have fought they must have beat the 
mob, and reminded him of the French at Madrid, and asked 
him if he did not think his regiment would beat all the 
populace of London, which he said it would He described 
the whole affan as it has taken place, and said that there 
can be no doubt that the moneyed men of Pans (who are all 
against the Government) and the Liberals had foreseen a 
violent measure on the pait of the King, and had oiganised 
the resistance , that on the appearance of the edicts the 
bankers simultaneously refused to discount any bills, on 
which the great manufactuiers and merchants dismissed 
then workmen, to the number of many thousands, who in- 
flamed the public discontent, and united to oppose the 
military and the execution of the decrees He said posi- 
tively that we should not take any part, and that no othei 
Government ought or could He does not like the Duke of 
Oileans, and thinks his proclamation mean and shabby, but 
owned that under all circumstances his election to the crown 
would probably be the best thing that could happen The 
Duke of Chartres he had known heie, and thought he was 
intelligent The Duke considered the thing as settled, but 
did not feel at all sure they would offer the crown to the 
Duke of Orleans He said he could not guess 01 form an 
opinion as to their ulterior proceedings 

After discussing the whole business with his usual 
simplicity, he began talking of the Duke of Cumberland and 
his resignation of the command of tbe Blues Formerly the 
colonels of the two legimeats of Life Guards held alter- 
nately the Gold Stick, and these two regiments were under 
the immediate ordeis of the King, and not of the Com- 
mander-m-Chief When the Duke of Wellington returned 
from Spam and had the command of the Blues, the King 
insisted upon his taking the duty also , so it was divided 



22 


REIGN OR WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XI 


into three, but the Blues still continued under the Com- 
mander-in-Chief But when the Duke of Cumbeiland 
wanted to be continually about the King, he got him to give 
him the command of the Household tioops, this was at the 
period of the death of the Duke of Yoik and the Duke of 
Wellington’s becoming Commandei-m-Chief The Duke of 
Cumbeiland told the Duke of Wellington that he had re- 
ceived the King’s veibal commands to that effect, and from 
that time he alone kept the Gold Stick, and the Blues were 
withdiawn from the autlionty of the Commandei-m-Chief 
The Duke of Wellington made no opposition , but last year, 
dunng the uproar on the Catholic question, he perceived the 
inconvenience of the arrangement, and intended to speak 
to the King about it, for the Duke of Cumberland was 
concerned in oigamsmg mobs to go down to Wmdsoi 
to frighten Lady Conyngham and the King, and the Horse 
Guards, who would natuially have been called out to suppress 
any tumult, would not have been disposable without the 
Duke of Cumberland’s concurrence, so much so that on one 
particular occasion, when the Kentish men were to have 
gone to Windsor 20,000 strong, the Duke of Wellington 
detained a regiment of light cavalry who were marching 
elsewhere, that he might not be destitute of military aid 
Before, however, he did anything about this with the King 
(* I always, 5 he said, ‘ do one thing at a time ’) his Majesty 
was taken ill and died 

On the accession of the piesent King the Duke of 
Cumberland wished to continue the same system, which his 
Majesty was resolved he should not, and he ordered that the 
colonels of the regiments should take the Stick in rotation 
He also ordered (through Sir R Peel) that Lord Combermere 
should command the troops at the funeral as Gold Stick 
This the Duke of Cumberland resisted, and sent down orders 
to Lord Cathcart to assume the command The Duke of 
Wellington, however, represented to Lord Cathcart that he 
had better do no such thmg, as nobody could disobey the 
King’s orders gone through the Secretary of State, and ac- 
cordingly he did nothing But the King was deiei mined to 
put an end to the pretensions of the Duke of Cumberland* 



1830] 


WARDROBE OP GrEORGrE IV 


23 


and spoke to the Duke on the subject, and said that he 
would have all the regiments placed undei the orders of the 
Commander-in-Chief The Duke recommended him to re- 
place the matter m the state m which it stood before the 
Duke of Cumberland’s pretensions had altered it, but he 
would not do this, and chose to abide by his original inten- 
tion, so the thiee regiments weie placed under the orders of 
the Horse Guards like the rest, and the Duke of Cumberland 
m consequence lesigned the command of the Blues 

August 3rd — Notwithstanding the above story, the King 
dmed with the Duke of Cumberland at Kew yesterday I 
went yesterday to the sale of the late King’s wardrobe, 
which was numeious enough to fill Monmouth Street, and 
sufficiently vanous and splendid foi the wardrobe of Drury 
Lane He haidly ever gave away anything except his 
linen, which was distributed every ^eai These clothes are 
the perquisite of his pages, and will fetch a pretty sum 
There are all the coats he has ever had for fifty years, 
300 whips, canes without number, eveiy soit of uniform, the 
costumes of all the orders m Euiope, splendid fuis, pelisses, 
hunting-coats and bieeches, and among other things a 
dozen pan of corduroy breeches he had made to hunt m 
when Don Miguel was heie His profusion m these articles 
was unbounded, because he nevei paid foi them, and his 
memory was so accurate that one of his pages told me he 
recollected every article of dress, no mattei how old, and 
that they weie always liable to be called on to produce some 
particular coat or other aiticle of apparel of years gone by 
It is difficult to say whethei m great oi little things that 
man was most odious and contemptible 

Nothing from France yesterday but the most absurd 
reports 

August 5th — Yesterday morning at a Council, all the 
Ministers, and the Duke of Rutland, Loids Somers, Rosslyn, 
and Gower to be sworn Lieutenants Talked about France 
with Sir G Munay, who was silly enough to express his 
disappointment that things promised to be soon and quietly 
settled, and hoped the King would have assembled an army 
Bind fought for it Afterwards a levee While the Queen 



24 


Rh IGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XI 


was m the closet they biought her word that Chailes X 
was at Cherbourg, and had sent for leav e to come here , but 
nobody knew jesterday if this was tiue or not In the 
afternoon I met Yaudreuil, and had a long con\cisation with 
him on the state of things He said, ( My familj has been 
twice ruined by these cuised Bourbons, and I will be damned 
if they shall a thud time , 5 that he had long foieseen the in- 
evitable tendency of Pohgnac’s deteimmation, ever since he 
was here, when he had sunounded himself with low agents 
and would admit no gentleman into his confidence, one of 
his affides was a man of the name of Carrier, a i elation of the 
famous Carnei de Nantes Vaudreuil’s fathei-m-law had 
consulted him many months ago what to do with 300,000Z 
which he had m the French funds, and he advised him to 
sell it out and put it m his drawer, which he did, sacrificing 
the interest for that time He had hitherto done nothing, 
been near none of the Mimsteis, feeling that he could say 
nothing to them , no communication had been made to him, 
but whenever any should be he intended to leply to it 
Laval ran away just m time, and Yaudieuil was so provoked 
at his evasion that he sent after him to say that m such 
important circumstances he could not take upon himself to 
act without his Ambassador’s instructions No auswei of 
course He thinks that if this had not taken place a few 
years must have terminated the reign of the Bouibons, and 
that it is only the difference between sudden and lingering 
death , that when he was at Pans he had seen the dissatis- 
faction of the young officers m the Guards, who were all 
Liberal , and with these sentiments, what a condition they 
must have been in when called upon to charge and fire on 
the people while secretly approving of then conduct, * entre 
leurs devoirs de citoyens et de militaires f 5 

I had a conversation with Fitzgerald (Yesey) the othei 
day about the Government and its piospects They want 
him greatly to return to office, but he is going abroad again 
for his health, and I suspect is not very anxious to come m 
just now, when things look gloomy He thinks they have 
acted very injudiciously in sending down candidates to 
turn out their opponents, attempts which generally failed. 



1830] 


THE KING- GOES TO WINDSOR 


25 


and only served to exasperate the people mtei ested more 
and more against them Such men as the Grants, as he 
said, cannot be kept out of Pailiament But they manage 
everything ill, and it is impossible to look at the piesent 
Ministry and watch its acts, and not marvel that the Duke 
should think of gomg on with it If he does not take 
care he will be dragged down by it, whereas if he would, 
while it is yet time, remodel it altogether, and open his 
doors to all who are capable of serving under him (for all 
are ready to take him as chief), he might secure to himself a 
long and honourable possession of power Then it is said 
he can’t whistle off these men merely because it is con- 
venient, but he had better do that than keep them on 
bungling thiough all the business of the country Besides, I 
have some doubts of his tender-heartedness in this respect 
Goodwood , August 10 th — On Saturday, the 7 fch, the King 
and Queen bieakfasted at Osterley, on their way to Windsor 
They had about sixty or seventy people to meet them, and it 
all went off very well, without anything lemarkable I went 
to Stoke afteiwaids, where there was the usual sort of party 
The King entered Windsor so privately that few people 
knew him, though he made the horses walk all the way from 
Frogmore, that he might be seen On Saturday and Sunday 

the Terrace was thrown open, and the latter day it was 
crowded by multitudes and a very gay sight , theie were sen- 
tinels on each side of the east front to prevent people walking 
undei the windows of the living-rooms, but they might go 
where else they liked The King went to Bagshot and did not 
appear All the late King’s private drives through the Park 
are also thrown open, but not to carriages We went, how- 
ever, a long stung of four carnages, to explore, and got 
thiough the whole drive round by Virginia Water, the famous 
fishing-pagoda, and saw all the penetialia of the late King, 
whose ghost must have been indignant at seeing us (Sefton 
particulaily) scampering all about his most secret recesses 
It is an exceedingly enjoyable spot, and pretty, but has not 
so much beauty as I expected 

Came here yesterday, and found thirty-two people as- 
sembled I rode over the downs three or four miles (from 



26 


KEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XI 


Petworth), and never saw so delightful a country to live m 
There is an elasticity m the an and turf which communicates 
itself to the spirits 

In the meantime the Fiench Revolution has been pro- 
ceeding rapidly to its consummation, and the Duke of 
Oileans is King Montrond, who was at Stoke, thinks that 
Fiance will gravitate towaids a republic, and principally for 
this reason, that theie is an unusual love of equality, and no 
disposition to piofit by the power of making majcnats, there- 
fore that there never can be anything like an aristocracy 
We are so accustomed to see the regular woiking of our 
constitutional system, with all its parts depending upon 
each other, and so closely mtei woven, that we have difficulty 
m believing that any monarchical government can exist 
which is founded on a basis so different This is the great 
political problem which is now to be solved I think, how- 
ever, that m the present settlement it is not difficult to see 
the elements of future contention and the working of a 
strong demociatical spirit The crown has been conferred 
on the Duke of Orleans by the Chamber of Deputies alone, 
which, so fai from inviting the Chamber of Peeis to discuss 
the question of succession, has at the same time decreed a 
material alteration m that Chamber itself It has at a blow 
cut off all the Peers of Villele’s great promotion, which is an 
enormous act of authority, although the measuie may be 
advisable Theie is also a question raised of the hereditary 
quality of the peeiage, and I dare say that foi the future 
at least peerages will not be hereditary , not that I think this 
signifies as to the existence of an aristocracy, for the con- 
stant subdivision of property must deprive the Chamber of 
all the qualities belonging to an English House of Lords, 
and it would perhaps be better to establish another prin- 
ciple, such as that of promoting to the Chamber of Peers 
men (for hfe) of great wealth, influence, and ability, who 
would constitute an aristocracy of a diffeient kind indeed, 
but more respectable and efficient, than a host of poor 
hereditary senators What great men are Lord Lons dal e , 
the Duke of Rutland, and Lord Cleveland 1 but strip them 
of their wealth and power, what would they be? 



1830] 


FRENCH DEMOCRACY 


27 


the most insignificant of mankind, but they all acquiie a 
factitious consideration by the influence they possess to do 
good and evil, the extension of it ovei multitudes of depend- 
ents The Trench can have no anstociacy but a personal 
one , ours is m the institution , theirs must be individually 
respectable, as ouis is collectively looked up to In the 
meantime it will be deemed a great step gamed to have a 
monarchy established m Trance at all, even for the moment, 
but some people are alarmed at the excessive admiration 
which the Trench Eevolution has excited m England, and 
there is a veiy general conviction that Spam will speedily 
follow the example of Trance, and piobably Belgium also 
Italy I don’t believe will throw off the yoke, they have 
neither spirit nor unanimity, and the Austrian military force 
is too great to be lesisted But Austna will tremble and see 
that the great victory which Liberalism has gained has 
decided the question as to which principle, that of light or 
daikness, shall pie vail for the futuie m the world 

London , August 14 th — Stayed at Goodwood till the 12th, 
went to Brighton, udmg oier the downs from Goodwood to 
Aiundel, a delightful ride How much I piefei England to 
Italy ! There we have mountains and sky , heie, vegetation 
and verdure, fine trees and soft tuif , and m the long run 
the latter aie the most enjoyable Yesterday came to 
London from Brighton, found things much as they were, but 
almost eveiybody gone out of town The Trench are pro- 
ceeding steadily m the reconstiuction of their Government, 
but they have evinced a strong democratical spirit The new 
King, too, conducts himself m a way that gives me a bad 
opinion of him, he is too complaisant to the rage for 
equality, and stoops more than he need do , m fact, he over- 
does it It is a piece of abommablj bad taste (to say no 
worse) to have conferred a pension on the author of the 
Marseillaise hymn , for what can be worse than to rake up 
the old ashes of Jacobinism, and what more necessary than 
to distinguish as much as possible this Eevolution from that 
of 1789 P Then he need not be moie familiar as King than 
he ever was as Duke of Orleans, and affect the manners of a 
citizen and a plainness of dress and demeanour very suitable 



REIGN OF WILLI OI I\ 


28 


[Chap XI 


to an American Piesident, but unbecoming a descendant of 
Louis XIY 1 

The new Chaitei is ceiiamly drawn up with great modera- 
tion, the few alteiations which have been made approxi- 
mating it to the spmt of the English Constitution, and in 
the whole of the pioceedmgs the analogies of oui Revolution 
have been pretty closely followed But theie has been a 
remarkable deviation, which I think ominous, and I can’t 
imagine how it has escaped with so little animadversion 
heie That is the cavalier mannei in which the Chamber of 
Peers has been tieated, for the Deputies not only assumed 
all the functions of government and legislation, and disposed 
by then authority of the crown without inviting the con- 
currence of the other Chamber, but at the same time they 
exercised an enormous act of authority over the Chamber of 
Peers itself m striking off the whole of that great promotion 
of Chailes X , which, however unwise and perhaps uncon- 
stitutional, was perfectly legal, and those Peers had, m fact, 
as good a light to their peerages as any of their colleagues 
They have reconstructed the Chamber of Peeis, and conferred 
upon it certain rights and privileges , but the power which 
can create can also destroy, and it must be pretty obvious 
after this that the TJppei Chamber will be for the futuie 
nothing bettei than a superior Court of Judicature, depending 
for its existence upon the will of the populai branch There 
are some articles of the old Chartei which I am astonished 
at their keeping, but which they may possibly alter at the 
revision which is to take place next year, those particularly 


1 [Surpnse has been evpiessed by two critics of this woik that Mi 
GieviUe should have styled Loui3 Philippe a descendant of Louis XIY , 
and that I should have left the passage uncon ected But foi this strange 
cnticism, I should ha\ e thought it unnecessary to state that the Duke of 
Orleans, afterwaids Regent, from whom Louis Philippe was fourth m descent, 
married Mademoiselle de Blois, a daughter of Louis XIY and Madame 
de Montespan , and that the mother of Louis Philippe was the daughtei 
of the Due de Pentluevie, son of the Count de Toulouse and grandson ot 
Lotus XIY Louis Philippe therefoie was a descendant of Louis XIY by 
both father and mothei, and his mother was great-gianddaughter to the 
King The family likeness of Louis Philippe to his great ancestor was cei- 
tamly remarkable He himself was proud of it, though it came through 
i les b&tards ? , and it may still be traced m some of his descendants ] 



1830 ] 


POLIGNAC 


29 


■which limit the entrance to tlie Chamber of Deputies to men 
of forty, and which give the initiation of laws to the King 
But on the whole it is a good sign that they should altei so 
little, and looks like extieme caution and a dislike to lapid 
and violent changes 

In the meantime we heai nothing of the old King, who 
marches slowly on with his family It has been reported m 
London that Polignac is here, and also that he is taken 
Nobody knows the tiuth I have heaid of his behaviour, 
however, which was worthy of his former imbecility He 
remained in the same presumptuous confidence up to the 
last moment, telling those who imploied him to letiact while 
it was still time that they did not know Fiance, that he did, 
that it was essentially Koyalist, and all lesistance would be 
over in a day or two, till the whole lum burst on him at 
once, when he became like a man awakened fiom a dream, 
utterl} confounded with the magnitude of the calamity and 
as pusillanimous and miseiable as he had before been blind 
and confident It must be owned that then end has been 
worthy of the rest, for not one of them has evinced good 
feeling, 01 magnammitj , 01 corn age in then fall, nor excited 
the least sympathy 01 commiseiation The Duke of Fitz- 
james made a good speech m the Chamber of Peers, and 
Chateaubriand a veiy fine one a few dajs before, full of 
eloquence in suppoit of the claim of the Duke of Boideaux 
against that of Louis Philippe I 

In the meantime our elections heie aie still gomg against 
Government, and the signs of the times aie all for refoim 
nnrl retrenchment, and against slavery It is astonishing 
the mteiest the people generally take m the slaveiy ques- 
tion, which is the woik of the Methodists, and shows the 
enormous influence they have m the countiy The Duke (for 
I have not seen him) is said to be very easy about the next 
Parliament, whereas, as far as one can judge, it pi onuses to 
be quite as unmanageable as the last, and is besides very ill- 
composed — full of boys and all sorts of strange men 

August 20 th — On Monday to Stoke, Alvanley, Fitzioy 
Somerset, Matuscewitz, Stanislas Potocla, Glengall, and Mor- 
nay were there Lady Sefton (who had dined at the Castle a 



30 


KEIGlS OF WILLIAM IV 


fCKAP XI 


few days befoie) asked the King to allow hex to take Stanislas 
Potoeki to see Yngima Water m a carnage, which is not 
allowed, hut which his Majesty agieed to Aecoidmgly we 
started, and going through thepnvate dnves, went up to the 
door of the tent opposite the fishmg-liouse They thought it 
was the Queen coming, 01 at any late a party from the Castle, 
foi the man on boaidthe little frigate hoisted all the colours, 
and the boatmen on the other side got ready the loyal barge 
to take us acioss We went all ovei the place on both sides, 
and weie delighted with the luxuiy and beauty of the whole 
thing On one side aie a number of tents, communicating 
together m sepaiate apartments and forming a veiy good 
house, a dinmg-ioom, drawing-room, and several other small 
looms, veiy well furnished, across the water is the fishing- 
cottage, beautifully ornamented, with one large room and a 
diessmg-room on each side, the kitchen and offices aie in a 
garden full of flowers, shut out fiom eveiytlung Opposite 
the windows is moored a large boat, in which the band used 
to play during dinnei, and m summer the late King dined 
every day either m the house 01 m the tents We had 
scarcely seen everything when Mi Turner, the head keepei, 
ai rived m great haste, having spied us fiom the opposite side, 
and very angry at our carnages having come there, which is 
a thing forbidden , he did not know of oui leave, noi could 
we even satisfy him that we weie not to blame 

The next day I called on Batcheloi (he was valet de 
chamh e to the Duke of Yoik, afteiwaids to George IV), 
who has an excellent apaitment m the Lodge, which, he 
said, was once occupied by Nell Gwynne, though I did not 
know the lodge was built at that time I was tbeie a 
couple of hours, and heard all the details of the late King’s 
illness send other things For many months befoie his death 
those who were about him were aware of his danger, but 
nobody dared to say a word The King liked to cheat 
people with making them think he was well, and when he 
had been at a Council he would return to his apartments 
and tell his valets de chambre how he had deceived them 
During his illness he was generally cheerful, but occasionally 



1830] 


GEORGE IV ’S ILLNESS AND DEATH 


31 


dejected, and constantly talked of his brothei the Duke of 
York, and of the similarity of then symptoms, and was 
always companng them He had been latterly moie civil 
to Knighton than he used to be, and Knighton’s attentions 
to him were incessant , whenever he thought himself worse 
than usual, and m immediate danger, he always sent for 
Sir William Lady Conyngham and her family went into 
his loom once a day, till his illness he always used to 
go and sit in hers It is true that last year, when she was 
so ill, she was very anxious to leave the Castle, and it was 
Sir William Knighton who with great difficulty induced her 
to stay there At that time she was m wretched spirits, 
and did nothing but pray from morning till night However, 
her conscience does not seem ever to have interfered with 
her ruling passion, avarice, and she went on accumulating 
During the last illness wagons were loaded every night and 
sent away from the Castle, but what their contents were was 
not known, at least Batchelor did not say All Wmdsoi 
knew this Those servants of the King who were about his 
person had opportunities of hearing a great deal, for he used 
to talk of everybody before them, and without reseive or 
measure 

This man Batchelor had become a great favourite with the 
late King The first of his pages, William Holmes, had for 
some time been prevented by ill health from attending him 
Holmes had been with him from a boy, and was also a great 
favourite , by appointments and perquisites he had as much 
as 12,000J or 14,000Z a year, but he had spent so much m 
all sorts of debauchery and living like a gentleman that he 
was nearly ruined There seems to have been no end to the 
tracassewes between these men, their anxiety to get what they 
could out of the King’s waidrobe m the last weeks, and their 
dishonesty m the matter, weie excessive, all which he told 
me in great detail The King was more than anybody the 
slave of habit and open to impressions, and even when he 
did not like people he continued to keep them about him 
rather than change. 

While I was at Stoke news came that Charles X had 



32 


EEIG-K OF WILLIAM I\ 


[Chap XI 


arrived off Portsmouth. He has asked for an asylum m 
Austria, hut when once he has landed here he will not move 
again, I dare say The enthusiasm which the French Revolu- 
tion produced is beginning to give way to some alaim, and 
not a little disgust at the Duke of (Means’ conduct, who 
seems anxious to assume the chaiacter of a Jacobin King, 
affecting extreme simplicity and laying aside all the pomp 
of royalty I don’t think it can do, and there is ceitamly 
enough to cause serious disquietude foi the future 

Sefton m the meantime told me that Brougham and 
Lord G-rey weie piepaied foi a violent opposition, and that 
they had effected a foimal junction with Huskisson, being 
convinced that no Government could now be formed without 
him I asked him if Palmerston was a party to this junction, 
and he said he was, but the first thing I heard when I got 
to town was that a negotiation i§ going on between Pal- 
merston and the Duke, and that the former takes every 
opportunity of declaring his goodwill to the latter, and how 
unshackled he is Both these things can’t be true, and time 
will show which is It seems odd that Palmerston should 
abandon his party on the eve of a strong coalition, which is 
not unlikely to turn out the present Administration, but it is 
quite impossible to place any dependence upon public men 
now-a-days There is Lord Grey with his furious opposition, 
having a little while ago supported the Duke m a sort of 
way, having advised Rosslyn to take office, and now, because 
his own vanity is hurt at not being invited to join the Govern- 
ment, or more consulted at least, upon the slight pretext of the 
Galway Bill m the last Parliament he rushes into rancorous 
opposition, and is determined to give no quarter and listen to 
no compromise Brougham is to lead this Opposition m tho 
House of Commons, and Loid Grey m the Lords, and nothing 
is to be done but as the result of general deliberation and 
agreement Brougham m the meantime has finished his 
triumph at York m a miserable way, having insulted Martin 
Stapylton on the hustings, who called him to account, and 
then he forgot what he had said, and slunk away with a ths- 
claimei of unintentional offence, as usual beginning with m- 



1830] 


CHABLES X IN ENGLAND 


33 


temperance and ending with submission His speeches weie 
never good, but at his own dinner he stated so manj untruths 
about the Duke of Wellington that his own partisans bawled 
out ‘No, no/ and it tv as a complete failure His whole 
spirit theie was as bad as possible, paltry and commonplace 
That man, with all his talents, never can 01 will do m any 
situation , he is base, cowardly, and unprincipled, and with 
all the execrable judgment which, I believe, often flows from 
the peiversion of moral sentiment Nobody can admire his 
genius, eloquence, variety and extent of information, and the 
charm of his society more than I do, but his faults are 
glaring, and the effects of them manifest to anybody who 
will compare his means and then results 

August 23 rd — General JBaudiand is come over with a 
lettei from King Louis Philippe to King William He saw 
the Duke and Aberdeen yesterday Charles X goes to Lul- 
worth Castle What are called moderate people are greatly 
alarmed at the aspect of affairs m Fiance, but I think the law 
(which will be earned) of abolishing capital punishment m 
political cases is calculated to tranquillise men’s minds every- 
wheie, for it draws such a line between the old and the new 
Revolution The Mimstei s will be tried and banished, but no 
blood spilt Loid Anglesey went to see Charles X , and told 
him openly his opinion of his conduct The King laid it alb 
upon Polignac The people of Pans wanted to send over a 
deputation to thank the English for their sympathy and 
assistance — a sort of fraternising affair — but the King would 
not peimit it, which was wiselj done, and it is a good thing 
to see that he can curb m some degiee that spirit, this 
Yaudreuil told me last night It would have given great 
offence and caused gieat alaim here 

August 24 th — Alvanley had a letter from Montrond 
yesterday fiom Pans He was with M Mole when a letter 
was brought him fiom Polignac, beginning, ‘Mon cher 
Collogue/ and saying that he wrote to him to ask his 
advice what he had better do, that he should have liked to 
retire to his own estate, but it was too near Pans , that ho 
should like to go into Alsace, and that he begged he would 

VOL II D 



34 


REI GN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XI 


arrange it foi him, and in tlie meantime send lnm some 
boots, and shirts, and bieeclies 

The French King continues off Cowes, in any people visit- 
ing him They came off without clothes 01 pieparation of 
any kind, so much so that Lady Grantham has been obliged 
to furnish Mesdames de Bern and d’Angouleme with every- 
thing , it seems they have plenty of money The King says 
he and his son have letued fiom public life , and as to his 
grandson, he must wait the progress of events , that his con- 
science reproaches him with nothing 

The dmnei in St Geoige’s Hall on the King’s birthdaj 
was the finest thing possible — all good and hot, and served 
on the late King’s gold plate There weie one hundred 
people at table. After dinner the King gave the Duke of 
Wellington’s health, as it was the anniversaiy of Yimeiro , 
the Dukes of Cumberland and Gloucestei turned then 
glasses down I can’t agiee with Charles X that it would 
he better to ‘travaillei pom son pain than to be King of 
England ’ 

I went yesterday all ovei Lambeth Palace, which has 
been nearly rebuilt by Bloie, and admnably done, one of 
the best houses I evei saw Archbishop Juxon’s Hall has 
been converted into the libiaiy of the Palace, and is also a 
fine thing in its way It is not to cost above 40,000? The 
Lollards’ Towei, which is veiy eunous, with its iron lings, and 
the names of the Lollaids wntten on the walls, is not to be 
touched 

At night — Went to Lady Glengall’s to meet Mamiont 
He likes talking of his adventures, but he had done his Pans 
ialk before I got there , however, he said a great deal about 
old campaigning and Buonaparte which, as well as 1 lecol- 
lect, I will put down. 

As to the battle of Salamanca, he remarked that, without 
meaning to detract from the glory of the English arms, he 
was inferior in force there , our army was provided with every- 
thing, well paid, and the country favourable, his 4 d6nu4e de 
tout,’ without pay, in a hostile country ; that all his provi- 
sions came from a great distance and under great escorts. 



1830] CONVERSATION WITH MARSHAL MARMONT 


35 


and his communications were kept up in the same way Of 
Eussia, he said that Buonapaite’s army was destroyed by the 
time he got to Moscow, destroyed by famine , that there were 
two ways of making war, by slow degrees with magazines, 
01 by rapid movements and leaching places where abundant 
means of supply and reorganisation weie to be found, as he 
had done at Vienna and elsewhere, but in Eussia supplies were 
not to be had Napoleon had, however, pushed on with the 
same rapidity and destroyed his army Marshal Davoust (I 
think, but am not sure) had a corps d’armee of 80,000 men, 
and reached Moscow with 15,000 , the cavalry were 50,000 
sabres, at Moscow they were 6,000 Somebody asked him 
if Napoleon’s geneials had not dissuaded him from going to 
Eussia Marmont said no , they liked it , but Napoleon ought 
to have stopped at Smolensk, made Poland independent, and 
levied 50,000 Cossacks, the Polish Cossacks being bettei than 
the Eussian, who would have kept all his communications 
clear, and allowed the French army to repose, and then he 
would have done m two campaigns what he wished to accom- 
plish m one, instead of which he nevei would deal with 
Poland liberally, but held back with ultenoi views, and never 
got the Poles cordially with him Of the campaign of 1813 he 
said that it was ill-conducted by Napoleon and full of faults , 
his creation of the army was wonderful, and the battle of 
Dresden would have been a great movement if he had not 
suddenly abandoned Vandamme after pushing him on to cut 
off the retreat of the Allies It was an immense fault to 
leave all the garrisons m the Prussian and Saxon fortresses 
The campaign of 1814 was one of his most brilliant He 
(Marmont) commanded a corps d’armee, and fought m most 
of the celebrated actions, but he nevei had 4,000 men, at 
Pans, which he said was ‘ the most honourable part of his 
whole career,’ he had 7,500J Napoleon committed a great 
fault m throwing himself into the rear as he did , he should 
have fallen back upon Paris, where his own presence would 

1 [This assertion of Marmont’s is the moie cunous, as it was to his 
alleged treacheiy that Napoleon when at Fontainebleau chose to ascribe bs 
defeat ] 



36 


BEIGN OE WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XI 


have been of vast importance, and sent Marmont into the 
rear with what troops he could collect I repeated what the 
Duke of Wellington had once told me, that if the Emperor 
had continued the same plan, and fallen back on Pans, he 
would have obliged the Allies to letreat , and asked him what 
he thought He idthei agieed with this, but said the Emperor 
had conceived one of the most splendid pieces of strategy 
that ever had been devised, w Inch failed by the disobedience 
of Eugene He sent oiders to Eugene to assemble his aimy, m 
which he had 35,000 Piench tioops, to amuse the Austrians 
by a negotiation foi the evacuation of Italy , to tlnow the 
Italian troops into Alessandna and Mantua , to destroy the 
other fortresses, and going by forced marches with his Piench 
troops, force the passage of Mont Cenis, collect the scattered 
corps (Varmee of Augereau (who was near Lyons) and another 
French geneial, which would have made his force amount to 
above 60,000 men, and burst upon the reai of the Allies, so 
as to cut off all their communications These oideis he sent 
to Eugene, but Eugene * levait d’etre roi d’ltalie apies sa 
chute,’ and he sent his aide-de-camp Tasehei to excuse him- 
self The movement was not made, and the game was up. 
Lady Dudley Stewart was there, Lucien’s daughtei and 
Buonaparte’s niece Marmont was presented to hei, and she 
heard him nanate all this , there is something very simple, 
striking, and soldierlike m his manner and appearance He 
is going to Russia 

He was veiy communicative about events at Paris, 
lamented his own ill-luck, involved m the business against 
his wishes and feelings , he disapproved of Pokgnac and his 
measures, and had no notion the otdonnances were thought of 
In the morning he was going to St Germain for the day, 
when his aide-de-camp brought him the newspapei with the 
ordonnances d tomla de son haut Soon aftei the Dauphin 
sent to him to desire that, as there might he some 
e vitres cassees,’ he would take the command of the tioops 
Directly after the thing began He had 7,000 or 8,000 men , 
not a preparation had been made of any sort , they had never 
thought of resistance, had not consulted Marmont oi any 



1830] 


CRADOCK S MISSION TO CHARLLS X 


37 


military man, lie soon found how hopeless the case was, 
and sent eight estafettes to the King one aftei another 
during the action to tell him so and implore him to stop 
while it was time They never returned any answer He 
then rode out to Sfc Cloud, where he implored the King to 
yield It was not till after seven hours’ pressing that he 
consented to name M de Mortemart Minister, but would not 
withdiaw the edicts He says that up to Wednesday night 
they would have compromised and accepted M de Mortemart 
and the suppression of the edicts, but the King still de- 
murred On Wednesday night he yielded, but then the com- 
munications were interrupted That night the meeting at 
the Palais Royal toot place, at which the King’s fate was 
determined, and on Thursday morning, when his offers 
arrived, it was too late, and they would no longei treat 
Marmont said he had been treated with the gieatest ingrati- 
tude by the Court, and had taken leave of them foi ever — 
coldly of the King and Dauphm , the Duchess of Beni alone 
shook hands with him and thanked him for his services and 
fidelity He says never man was so unlucky, that he was 
marechal de quartier and could not lefuse to seive, but he 
only acted on the defensive , 2,000 of the troops and 1,500 
of the populace were killed The Swiss did not behave well, 
but the Lanciers de la Garde beautifully, and all the troops 
were acting against their feelings and opinions Maimont 
said that Stuart had sent Ciadoek to Charles X to desire 
he would go as slowly as he could, to give time for a leaction 
which he expected would take place Cradock did go to the 
King, but I rather doubt this story 1 

1 [Colonel Cradock (the late Lord Howden) was sent by the Am- 
bassador to the King, and had an audience at Rambouillet, but it was at 
file request and instigation of the Duke of Orleans The proposal entrusted 
to Colonel Cradock was to the effect that the King and the Dauphin, having 
abdicated, should quit Fiance with the Princesses, but thatHemy \ should 
be proclaimed King under the regency of the Duke of Oileans Louis 
Philippe offered to suppoitthis anangement, and to cairv on the Government 
as Regent, if Charles X sanctioned it The King leceivtd the communi- 
cation m bed The Duchess of Angouleme was consulted, and vehemently 
opposed the scheme, because, said sbe, speaking of the Orleans family, *ils 
sont toujours les memes/ and she referred to the pi eposterous stories current 



38 


REIGN OF WILLI iM I\ 


[Chap XI 


August 27f7i —At Court the day before yesterday , Pai- 
liament was prorogued and summoned General Baudrand 
came afterwards and delivered bis letter, also a private lettei 
c from the Duke of Orleans to the Duke of Clarence ’—as the 
Drench King called them, ‘ ancrens amrs’ He was well 
received and well satisfied I never knew such a burst of 
indignation and contempt as Polignac’s letter has caused — 
a letter to the President of the Chamber of Peers As Dudley 
sajs, it has saved hrstoiy the trouble of crucifying that man, 
and speaks volumes about the lecent events Such a man to 
have been Prime Minister of Prance for a year 1 

August 29th — Dined with Dudley the day before yester- 
day to meet Mannont, who is made very much of here by the 
few people who are left He had been to Woolwich in the 
morning, where the Duke of Wellington had given orders 
that everything should be shown to him, and the honours 
handsomely done He was very much gratified, and he 
found the man who had pointed the gun which wounded 
him at Salamanca, and who had since lost his own arm at 
Waterloo Marmont shook hands with him and said, ‘ Ah, 
mon ami, chacun a son tour ’ Lady Aldboiough came m 
in the evening, and flew up to him with e Ah, mon eher 
Marshal, embrassez-moi,’ and so after escaping the cannon’s 
mouth at Pans, he was obliged to face Lady Aldborough’s 
mouth heie This was my first dmnei at Dudley’s, brought 
about malgre lui by Lady Glengall He has always disliked 
and never invited me, but now (to all appearance) we are 
friends He said he had been to see an old man who lives 
near the world’s end — Chelsea — who is 110 years old , he has 
a good head of hair, with no grey hairs m it , his health, 
faculties, and memory perfect , is Irish, and has not lived 
with greater temperance than other people I sat next to 
* Palmerston, and had a great deal of conversation with him, 
and from the tenour of his language infer that he has no 

at the time of the death of the Due de Bomgogne, and the regency of 1715 
The offer was therefore rejected These facts were not known to Mr 
GreviUe at the time, nor till long afterwards, hut they confirm his informa- 
tion that * Cradock did go to the Bang ’] 



1830] 


DINNER AT LORD DUDLEY’S 


39 


idea of joining Government Agai Ellis assured me the 
other day that there was not a word of truth m the repoited 
junction between Lord Grey and Huslnsson The Duke has 
got two months to make his arrangements, but I am afraid he 
is not prepared foi all the sacrifices his position requnes. 
It is now said that the exasperation against the late Ministers 
(particularly Polignac) is so great in Fiance that it is doubt- 
ful whether they will be able to save their lives 



40 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XII 


CHAPTEE XII 


The .Belgian Revolution-The Duke of Wellington and Canning— The 
King's Plate — Gloom} Foiebodmgs — Retreat of the Prince of Orange — 
Pnnce Talleyrand — Position of the Go\ emmeat — Death of Huskisson — 
His Character — The Duke of Wellington and Peel — Meeting of Parlia- 
ment — The Duke's Declaiation — The King’s Yisit to the City aban- 
doned — Disturbances m London— Duchesse de Dmo— The Cholera — 
Southey, Henry Taylor, John Stuart Mill — Dinner at Talleyrand’s— The 
Duke ot Wellington resigns— Mr Bathurst made Junior Clerk of the 
Council — Lord Spencer and Lord Grey sent for — Formation of Lord 
Grey’s Administration — Discontent of Biougham — Brougham takes the 
Great Seal — Chaiacter of the New Ministers — Prospects of the Oppo- 
sition — Disturbances m Sussex and Hampshire — Lord Grey and Lord 
Brougham— Lord Sefton’s Dinner — The New Ministers sworn at a 
Council 

Stolce , August 31 sf — On Sunday I met Prince Esterhazy 1 
m Oxford Street with a face a yard long He turned back 
■with, me, and told me that there had been disturbances at 
Brussels, but that they had been put down by the gen- 
darmerie He was mightily alarmed, but said that his 
Government would recognise the French King directly, and 
m return foi such general and prompt recognition as he was 
receiving he must restiam France from countenancing re- 
volutions in other countries, and that, indeed, he had lost 
no time m declaring his intention to abstain from any 
meddling In the evening Vaudreuil told me the same 
thing, and that he had received a despatch from M Mole 
desiring him to refuse passports to the Spaniards who 
wanted, on the strength of the French Revolution, to go 
and foment the discontents m Spam, and to all other 

1 [Prince Paul Esterhazy, Austrian Ambassador at the Court of St 
James for many years ] 



1830 ] 


WELLINGTON’S FOREIGN POLICY 


41 


foreigners who, being dissatisfied with their own Govern- 
ments, could not obtain passports from their own Ministers 
Yesterday morning, however, it appealed that the affair at 
Biussels was much more serious than Esterhazy had given 
me to understand, and, as far as can be judged from the 
unofficial statements which we have, it appeals likely that 
Belgium will separate from Holland altogether, it being very 
doubtful whether the Belgian troops will support the King’s 
Government 

Madame de Ealck is just come, but brmgs no news 
Falck 1 has heard nothing He left Holland before the out- 
break In the event of such a i evolution, it remains to be 
seen, what part Prussia will take, and, if she marches an 
army to reduce Belgium to obedience, whether the Belgians 
will not make overtures to Prance, and m that case whether 
King Louis Philippe will be able to restrain the French from 
seizing such a golden opportunity of regaining then former 
frontier , and if they accept the offei, whether a general war 
in Europe will not ensue 

In these difficult circumstances, and m the midst of pos- 
sibilities so tremendous, it is awful to leflect upon the very 
moderate portion of wisdom and sagacity which is allotted 
to those by whom our affairs aie managed I am by no 
means easy as to the Duke of Wellington’s sufficiency to 
meet such difficulties , the habits of his mmd are not those 
of patient investigation, profound knowledge of human 
nature, and cool, discriminating sagacity He is exceedingly 
quick of apprehension, but deceived by his own quickness 
into thinking he knows more than he does He has amaz- 
ing confidence m himself, which is fostered by the deference 
of those around him and the long experience of his military 
successes He is upon ordinary occasions right-headed and 
sensible, but he is beset by weaknesses and passions which 
must, and continually do, blind his judgment Above all he 
wants that suavity of manner, that watchfulness of obser- 
vation, that power of taking great and enlarged views of 
events and characters, and of weighing opposite interests 
1 [Baron Falck, Dutch Minister at the Court of St James ] 



42 


LEIGX OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XII 


and piobabilities, which are essentially necessaij m cirenm- 
sfcanees so delicate, and m which one false step, any hasty 
measure, or even incautious expression, may be attended with 
consequences of immense importance I feel "justified m this 
view of his political fitness by contemplating the whole 
course of his caieei,and the signal failuie which has maiked 
all his foieign policy If Canning were now alive we might 
hope to steer thiough these difficulties, but if he had lived 
we should piobably never have been m them He was the 
only statesman who had sagacity to enter into and com- 
prehend the spirit of the times, and to put himself at the 
head of that movement which was no longer to be arrested 
The march of Liberalism (as it is called) would not be 
stopped, and this he knew, and he resolved to govern and 
lead, instead of opposing it The idiots who so rejoiced at 
the removal of this mastei mind (which alone could have 
saved them fiom the effects of their own folly) thought to 
stem the torrent in its couise, and it has overwhelmed them 
It is unquestionable that the Duke has too much participated 
m their sentiments and passions, and, though he never mixed 
himself with their proceedings, legarded them with a favour- 
able eye, nor does he ever seem to have been aware of the 
immensity of the peril which they weie incurring The 
urgency of the dangei will unquestionably increase the im- 
patience of those who alieady think the present Government 
incapable of cany mg on the public business, and now that 
we aie placed m a situation the most intricate (since the 
French Revolution) it is by no means agreeable to think that 
such enormous in&ftests are at the mercy of the Duke’s 
awkward squad 

Seffcon gave me an account of the dinner m St Geoige’s 
Hall on the King’s birthday, which was magnificent — ex- 
cellent and well served Bridge 1 came down with the plate, 
and was hid during the dinner behind the great wine-cooler, 
which weighs 7,000 ounces, and he told Sefton afterwards that 
the plate m the loom was worth 200,000? There is another 

1 [Of the House of Rundell and Budge, the great silversmiths and 
jewellers of the day ] 



1830] 


GLOOMY FOREBODINGS 


4B 


service of gold plate, which was not used at all The King 
has made it all over to the Crown All this plate was 
ordered by the late King, and never used , his delight was 
ordering what the public had to pay for 

September 9th — Came from Stoke the day aftei the 
Egham races, and went to Biocket Hall on Satin day last , 
returned the day before yesterday Nothing can exceed the 
interest, the excitement, the consternation which prevail 
heie On Saturday last the funds suddenly fell near three 
per cent , no cause apparent, a thousand reports, and a panic 
on the Stock Exchange At last on Monday it appeared 
that the Emperor of Russia had, on the first intelligence of 
the revolution m France, prohibited the tneolouied cockade 
and ordered all Russian subjects to quit Fiance As we 
went down on Saturday Henry told me that there had been 
alaiming accounts from the manufactunng districts ot a 
disposition to rise on the part of the workmen, which had 
kept Lord Hill m town, and this I fancied was the cause of 
the fall, but it was the Russian business They have since, 
howevei, rallied to nearly what they were before At Brocket 
I had a long conversation with my brother-in-law, 1 who is 
never veiy communicative or talkative, but he takes a 
gloomy view of everything not a little perhaps tinctured by 
the impending rum which he foiesees to his own property 
from the Liverpool Railroad, which is to be opened with great 
ceremony on the 15th , moreover he thinks the Government 
so weak that it cannot stand, and expects the Duke will be 
compelled to resign He has already offeied him his place, 
to dispose of m any way that may be useful to him I said 
that I thought one of the Duke’s greatest misfortunes was 
his having no wise head to consult with m all emergencies , 
this he said was very true, for there was nobody who 
would even speak to him about anything , that Peel, who 

1 [Lord Francis Egerton, afterwards First Earl of Ellesmere, piopnetor 
of tlie Bridgewater Estates and Canal, which was threatened by the com- 
petition of the newly-made Liverpool and Manchester Railwa\ Lord 
Francis held the office of Secretary at War in 1830 for a very short time, 
having previously been Irish Secretary when Lord Anglesey was Lord 
Lieutenant] 



44 


REIGN OR "WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XII 


was the man who might naturally be expected to put him- 
self forward, never would , and that repeatedly he had got 
Tnm (Francis) to go to or write to the Duke about some 
mattei or other on which it was necessary to refer to him 
In the business of Huskisson, Huskisson himself was most 
anxious to have it made up, and wished Peel to speak to the 
Duke , but Peel would not stir, nor would Dudley, and it 
ended m Fi anas’ being ehaiged with the negotiation, the 
result of which eveiybody knows 

In the meantime the affaus of Belgium are m a very 
cutical state, the Prince of Orange has entirely failed in 
reducing the malcontents to submission, and after passing 
two or three days at or near Brussels m fruitless negotiation 
and the intei change of proud civilities, he was obliged to 
retne and carry back to the King a proposal that Belgium 
and Holland should be separated and a Federal Union 
established between them Last night, however, a proclama- 
tion of the King appeared, well drawn up, and couched m 
firm, temperate, and sensible language, m which he declares 
that he will do all that the circumstances of the case may 
render necessaiy, but that all shall be referred to the States- 
Geneial, and they shall decide upon the measuies to be 
adopted This will probably excite ,gi eat discontent, and it 
is at least doubtful whether the Belgian Deputies will con- 
sent to go to the Hague at all My belief is that this pro- 
clamation is the lesult of eneouiagement from Prussia 

The night befoie last I had a letter fiom the Due de 
Dalbeig with a very sensible view of the state of Fiance and 
of affaus generally m Euiope, auguring well of the stability 
of the present Government, provided the othei Powers of 
Europe do nothing to disturb the general tranquillity I 
never was so astonished as when I read m the newspaper of 
the appointment of Talleyrand to be Ambassadoi here He 
must be nearer eighty than seventy, and though his faculties 
are said to be as bright as ever (which I doubt), his infirmi- 
ties are so great that it is inconceivable he should think of 
leaving his own home, and above all for another country, 
where public representation is unavoidable Dalbeig told 



1830] 


BAD PROSPECTS OP THE SESSION 


45 


me that several of the Ministers are going out — Guizot, 
Marshal Gerard, and Baron Louis, the two lattei accables 
with the travail , and the first unused to and unfit foi official 
business , 1 Louis is seventy-three 

In the meantime the Duke does nothing heie towards 
strengthening his Government, and he will probably meet 
Parliament as he is Theie aie some cncumstances m his 
favour, and I think it possible he may still extricate himself 
from his difficulties There is unquestionably a notion 
amongst many persons (of the aristocracy) that he is the 
only man to rely upon for governing this country m the 
midst of difficulties It is hard to say upon what this feeling 
(foi it is more of a feeling than an opinion) is founded , not 
ceitamly upon any expei lence of his abilities foi government 
either as to pnneiples or the details of particular branches 
of business, or his profound, dispassionate, and statesmanlike 
sagacity, but upon ceitam vague predilections, and the con- 
fidence which he has infused into otheis by his own firm, 
manly, and even dictatorial character, and the lecollection 
of his military exploits and splendid caieer, which have not 
yet lost their powei over the minds of men, and to this 
must be added his great influence ovei the late and present 
sovereign 

The short session which will begin on the 26th of 
October will be occupied with the Regency and Civil List, 
and it is piobable that both those matters will be produced 
m a form to give general satisfaction , that will be strength 
as far as it goes The Tones are alarmed at the general 
aspect of affairs, and I doubt whethei they will not forget 
their ancient gne vances and antipathies, and, if they do not 
support the Government, abstain at least from any violent 
opposition, the result of which could only be to let m the 
Whigs, of whose principles they have the greatest apprehen- 
sions I can perfectly understand that theie may be many 
men who, wishing sincerely to see a stionger Government 

1 [A curious estimate, taken at the time, of the man who for the next 
eighteen years had a largei share of official life and business than any other 
Frenchman ] 



46 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XII 


formed, may think that any change at this moment which 
may present to Europe a spectacle of disunion and weakness 
here would be a gi eater evil than the temporaiy toleration 
of such Ministers as ouis, and if the Duke does find such 
a disposition, and piofits by it dexterously and tempeiately, 
he may float thiough the next session, and at the end of it 
negotiate with other paities on more advantageous terms 
than he possibly could do now, when all his concessions 
would appear to be extorted by foice 01 by the urgent diffi- 
culties of his position 

September 10 th — The Duke is veiy much disturbed about 
the state of affairs, thinks ill of France and generally of the 
state of Europe I think the alarmists are increasing every- 
where, and the signs of the times aie certainly poitentous , 
still I doubt there being any great desire ot change among 
the mass of the people of England, and prudent and dexterous 
heads (if there be an) such) may still steer on through the 
storm If Canning were alive I believe he would have been 
fully equal to the emergency, if he was not thwarted by the 
passions, prejudices, and follies of otheis , but if he had lived 
we should not have had the Catholic question settled, and 
what a state we should be m now if that were added to the rest 1 

September 14 th — Last Saturday to Panshanger , re- 
turned yesterday with Melbourne, George Lamb, and the 
Ashleys Geoige said there would be a violent Opposition 
in the approaching session William 1 told me he thought 
Huskisson was the greatest practical statesman he had 
known, the one who united theory with practice the most, 
but owned he was not popular and not thought honest, 
that his remaining m with the Duke when Goderich’s 
Ministry was dissolved was a fatal error, which he could 
never repair 

I found Sefton m town last night, and went to the play 
with him He has had a letter from Brougham, who told 
him he should go to the Liverpool dinner and attack the 
Duke of Wellington , that it was the only opportunity he 
should evei have m his life of meeting him face to face, and 

1 [William Lamb, second Lord Melbourr^, afterwards Prime Munstei ] 



1830] 


DEATH OF MR HUSKISSON 


47 


lie then proceeded to i elate all that he should say Sefton 
wrote him woid that if he said half what he intended the 
chairman would older him to he turned out of the room 
He won’t go, I am persuaded 

Newark, September 18th — Went back to Panshanger last 
Tuesday , found there Madame de Lieven, Melbourne, and 
the Hollands and Allen Lord Holland was very agieeable, as 
he always is, and told many anecdotes of George Selwyn, 
Lafayette, and others I saw them arrive m a coach- and- 
four and chaise-and-pair — two footmen, a page, and two maids 
He said (what is true) that theie is haidly such a thing m the 
world as a good house or a good epitaph, and yet mankind 
have been employed m building the former and writing the 
latter since the beginning almost Came to town on Thurs- 
day, and m the afternoon heaid the news of Huskis son’s 
horrible accident, and yesterday morning got a letter from 
Henry with the details, which aie pietty correctly given m 
the c Times ’ newspapei It is a very odd thmg, but I had 
for days before a strong piesentiment that some teinble 
accident would occur at this ceremony, and I told Lady 
Cowper so, and several other people Nothing could exceed 
the horror of the few people m London at this event, 
or the despair of those who looked up to him politically 
It seems to have happened m this way — While the Duke’s 
car was stopping to take m water, the people alighted and 
walked about the railioad , when suddenly another car, which 
was running on the adjoining level, came up Everybody 
scrambled out of the way, and those who could got again 
into the fiist car This Huskisson attempted to do, but he 
was slow and awkward , as he was getting m some part of 
the machmeiy of the other car struck the door of his, by 
which he was knocked down He was taken up, and con- 
veyed by Wilton 1 and Mrs Huskisson (who must have seen 
the accident happen) to the house of Mr Blackburne, eight 
miles from Heaton Wilton saved his life for a few hours by 
knowing how to tie up the artery, amputation was not 
possible, and he expired at ten o’clock that night Wilton, 
1 [Thomas Grosvenor Egerton, second Earl of Wilton ] 



48 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XII 


Lord Granville, and Littleton were with him to the last 
Mrs Huskisson behaved with great courage The Duke of 
Wellington was deeply affected, and it was with the gieatest 
difficulty he could be induced to proceed upon the progress to 
Manchester, and at last he only yielded to the most piessmg 
solicitations of the directors and others, and to a strong re- 
monstrance that the mob might be dangerous if he did not 
appeal It is impossible to figuie to one’s self any event 
which could produce a gi eater sensation or be moie striking 
to the imagination than this, happening at such a time and 
under such circumstances the eminence of the man, the 
sudden conversion of a scene of gaiety and splendour into 
one of hoiror and dismay , the countless multitudes present, 
and the effect upon them — crushed to death m sight of his 
wife and at the feet (as it was) of his great political rival — 
all calculated to produce a deep and awful impression The 
death of Huskisson cannot fail to have an important effect 
upon political events , it puts an end to his party as a party, 
but it leaves the suivivors at liberty to join either the Oppo- 
sition or the Government, while during his life there were 
great difficulties to their doing either, m consequence of the 
antipathy which many of the Whigs had to him on one side 
and the Duke of Wellington on the other There is no use, 
however, m speculating on what will happen, which a veiy 
short time will show 

Agar Ellis told me yesterday morning that be had 
received a letter from Brougham a day or two ago, m which 
he said that he was going to Liverpool, and hoped theie to 
sign a treaty with Huskisson, so that it is probable they 
would have joined to oppose the Government As to the 
Duke of Wellington, a fatality attends him, and it is penlous 
to cross his path There were perhaps 500,000 people 
present on this occasion, and probably not a soul besides 
hurt One man only is killed, and that man is his most 
dangerous political opponent, the one from whom he had 
most to fear It is the more remarkable because these great 
people are generally taken such care of, and put out of the 
chance of accidents Canning had scarcely reached the 



1830] 


CHARACTER OF HUSKISSOtt 


49 


zenith of his power when he was swept away, and the field 
was left open to the Duke, and no soonei is he reduced 
to a state of danger and difficulty than the ablest of his 
adversaries is removed by a chance beyond all power of 
calculation 

Huskisson was about sixty years old, tall, slouching, and 
ignoble-looking In society he was extremely agreeable, 
without much animation, generally cheerful, with a great 
deal of humour, information, and anecdote, gentlemanlike, 
unassuming, slow m speech, and with a downcast look, as if 
he avoided meeting anybody’s gaze I have said what Mel- 
bourne thought of him, and that was the opinion of his 
party It is probably true that there is no man in Parlia- 
ment, or peihaps out of it, so well versed m finance, com- 
merce, tiade, and colonial matters, and that he is therefore a 
very great and irreparable loss It is nevertheless remarkable 

that it is only within the last five or six years that he acquired 
the great reputation which he latterly enjoyed I do not 
think he was looked upon as more than a second-iate man 
till his speeches on the silk trade and the shipping interest , 
but when he became President of the Board of Trade he devoted 
himself with indefatigable application to the maturing and 
reducing to practice those commercial improvements with 
which his name is associated, and to which he owes all his 
glory and most of his unpopularity It is equally true that 
all the ablest men m the country coincide with him, and that 
the mass of the community are persuaded that his plans are 
mischievous to the last degree The man whom he consulted 
through the whole couise of his labours and enquiries was 
Hume , 1 who is now m the Board of Tiade, and whose vast ex- 
perience and knowledge were of incalculable service to him 
Great as his abilities unquestionably were, it is impossible to 
admire his judgment, which seems repeatedly to have failed 
him, particularly m his joining the Duke’s Government on 
Goderich’s resignation, which was a capital eiror, his speech 
aftei wards at Liverpool and his subsequent quarrel with the 

3 [James Deacon Hume, the Assistant Joint Secretary of the Board of 
Trade ] 

VOL II E 



50 


REIGN OE WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XII 


Duke In all these cases he acted with the greatest impiu- 
denee, and he certainly contrived, without exposing himself 
to any specific charge, to be looked upon as a statesman of 
questionable honour and integrity , and of this his friends as 
well as his enemies were awaie As a speakei m the House 
of Commons he was luminous upon his own subject, but he 
had no pretensions to eloquence , his voice was feeble and his 
•mannei ungiaceful, however, he was (unfortunately) one of 
the first men m the House, and was listened to with atten- 
tion upon any subject He left no childien Mrs Huskisson 
has a pension of 1,200 1 a yeai The accounts fiom Pans 
improve, inasmuch as there seems a bettei prospect than 
there has been lately of tranquillity in the country Sneyd 
writes word that there is little doubt but that the Due de 
Bourbon was assassinated 1 

Last night to Brocket Hall, where I slept, and came on 
here to-day. The King has paid me 300 1 for Goodison, the 
late Duke’s jockey, which settles all he owed at Newmarket, 
and was a very good-natured act 

George Seynaoui is made Master of the Eobes, and gives 
up his place 2 m the House of Lords, so Jeisey 3 within two 
months has got an enoimous place to give away 

Chatswo'ith , September 27 th — Got to Spiotboiough last 
Sunday, Lord Talbot and Lady Cecil, William Lascelles, 
Irby, Lady Chailotte Denison, Captain Grey It rained 
all the time of the races They offered Priam to Chesterfield 
for 3,000Z befoie lus match, and he refused, he offered it 
after, and they refused There were a number of beautiful 
women there — my cousin Mrs Foljambe, Misses Mary and 
Fanny Biandling the best Came here on Friday night, and 

1 [The Due de Bourbon-Conde was found hanging m his bedroom 
Suspicion pointed to Madame de Feuch&res, his mistress, as privy to the 
cause of his death, which, however, was nevei clearly asceitamed The 
Puke had made an ample provision for Madame de Feucheres m his will, 
hut the bulk of his vast property, including Chantilly, was bequeathed to 
the Due d’Aumale, fourth son of King Louis Philippe The Due de Bour- 
bon was the father of the unfortunate Due d’Enghien ] 

9 He did not give it up , wanted Jersey to appoint his brother Fredeiick, 
which he lefused to do , so the other remained — November 15 th 

3 [Lord Jeisey was Lord Chamberlain of the Household at the time ] 



1830] 


HTJSKISSON’S LAST MOMENTS 


51 


found as usual a large party, but latbei dull, Gianvilles, 
Newboroughs, Wharncliffes, G Seymouis, Sir J and Lady 
Fitzgerald (very pretty), Talbots, Madame Bathiany, Beau- 
monts, G Lamb Yesterday Brougham came with his 
brother, sister, and daughter-m law, m the highest spirits 
and state of excitement, going about Yorkshire, dmmg and 
speechifying , he was at Doncaster too Lord Granville was 
just returned from Huskisson’s funeial at Liverpool It was 
attended by a great multitude, who showed eveiy mark of 
respect and feeling He died the death of a great man, 
suffering torments, but always 1 esigned, calm, and collected , 
took the Sacrament, and made a codicil to his will, said the 
country had had the best of him, and that he could not have 
been useful foi many more years , hoped he had never com- 
mitted any political sins that might not be easily forgiven 
and declared that he died without a feeling of ill-will and 
m charity with all men As he lay theie he heaid the guns 
announcing the Duke of Wellington’s arrival at Manchester, 
and he said, c I hope to God the Duke may get safe thiough 
the day 5 When he had done and said all he desired, he 
begged they would open a vein and release him fiom his 
pain Fiom the beginning he only wished to die quickly 
Mrs Huskisson was violently opposed to his being buried at 
Liverpool, and it was with great difficulty she was persuaded 
to consent to the repeated applications that were made to her 
for that puipose 

Bnckenham , October 25 th — A month nearly since I have 
written a line , always racing and always idleness Went 
from Chatsworth to Heaton Park , an immense party, ex- 
cellent house and living, and very good sport for the sort of 
thing m a park, with gentlemen rideis 

I have lost sight of politics, and know not hin g of what is 
going on, except that all things look gloomy, and people 
generally are alarmed Last week the Arbuthnots were at 
Cheveley, and I had a curious conversation enough with him 
I told him that I was desirous of the success of the Duke of 
Wellington’s Administration, but felt stiongly the necessity 
of his getting rid of many of his present Cabinet, who were 



52 


KEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


("Chap XII 


both, inefficient and odious, that I thought one gieat mis- 
fortune was that he had nobody to tell hnn the truth, and 
very few men with whom he was on terms of confidential 
cordiality He owned it was so, but said that he never con- 
cealed from him disagreeable tiuths — on the contrary, told 
him eveiythmg — and assured me that at any time he would 
tell the Duke anything that I thought he ought to know I 
told him to give him a notion how meanly Aberdeen was 
thought of, that Alvanley had told Talleyrand not to notice 
him, but to go at once to the Duke when he had any 1m- 
poitant business to transact, and that he might tell the Duke 
this if he pleased, but no one else He said he would, and 
then he began to talk of Peel, lamenting that there was 
nothing like intimate confidence between the Duke and him, 
and that the Duke was m fact ignorant of his real and secret 
feelings and opinions , that to such a degree did Peel carry 
his reseive that when they were out of office, and it had 
been a question of their returning to it, he had gone to meet 
Peel at Lord Chandos’s for the express purpose of finding 
out what his opinions were upon the then state of affairs, 
and that aftei many conversations he had come away 
knowing no moie of his sentiments and disposition than 
before they met I said that with a Cabinet like this, and 
the House of Commons in the hands of Peel, I could not 
imagine anything more embarrassing , he owned it was, 
and then complained of Peel’s indisposition to encourage 
other men m the House of Commons, or to suffer the trans- 
action of business to pass through any hands but his own , 
that the Duke had been accused of a grasping ambition and 
a desire to do eveiythmg himself, whereas such an accusation 
would be much moie applicable to Peel All this proves how 
little real cordiality there is between these two men, and that, 
though they are now necessary to each other, a little matter 
would sever their political connection 

Here we have an Ameucan of the name of Powell, who 
was here nineteen years ago, when he was one of the hand- 
somest men that ever was seen, and lived m the society 
of Devonshire House Three years of such a life spoil 



1830] WELLINGTON’S DECLARATION AGAINST REFORM 53 


him, as lie confesses, for tlie nineteen which followed m his 
native country, and now he is come hack with a wife 
and five children to see the town he recollects become a 
thousand times more beautiful, and the friends who have 
forgotten him equally changed, but as much for the worse 
as London is foi the better , he seems a sensible, good sort 
of fellow 

Baring told me the other day that he remembeied his 
(B ’s) fathei with neaily nothing, and that out of the house 
which he founded not less than six or seven millions must 
have been taken Several colossal fortunes have been made 
out of it 

London , November 8th — Went from Buckenham to 
Euston, and then back to Newmarket, where I never have 
time oi inclination to write or read Parliament met, and a 
great clamour was raised against the King’s Speech, without 
much leason, but it was immediately evident that the 
Government was m a very tottering condition, and the first 
night of this session the Duke of Wellington made a violent 
and uncalled-for declaration against Reform, which has with- 
out doubt sealed his fate Never was there an act of more 
egregious folly, oi one so universally condemned by friends 
and foes The Chancellor said to Lady Lyndhurst after the 
first night’s debate m the House of Lords, ‘ You have often 
asked me why the Duke did not take m Lord Giey, read 
these two speeches (Loid Grey’s and the Duke’s), and then 
you will see why Do you think he would like to have a 
colleague under him, who should get up and make such a 
speech after such another as his 9 ’ 

The effect produced by this declaration exceeds anything 
I ever saw, and it has at once destroyed what little popu- 
larity the Duke had left, and lowered him m public estima- 
tion so much that when he does go out of office, as most 
assuredly he must, he will leave it without any of the dignity 
and credit which might have accompanied his retirement 
The sensation pioduced m the country has not yet been 
ascertained, but it is suie to be immense I came to town 
last night, and found the town ringing with his imprudence 



54 REIGN OF WILLIAM IV [Chap XII 

and everybody expecting that a few days would produce bis 
resignation 

Tbe King’s visit to the City was legal ded with great 
apprehension, as it was suspected that attempts would be 
made to produce not and confusion at night, and con- 
sequently all the tioops that could be mustered weie pre- 
pared, togethei with thousands of special constables, new 
police, volunteers, sailois, and mannes , but last night a 
Cabinet Council was held, when it was definitively ananged 
to put it off altogethei, and this morning the announce- 
ment has appealed in the newspapers Eveiy sort of ridicule 
and abuse was heaped upon the Government, the Lord 
Mayor, and all who had any share in putting off the 
King’s visit to the City , very dioll caricatures were cir- 
culated 

I met Matuscewitz last night, who was full of the Duke 
and his speech, and of regrets at his approaching fall, which 
he considers as the signal for fiesh encroachments m France 
by the Liberal party, and a general impulse to the revolu- 
tionary factions throughout Europe I hear that nothing 
can exceed the general excitement and terroi that prevails, 
everybody feeling they haidly know what 

November 9th — Yesteiday morning I sallied forth and 
called on Arbuthnot, whom I did not find at home, but Mrs 
Arbuthnot was I had previously called on the Villiers, and 
had a long conversation about the state of everything They 
did not apprise me of anything new, but Hyde, 1 who ought 
to be informed, gave me an account of the resolutions which 
Brougham means to piopose, very different from what I heard 
elsewhere He said that they were very strong, whereas all 
other accounts agree that they are very moderate I walked 
with Mrs Arbuthnot down to Downing Street, and, as she 
utters the Duke’s sentiments, was anxious to hear what she 
would say about their present condition I said, ‘ Well, you 
are m a fine state , what do you mean to do 0 ’ 4 Oh, are you 
alarmed ^ Well, I am not, everybody says we are to go 

1 [Thomas Hyde Villiers, brother of George, afterwards fourth Earl of 
Clarendon, died m 1832 ] 



1830] 


DISTURBANCES IN LONDON 


55 


out, and I don’t believe a word of it They will be beat on 
the question of Reform , people will return to the Government, 
and we stall go on very well You will see this will be tbe 
end of it ’ I told liei I did not believe they could stay m, 
and attacked tbe Duke’s speech, which at last she owned she 
was sorry he had made She complained that they had no 
support, and that everybody they took m became useless as 
soon as they were m office — Ellenborough, Eosslyn, Murray 
It was evident, however, that she did contemplate their loss 
of office as a very probable event, though they do not mean 
to resign, and think they may stave off the evil day In 
Downing Street we met George Dawson, who told us the 
funds had fallen three per cent, and that the panic was 
tremendous, so much so that they were not without alarm 
lest there should be a run on the Bank for gold Later in 
the day, however, the funds improved In the House of 
Lords I heard the Duke’s explanation of putting off the 
dmnei m the City On the whole they seem to have done 
well to put it off, but the case did not sound a strong one, 
it rested on a letter fiom the Loid Mayoi telling the Duke 
an attempt would be made on Ins life Still it is a hundred 
to one that there would have been a not, and possibly all its 
worst evils and crimes The King is said to be veiy low, 
hating Eeform, desirous of supporting the Duke, but feeling 
that he can do nothing However, m the House of Lords 
last night the speakers vied with each other m praising his 
Majesty and extolling his populanty Lady Jersey told me 
that the Duke had said to her, ‘ Lord, I shall not go out, you 
will see we shall go on veiy well ’ 

November 10th — It was expected last night that there 
would be a great not, and preparations weie made to meet 
it Troops weie called up to London, and a laige body of 
civil power put m motion People had come m fiom the 
country m the morning, and everything indicated a dis- 
turbance After dmnei I walked out to see how things were 
going on There was little mob in the west end of the town, 
and m Hew Street, Spring Gardens, a large body of the new 
police was drawn up m three divisions, ready to be em- 



56 


ELIGrN OF WILLIAM 17 


[Chap XII 


ployed if wanted The Duke of Wellington expected Apsley 
House to be attacked, and made piepaiations accordingly 
He desired my brother to go and dine there, to assist m 
making any ariangements that might be necessary In Pall 
Mall I met Mr Glyn, the bankei, who had been up to Lom- 
bard Street to see now matters looked about his house, and 
he told us (Sir T Farquhai and me) that everything was 
quiet m the Oitj One of the policemen said that there 
had been a smait biush neai Temple Bai, where a body of 
weavers with iron ciows and a banner had been dispersed by 
the police, and the banner taken The police, who are a 
magnificent set of fellows, behave very well, and it seems 
pietty evident that these troubles aie not very senous, and 
will soon be put an end to The attack m Downing Stieet 
the night before last, of which they made a great affair, 
turned out to be nothing at all The mob came there from 
Carlile’s lectuie, but the sentry stopped them near the 
Poieign Office , the police took them in flank, and they all 
ran away 

I went to Brooks’s, but there was hardly anybody 
there, and nothing occuried m tne House of Commons but 
some intei change of Billingsgate between O’Connell and 
George Dawson The Duke talks with confidence, and has 
no idea of resigning, but he does not inspiie his friends with 
the confidence he feels or affects himself, though they talk 
of his resignation as an event which is to plunge all Europe 
into war, and of the impossibility of forming another Ad- 
ministration, all which is mere balderdash, for he proved 
with many otheis how easy it is to form a Government that 
can go on , and as to oui Continental relations being alteied, 
I don’t believe a word of it He may have influence abioad, 
but he owes it not to his own individual charactei, but to his 
possession of power m England If the Ministry who succeed 
him are film and moderate, this country will lose nothing of 
its influence abroad I have heaid these sort of things said 
fifty times of Ministers and Kings The death of the late 
King was to be the greatest of calamities, and the breath 
was hardly out of his body before everybody discovered that 



1830] 


THE DUCHESSE EE DINO 


57 


it was the gieatest of blessings, and, instead of its being im- 
possible to go on without him, that there would have been 
no going on with him 

The King gave a dmnei to the Pi nice of Orange the 
other day, and invited alb his old military fi lends to meet 
him His Majesty was beyond everything civil to the Duke 
of Wellington, and the Queen likewise Lord Wellesley, 
speaking of the letter to the Lord Mayor, and putting off 
the dinner in the City, said tf it was the boldest act of cowar- 
dice he had ever heard of 5 

After some difficulty the} have agreed to give Madame 
de Dmo 1 the honours of Ambassadress here, the Duke having 
told the King that at Vienna she did the honours of Talley- 
land’s house, and was received on that footing by the Em- 
peror and Empress, so he said, c Oh, very well, I will tell the 
Queen, and you had better tell hei too 5 

They say the King is exceedingly bullied by the batards , 
though Errol told me they weie all afiaid of him Dolly 
Eitzclarence lost 100Z , betting 100 to 10 that he would go 
to Guildhall, and he told the King he had lost him 100Z , so 
the King gave him the money It seems that the Duke 
certainly did make some oveitures to Palmeiston, though I 
do not exactly know when, but I heard that they were \ eiy 
fair ones 

November 11th — Yesterday the funds lose, and people’s 
appiehensions began to subside Everybody is occupied with 
speculating about the numbers on Tuesday next, and what 
majority the Ministers will get Yesteiday came a letter 
from Lord Heytesbury from St Petersburg, 2 saying that theie 


1 [The Duche&se de I)ino was the niece of Prince Talleyrand, the 
French Ambassador at the Couit of St James The precedent is a cunous 
one, for it is certainly not customaiy foi the daughter or mece of an un- 
married Ambassador to enjoy the lank and honouia of an Ambassadress ] 

2 [This is the first mention of the choleia morbus, or Asiatic cholera, 
then first appearing m Ernope The quarantine establishments are un der 
the control of the Pnvy Council, and Mr Greville, as Clerk ot the Council, 
was actively employed in supenn tending them A Board of Health wa 
afterwaids established at the Council Office dm mg the prevalence of t 
cholera ] 



58 


HEIGrN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XII 


was reason to believe that the disoidei now 1 aging in Russia 
is a sort of plague, but that they will not admit it, and that 
it is impossible to get at the truth We ordered Russian 
ships to be put under a precautxonaiy quarantine, and made 
a minute to record what we had done 

November 12th — The funds ha\ e kept advancing, every- 
thing is quiet, and Ministers begin to take comage The 
Duke means if he has a majonty of twenty on Tuesday to 
stay m It seems his idea is that the resolutions of Broug- 
ham will be framed m geneial terms on purpose to obtain 
as many votes as possible , that they will be no test of the 
leal opinion of the House, because most of those who may 
concur in a general resolution m favoui of Reform would 
disagree entirely as to specific measures, if any were in- 
troduced , but it is evident that the support of the Duke’s 
friends is growing feebler every day Yesterday morning 
I met Robert Clive, a thick-and-thin Government man, 
and he began with the usual topic, for everybody asks 
after the State, as one does about a sick friend, and 
then he went on to say (concurring with my opinion that 
everything went on ill), Why won’t the Duke strengthen 
himself ^ ’ c He can’t , he has tried, and you see he can’t do 
anything ’ ‘ Ah* hut he must make sacrifices , things cannot 
go on as they do, and he must make sacrifices ’ Loid Bath, 
too, came to town, intending to leave his proxy with the 
Duke, and went away with it m his pocket, after hearing his 
famous speech , though he has a close borough, which he by 
no means wishes to lose, still he is for Reform What they 
all feel is that his obstinacy will endanger everything , that 
by timely concession, and regulating the present spirit, real 
improvements might he made and extreme measures avoided 
I met Rothschild coming out of Hemes’ room, with his 
nephew from Paris He looked pietty lively for a man who 
has lost some millions, but the funds were all up yesterday , 
he asked me the news, and said Lafitte was the best Minister 
Prance could have, and that everything was rapidly improving 
there 

November 1 hth — Yesterday morning I breakfasted with 



1830] 


ROBERT SOUTHEY 


59 


Taylor 1 to meet Southey the party was Southey, Strutt, 
member for Derby, a Eadical , young Mill, a political econo- 
mist , Charles Yilliers, young Elliot, and myself Southey 
is remarkably pleasing m his manner and appearance, un- 
affected, unassuming, and agreeable , at least such was my 
impression foi the houi or two I saw him Young Mill is 
the son of Mill who wiote the £ History of British India/ and 
said to be cleverer than his father He has written many 
excellent articles m reviews, pamphlets, &c , but though 
poweiful with a pen m his hand, m conversation he has 
not the art of managing his ideas, and is consequently 
hesitatmg and slow, and has the appearance of being always 
working m his mind piopositions or a syllogism 

Southey told an anecdote of Sir Massey Lopes, which is 
a good stoiy of a misei A man came to him tnd told him 
he was m great distress, and 200Z would save him He 
gave him a draft for the money c Now/ says he, c what will 
you do with this ? ? c Go to the bankers and get it cashed ’ 
c Stop/ said he , I will cash it ? So he gave him the money, 
but first calculated and deducted the discount, thus at once 
exercising his benevolence and his avarice 

Anothei story Taylor told (we weie talking of the negroes 
and savages) of a girl (m North America) who had been 
brought up for the purpose of being eaten on the day hei 
master^ son was mained 01 attained a certain age She 
was pioud of being the plat foi the occasion, tor when she 
was accosted by a missionaiy, who wanted to conveit her to 
Christianity and withdraw hei fiom her fate, she said she had 
no objection to be a Christian, but she must stay to be eaten, 
that she had been fattened foi the purpose and must fulfil 
her destmy 

When I came home I found a note to say my unfoitunate 
colleague Bullei 2 was dead He had had an operation per- 

1 [Henry Tayloi, the author of * Philip yan Artevelde ’ Edward Strutt 
was afterwards created Lord Belper 1 Young Mill T was the eminent eco- 
nomist and philosopher John Stuart Mill ‘ Young Elliot/ Sir Thomas 
Frederick Elliot, KSIG, long one of the ablest members of the Colonial 
Department, to which Hemy Taylor, the poet, himself belonged ] 

* [James Bullei, Esq , senioi Cleik of the Council ] 



60 


KEIGN OP WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XII 


foimed on Ins lip, after winch he canght cold, got an inflam- 
mation m the windpipe, and died m two 01 three days He 
was a very hononi able, obliging, and stupid man, and a gieat 
loss to me, for I shall haidly find a moie accommodating 
colleague 

In the evening I dined with Lord Sefton to meet Talley- 
rand and Madame de Dmo There were Brougham and 
Denman, the lattei brought by the formex to show Talley- 
land to him Aftei dmnei Talleyrand held a circle and 
discouised, but I did not come m for his talk They were 
all delighted, but long experience has proved to me that 
people are easily delighted with whatevei is m vogue 
Brougham is very proud of his Drench, which is execrable, 
and took the opportunity of holding forth m a most barbarous 
jargon, which he fancied was the real accent and phraseology 
He told me he should have 250 votes on his motion I said 
to him, * They think they shall have a majority of 150 ? He 
said, c Then there must be 650 to divide, for at the lowest 
computation I shall have 250 ’ But at night Henry told 
me that the Duke, though he put a good face on it, was 
m fact very low, and that, from what Gosh [Arbuthnot] 
had said, he would certainly lesign unless he earned the 
question by a large majority In the morning I called on 
Lady Granville, who told me, as a great secret, that the Duke, 
notwithstanding his speech, was prepared to oftei a com- 
promise, and her story was this — She had dined at Ludolf’s 
a few days ago to meet the Duchesse de Bern All the 
great people dined there, among others the Chancellor and 
Lady Lyndhurst, and after dinner Lady Lyndhurst came 
up to her bursting with indignation, and confided to her 
that the Duke had lesolved to offer a resolution to the 
effect that m any future case of borough delinquency the 
representation should be transferred to a great town, and 
that she thought after what had passed this would be so 
disgraceful that it disgusted her beyond expression, and a 
great deal more to this effect I confess I don’t believe a 
word of it I met the Prince of Orange last night m ex- 



1830] DEFEAT OF THE WELLINGTON MINISTRY 61 

cellent spirits and humour, and quite convinced that he will 
be recalled to Brussels 

November 16th — The Duke of Wellington’s Administra- 
tion is at an end If he has not already resigned, he pro- 
bably will do so m the course of the day Everybody was so 
intent on the Reform question that the Civil List was not 
thought of, and consequently the defeat of Government last 
night was unexpected Although numbers of members were 
shut out theie was a gieat attendance, and a majority of 
twenty-nine Of those who were shut out, almost all declare 
that they meant to have voted m the majority 1 

I went to Mrs Taylor’s at night and found Eerguson, 
Denman, and Tayloi, who had just brought the news The 
exultation of the Opposition was immense Word was sent 
down their line not to cheei, but they were not to be re- 
strained, and Sefton’s yell was heard triumphant m the dm 
The Tories voted with them There had been a meeting at 
Knatctibull’s m the morning, when they decided to go 
against Government Worcestei had dmed at Apsley 
House, returned with the news, but merely said that they 
had had a bad division — twenty-nine Everybody thought 
he meant a majority for Government, and the Duke, who 
already knew what had happened, made a sign to him to say 
nothing Woicester knew nothing himself, having aruved 
after the division , they told him the numbers, and he came 
away fancying they were foi Government So off the com- 
pany went to Madame de Dmo, where they heard the truth 
Great was the consternation and long were the faces, but the 
outs affected to be merry and the ms were serious Talley- 
rand fired off a courier to Paris forthwith 

Yesterday morning I went to Downing Street early, to 
settle with Lord Bathurst about the new appointment to my 
office Till I told him he did not know the appointment was 
m the Crown , so he hurried off to the King, and proposed his 
son William The King was very gracious, and said, ‘ I can 

1 [The division was taken on Sir Henry Parnell’s motion to refer the 
Civil Inst to a Select Committee, which was earned by 233 to 204 ] 



62 


RMGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chas xn 


never object to a father’s doing what he can foi his own 
children,’ which was an oblique woid for the latards, about 
whom, howevei, it may be said en passant he has been marvel- 
lously forbearing 

I had a long conveisation with Lady Bathuist, who told 
me that the Duke had lesolved to stand 01 fall on the Reform 
question , that he had asked Loid Bathurst’s opinion, who 
had advised him by all means to do so, that Lord Bathurst 
had likewise put his own place at the Duke’s disposal long 
before, and was ready to resign at any moment It is clear 
that Lord Bathurst had some suspicion that the Duke had 
an idea of not standing or falling by that question, for he 
asked him whether anybody had given him different advice, 
to which he leplied, though it seems rather vaguely, c No, oh 
no , I think you are quite right ’ I told hei the substance of 
what I had heard about his being disposed to a compromise 
She said it was quite impossible, that he would be disgraced 
irredeemably, but owned it was odd that there should be 
that notion and the suspicion which crossed Lord Bathurst’s 
min d I do think it is possible, but foi his honour I hope 
not The Bathuists felt this appointment of William was a 
sort of ‘ Nunc dimittis , ’ but there is yet something between 
the cup and the lip, for Stanley got up m the House of Com- 
mons and attacked the appointment, and it is just possible 
it may yet be stopped 

Went to Biooks’s m the evening, w here there was nobody 
left but Sefton baiting Feiguson for having been out of the 
division He told me that it was not impossible Lord 
Spencer would be put at the head of Government They 
will manage to make a confounded mess of it, I dare say 
Billy Holmes came to the Duke last night with the news of 
the division, and implored him to let nothing prevent his 
resigning to-day 

November 17 th — Went to Downing Street yesterday 
morning between twelve and one, and found that the Duke 
and all the Ministers were just gone to the King He re- 
ceived them with the greatest kindness, shed tears, but 
accepted their resignation without remonstrance He told 



1830] 


THE KING’S BEHAVIOUR AT THE CRISIS 


63 


Lord Bathurst lie would do anything he could, and asked 
him if there was nothing he could sign which would secure 
his son’s appointment Lord Bathurst thanked him, but 
told him he could do nothing The fact is the appointment 
might be hurried through, but the salary depends upon an 
annual vote of the House of Commons, and an exasperated 
and triumphant Opposition would be sure to knock it off, so 
he has done the only thing he can do, which is to leave it 
to the King to secure the appointment for him, if possible 
It will be a great piece of luck foi some bod} that Buller 
should have died exactly when he did William Bathurst 
may perhaps lose the place from his not dying earhei, or the 
new Government may lose the patronage because he did not 
die later , but it is ill luck for me, who shall probably have 
more trouble because he has died at all 

The Duke and Peel announced their lesignations m the two 
Houses, and Biougham put off his motion, but with a speech 
signifying that he should take no part m the new Govern- 
ment The last acts of the Duke were to secure pensions of 
250Z a yeai to each of his secretaries, and to fill up the ec- 
clesiastical pieferments The Garter remains for his suc- 
cessor The Duke of Bedford got it, and, what is smgulai, 
the Duke of Wellington would probabl} have given it him 
hkewise He was one of five whom he meant to choose from, 
and it lay between him and Lord Cleveland 

I met the Duke coming out of his room, but did not 
like to speak to him , he got into his cabriolet, and nodded 
as he passed, but he looked very grave The King seems to 
have behaved peifectly throughout the whole business, no 
intriguing or underhand communication with anybody, with 
great kindness to his Ministers, anxious to support them 
while it was possible, and submitting at once to the necessity 
of parting with them The fact is he turns out an incom- 
parable King, and deserves all the encomiums that are 
lavished on him. All the mountebankery which signalised 
his conduct when he came to the throne has passed away 
with the excitement which caused it, and he is as dignified 
as the homeliness and simplicity of his character will allow 



64 


REIGX OF "WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XII 


him to be I understand he sent for Lord Spencer m the 
course of the day, who piobably said he could not undertake 
anything, for he aftei wards sent for Lord Giey (after the 
House of Lords) , and as he must have been very well pre- 
pared, it is probable that a new Government will be speedily 
formed 

I went to Lady Jersey’s m the evening, when she was or 
affected to be veiy gay and very glad that the Duke was out 
I found theie the Prince of Orange, Esterhazy, Madame de 
Dmo, Wilton, Worcester, Duncannon, Loid Bosslyn, Ma- 
tuscewitz, &c There has been a stiong idea that the Chan- 
cellor [Lyndhmst] would keep the seals Both Holmes and 
Planta have repeatedly told the Duke that he would be 
beaten in the House of Commons, and they both knew the 
House thoroughly Still he never would do anything He 
made overtures to Palmerston just before Parliament met 
through Lord Clive, and the result was an interview between 
them at Apsley House, but it came to nothing I dare say 
he did not offer half enough It is universally believed that 
Peel pressed the Civil List question for the purpose of being 
beaten upon it, and going out on that rather than onBeform, 
for Planta told him how it would be, and he might very well 
have given the Committee if he had liked it , but he said he 
would abide by it, and he certainly was m excellent spirits 
afterwards foi a beaten Minister How that this Befoim has 
served then purpose so well, and turned out the Duke, the 
Opposition would be well satisfied to put it aside again, and 
take time to consider what they should do, for it is a terrible 
question for them Pledged as they have been, it is sure to 
be the rock on which the little popularity they have gamed 
will split, as it is a hundred to one that whatever they do 
they will not go far enough to satisfy the countiy 

November 19 th — The day before yesterday Lord Grey 
went to the King, who received him with eveiy possible 
kindness, and gave him carte llmche to form a new Adminis- 
tration, placing even the Household at his disposal — much 
to the disgust of the members of it Ever since the town 
has been, as usual, teeming with reports, but with fewer lies 



1830] 


DISCONTENT OF BKOUGHAjM 


65 


than usual The fact is Lord Giey has had no difficulties, 
and has formed a Government at once , only Brougham put 
them all m a dreadful fright He all but declared a hostile 
intention to the future Administration , he boasted that he 
would take nothing, refuse even the Great Seal, and fLouushed 
his Eeform m terrorem over their heads , he was affronted and 
furious because he fancied they neglected him, but it all 
aiose, as I am told, fiom Loid Grey’s lettei to him not 
reaching him directly, by some mistake, for that he was the 
first person he wrote to Still it is pietty clear that this 
eccentric lummaiy will play the devil with then system 
[The letter could not be the cause The history of the 
transaction is this — When Loid Giey undertook to form a 
Government he sent for Loid Lansdowne and Lord Holland, 
and these three began to work, without consulting with 
Brougham or any member of the House of Commons 
Brougham was displeased at not being consulted at fiist, 
but was indignant when Lord Grey proposed to him to 
be Attorney-General Then he showed his teeth, and they 
grew frightened, and soon after they sent Sefton to him, who 
got him into good humour, and it was made up by the offer 
of the Great Seal — November 23rd ] 

November 20 tli — Here I was interrupted, and broke off 
yesterday morning At twelve o’clock > esterday everything 
was settled but the Great Seal, and m the afternoon the 
great news transpired that Biougham had accepted it 
Great was the surprise, greatei still the joy at a chaim 
having been found potent enough to lay the unquiet spmt, a 
bait uch enough to tempt his restless ambition I confess 
I had no idea he would have accepted the Chancellorship 
after his declarations in the House of Commons and the 
whole tenoui of his conduct I was persuaded that he had 
made to himself a political existence the like of which no man 
had ever before possessed, and that to have refused the 
Great Seal would have appealed more glorious than to take 
it , intoxicated with his Yorkshire honours, swollen with his 
own importance, and holding m his hands questions which 
he could employ to thwart, embarrass, and lum any Mi ms- 

VOL II f 



66 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chai XII 


try, I thought that he meant to domineer m the House 
of Commons and to gathei populauty thioughout the 
country by enfoicmg populai measuies of which he would 
have all the ciedit, and thus establish a soit of individual 
power and authonty, which would ensure his being dieaded, 
courted, and consulted by all paities He could then hive 
gratified his vanity, ambition, and tuibulentee , the Bai would 
have supplied fortune, and events would have supplied en- 
joyments suited to his temperament , it would have been a 
sort of madness, mischievous but splendid As it is the 
joy is great and universal, all men feel that he is emascu- 
lated and drops on the Woolsack as on his political death- 
bed , once m the House of Lords, there is an end of him, 
and he may rant, storm, and thunder without hurting any- 
body 1 

The other places piesent a plausible show, but are not 
well distributed? some ill filled Graham Admiralty, Mel- 
bourne Home, Auckland Board of Trade — all bad The 
second is too idle, the first too inconsiderable, the third too 
ignorant 2 They have done it very quickly, however, and 
without many difficulties As to the Duke of Richmond, 


1 [Lord Giey s Administration was thus 
First Lord of the Treasury 
Loid Chancelloi 
Lord Piesident 
Lord Privy Seal 

Chancelloi of the Exchequer 
Home Secretary 
Foreign Secretary 
Colonial Secretaiy 

Chancelloi of Duchy of Lancaster 

Board of Contiol 

Board of Trade 

Admiralty 

Postmaster-General 

Paymaster-Genei al 

Irish Secretary 


composed — 

Earl Giev 
Lord Brougham 
Marquis of Lansdowne 
Earl of Durham, and aftei- 
wards the Earl of Ripon 
Viscount Althorp 
Viscount Melbourne 
Viscount Palmerston 
Viscount Godench, and 
afterwards Mr Stanley 
Lord Holland 
Mr Charles Giant 
Lord Auckland 
Sir James Graham 
Duke of Richmond 
Lord John Russell 
Mr Stanley] 


3 [This is a remarkable instance of the manner m which the prognosti- 
cations of the most acute observers are falsified by events The value of 
Mr Greville’s remarks on the men of his time consists not m their absolute 



1830] 


LORD GREY’S ADMINISTRATION 


67 


people are indignant at a half-pay lieutenant-colonel 
commanding the Ordnance Department, and as an acquisi- 
tion he is of doubtful value, for it seems the Tories will not 
go with him, at least will not considei themselves as his 
followers , so said Lord Mansfield and Vyvyan 

November 21 $t — The Duke of Richmond’s appointment 
was found so unpalatable to the aimy that they have been 
forced to change it, and he is to be Mastei of the Horse 
instead, which I suspect will not be to his taste [He after- 
wards refused the Mastership of the Horse, and it ended m 
his being Postmaster- General, but without taking the salaiy 

There have been some little changes, but no great diffi- 
culties It was at first said that theie would be no Opposi- 
tion, and that Peel would not stir , but William Peel told 
me last night that the old Ministerial party was by no 
means so tranquilly inclined Peel will not be violent or 
factious, but he thinks an attentive Opposition desnable, and 
he will not desert those who have looked up to and sup- 
posed him Then theie will be the Tones (who will to 
a certainty end by joining him and his party) and the 
Radicals — three distinct parties, and enough to keep the 
Government on the qu% vvoe The expulsion of the late 
Government from power will satisfy the vengeance of the 
Tories, and I have no doubt they will now make it up- 
Peel will be the leader of a party to which all the Con- 
servative interest of the country will repan , and it is my 
firm belief that m a very short time (two or three years, or 
less) he will be Prime Minister, and will hold power long 2 
The Duke will piobably nevei take office again, but will be 

truth, but m their sincerity at the moment at which they were made 
although subsequent experience may show them to have been erioneous 
Thus Sir James Graham became unquestionably a veiy able First Lord of 
the Admiralty, Lord Melbourne an excellent Prime Minister of England, 
and Lord Auckland a painstaking and well-mformed Governor-Geneial of 
India] 

1 [I am informed that the Duke of Richmond did eventually consent to 
accept the salary of his office ] 

3 [This prediction was not fulfilled until 1841 (for the short Adminis- 
tration of Sir Robeit m 1834 can hardly be reckoned), but it was fulfilled 
at last ] 



68 


BEIGN OE WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XII 


at the head of the army, and Ins own friends begin to admit 
that this would be the most desirable post for him Lord 
Lyndhurst will be greatly disgusted at Brougham’s taking 
the Great Seal I met him the day before yesterday, when 
he had no idea of it , he thought it would certainly be put 
m Commission, and evidently looked forward to filling the 
office again m a few months He said that he had long 
foreseen this catastrophe, and it was far better to be out 
than to drag on as they did, that he had over and ovei 
again said to the Duke, and remonstrated with him on the 
impossibility of carrying on such a Government, but that he 
would never listen to anythmg Sir John Leach, too, was 
exceedingly disappointed , he told me he had not heard a 
word of what was going on, that he was contented where he 
was, ‘though perhaps he might have been miserable m 
another situation 9 1 

In the meantime the new Government will find plenty 
to occupy their most serious thoughts and employ their best 
talents The state of the country is dreadful , eveiy post 
brings fresh accounts of conflagrations, destruction of 
machinery, association of labourers, and compulsory rise of 
wages Cobbett and Garble write and harangue to in- 
flame the minds of the people, who are already set m motion 
and excited by all the events which have happened abroad 
Distress is certainly not the cause of these commotions, 
for the people have patiently supported far greater privations 
than they had been exposed to before these riots, and the 
country was generally in an improving state 

The Duke of Richmond went down to Sussex and had 
a battle with a mob of 200 labourers, whom he beat with 
fifty of his own farmers and tenants, harangued them, and 

1 [Lord Grey certainly contemplated at one moment the offer of the 
Great Seal to Lord Lyndhurst, but the spectre of Brougham rendered that 
impossible Brougham himself would have preferred the advancement of 
Sir^ John Leach to the Woolsack, which would have left the Bolls at his 
own disposal, and enabled him to retain his seat m the House of Commons 
But this suggestion was by no means welcome to Lord Grey, and Lord 
Althorp at once declared that he could not undertake the leadership of the 
House of Commons if Brougham was to remain u it in any official position 
to domineer over him ] 



1830] 


BROUGHAM LORD CHANCELLOR 


69 


sent them away m good humour He is, howevei, veiy popu- 
lar In Hants the disturbances have been dreadful There 
was an assemblage of 1,000 oi 1,500 men, a pait of whom 
went towaids Baling’s house (the Grange) after destioymg 
threshing-machines and other agricultural implements , they 
were met by Bingham Baling, who attempted to address 
them, when a fellow (who had been employed at a guinea 
a week by his father up to four days before) knocked him 
down with an iron bar and neaily killed him They have 
no tioops m that part of the country, and there is a dep6t 
of arms at Wmchestei 

The Prince of Orange, who has been fancying without the 
least leason that he should be recalled to Belgium, is now 
m despair, and the Provisional Government, on hearing of 
the change of Mimstiy here, have suspended their nego- 
tiations, thinking they shall get fiom Lord Giey a more 
extended frontier Altogether the alaim which prevails is 
very gieat, and those even are tei nfied who nevei were so 
befoie 

November 22 nd — Dined jesteiday at Sefton’s, nobody 
there but Loid Grey and his family, Brougham and Monti ond, 
the latter just come from Pans It was excessively agieeable 
Loid Grey m excellent spmts, and Brougham, whom Sefton 
bantered from the beginning to the end of dmnei 1 Be 
Brougham’s political errois what they may, his gaiety, 
tempei, and admnable social qualities make him delightful, 
to say nothing of his more solid ments, of libeiahty, 
generosity, and chanty, for chanty it is to have taken the 
whole family of one of his brotheis who is dead — nine 
children — and maintained and educated them Piom this 
digression to leturn to our dmnei it was uncommonly 
gay Lord Giey said he had taken a task on himself which 
he was not equal to, pnded himself on having made his 
arrangements so lapidly, and on having named no person to 
any office who was not efficient, he praised Lyndhurst 

1 [Lord Brougham had taken his seat on the Woolsack as Lord High 
Chancellor on the afternoon ot this day, the 22nd of Novembei The patent 
of his peeiage boie the same date ] 



70 


BEIGN OE WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XII 


highly, said he liked him, that his last speech was luminous, 
and that he should like very much to do anything he could 
for him, but that it was such an object to have Brougham 
on the Woolsack So I suppose he would not dislike to take 
m Lyndhurst by-and-by He would not tell us whom he 
has got for the Oidnance John Bussell was to have had 
the Wai Office, but Ta\istock 1 entieated that the appoint- 
ment might be changed, as his biothei’s health was unequal 
to it, so he was made Paymastei Lord Giey said he had 
more trouble with those offices than with the Cabinet ones 
Sefton did nothing but quiz Brougham — ‘My Loid 5 every 
minute, and tf What does his Lordship say 9 * s Pm sure it is 
very condescending of his Lordship to speak to such canmlle 
as all of you, 5 and a thousand jokes Aftei dmnei he walked 
out before him with the file shovel for the mace, and left him 
no repose all the evening I wish Leach could have heaid 
Brougham He thieatened to sit often at the Cockpit, m 
order to check Leach, 2 * * who, though a good judge m his own 
Court, was good foi nothing m a Court of Appeal , he said 
that Leach’s being Chancellor was impossible, as theie were 
forty-two appeals fiom him to the Chancellor, which he 
would have had to decide lnmself, and that he (Brougham) 
had wanted the Seal to be put m Commission with three 
judges, which would have been the best reform of the Couit, 
expedited business, and satisfied suitors, but that Loid 
Grey would not heai of it, and had foiced him to take it, 
which he was averse to do, being reluctant to leave the 
House of Commons 

He said the Duke of Bichmond had done admirably in 
capturing the incendiary who has been taken, and who they 

1 [The Maiqius of Tavistock, Lord John Bussells eldest brothei, after- 
wards Duke of Bedford Loid John has since held almost every Cabinet 
office his brother’s notion that his health was unequal to the War Office 
m 1830 is amusing ] 

2 [The Master of the Bolls was at that time the presiding Judge of 

Appeal at the Privy Council, which was commonly spoken of as £ the Cockpit/ 
because it sat on the site of the old Cockpit at Whitehall , but the business 
was very ill done, which led Loid Brougham to bring m and cairy his Act 

for the creation of the Judicial Committee m 1832 — one of liis best and most 

successful measuies ] 



1830] 


COUNCIL OP THE NEW MINISTERS 


71 


think will afford a clue whereby they will discover the secret 
of all the burnings This man called himself Evans They 
had information of his exciting the peasantry, and sent a 
Bow Street officer after him He found out where he lived 
and captured him (having been mfoimed that he was not 
there by the inmates of the house), and took him to the Duke, 
who had him searched On his person were found stock 
receipts foi 80 01 of which 50 1 was left , and a chemical 
receipt m a secret pocket for combustibles He was taken 
to prison, and will be brought up to town Monti ond was 
very amusing — You Loid Brougham, when you mount your 
bag of wool** 5 

November 28 rd — Yesteiday at Court, a great day, and 
very amusing The old Ministers came to give up their seals, 
and the new Mimsteis came to take them All the first were 
assembled at half-past one , saw the King m his closet seve- 
rally, and held then last Council to sweai m Geoige Dawson 
a Privy Councillor Each aftei his audience depaited, most 
of them never to letum As they went away they met the 
otheis amvmg I was with the old set m the Tin one Eoom 
till they went away, and on opening the dooi and looking 
into the othei loom I found it lull of the others — Althoip, 
Graham, Auckland, J Russell, Duiham, &c , faces that a 
little while ago I should have had small expectation of finding 
theie The effect was very droll, such a complete chang ement 
de decor ahon When the old Ministers were all off the busi- 
ness of the day began All the Cabinet was theie — the new 
Master of the Hoise (Lord Albemarle), Lord Wellesley, his 
little eyes twinkling with joy, and Brougham, m Chancellor's 
costume, but not yet a Peer The King sent for me into the 

closet to settle about then being sworn m, and to ask what 
was to be done about Brougham, whose patent was not come, 
and who wanted to go to the House of Lords These things 
settled, he held the Council, when twelve new Privy Council- 
lors were sworn m, three Secretaries of State, Privy Seal, and 
the declarations made of Piesident of Council and Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland The King could not let slip the op- 
portunity of making a speech, so when I put into his hands 



72 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Ciiap XII 


thepapei declanng Loid Anglesey Lord -Lieutenant he was not 
content to read it, but spoke nearly as follows — ‘ My Lords, 
it is a pait of the duty I have to peifonn to declare a Loid- 
Lieutenant of Ireland, and although I certainly should have 
acquiesced in any recommendation which might have been 
made to me for this appointment by Eail Grey, I must say 
that I have pecuhai satisfaction m entrusting that most 
important chaige to the noble Loid, whom I theiefore 
deelaie with entue satisfaction Loid-Lieutenant of Iieland 
And, my Loids, I must say that this day is since that of the 
death of my pooi biothei (here his voice falteied and he 
looked 01 tued to look affected) the most important which 
has occurred since the beginning of my reign, foi m the 
course of my long life it has nevei happened to me to see so 
many appointments to be filled up as on this day , and when 
I considei that it is only last Tuesday night that the force of 
circumstances compelled those who were the confidential 
advisers of the Ciown to relinquish the situations which they 
held, and that m this shoit space of time a new Government 
has been foimed, I cannot help considering such despatch as 
holding forth the best hopes for the future, and piovmg the 
unanimity of my Government , and, my Lords, I will take 
this opportunity of saying that the noble Eail (Giey) and 
the othei noble Loids and gentlemen may be assured that 
they will leceive fiom me the most cordial, unceasing, and 
devoted support 3 The expiessions of couise are not exactly 
the same, but his speech was to this purpose, only longer 
Brougham kissed hands m the closet, and afterwards in 
Council as Chancelloi and Pi ivy Councillor, and then went 
off to the House of Lords 



73 


CHAPTER XIII 

A Proclamation against Rioteis — Appointments — Duke of Wellington m 
Hampslnre — General Excitement — I lie Toiy Party — State of Ireland — 
Moie Disturbances — Loid Giey’s Colleagues — Election at Liverpool — 
The Black Book — The Duke of Wellington’s Position and Chaiactei — 
A Council on a Capital Sentence — Biougham in the House of Lords — 
The Cleiks of the Council— Loid Grey and Loid Lyndhuist — The 
Chancellor of Ireland — Lord Melbourne — Duke of Kichmond — Sn James 
Giaham — Lyndhuist Loid Chief Bai on— Judge Allan Paik — Loid 
Lyndhurst and the Whigs — Duke of Wellington and Polignac — The 
TTmg and his Sons — Polish Revolution— Mechanics’ Institute — Repeal 
of the Union— King Louis Philippe — Lord Anglesey and O’Connell— A 
Dinner at the Athenaeum — Canning and Geoige IV — Formation of 
Canning’s Government — Negotiation with Lord Melbourne— Count 
Walewski— Crokei s ‘ Boswell’ — State oflieland — Biougham and Sugden 
— Arrest of O’Connell — Colonel Nipiei and the Tiades Unions — Ihe 
Civil List — Hunt m the House of Commons — Southey’s Letter to 
Biougham on Liteiary Honouis — The Budget— O’Connell pleads guilty 
— Achille Murat — Weakness of the Government — Lady Jeisey and Lord 
Durham — Loi d Duncannon — Ii eland — W ordswoi tli 

November 25 th — The accounts from the country on the 
23rd were so bad that a Cabinet sat all the morning, and con- 
ceited a proclamation offering laige rewards foi the discovery 
of offendeis, noteis, oi burneis Half the Cabinet walked to 
St James’s, where I went with the diaft proclamation m 
my pocket, and we held a Council m the King’s room to 
approve it I lemember the last Council of this soitwe held 
was on Queen Caroline’s business She had demanded to be 
heard by counsel m support of her asserted light to be 
crowned, and the King ordered m Council that she should be 
heard We held the Council m his dressing-room at Carlton 
House , he was m his bedgown, and we m our boots This 
proclamation did not receive the sign manual or the Great 



74 .REIGN OF WILLIAM IV [Chap XIII 

Seal, and was not engrossed till the next day, but was never- 
theless published m the ‘ Gazette 5 

Yesteiday the accounts were bettei There was a levee 
and Council, all the Mimsteis present but Palmerston and 
TTnllanrl The King made a discourse, and took occasion 
(about some Admiralty ordei) to mtioduce the whole history 
of his eaily naval life, his first going to sea and the mstruc- 
tions which Geoige III gave Admiral Digby as to lus treat- 
ment All the old Ministers came to the levee except the 
Duke of Wellington, who was m Hampshue to try his influence 
as Loid-Lieutenant in putting down the nots Anson as 
Master of the Buekhounds was made a Pnvy Councillor, not 
usually a Privy Councillors place, but the King said he 
lather liked increasing the number than not Clanricarde 
has a Gold Stick, so there is Canning’s son-in-law in office 
under Lord Grey 1 There has been a difficulty about the 
Master-Geneial of the Ordnance, and a little difference 
between Lord Grey and Loid Hill when the Duke of Rich- 
mond was withdrawn, Giey determined to appoint Sir W 
Gordon, but as Goidon would have to give up a peimanent 
for a temporary office, he bai gamed that he should have the 
Giand Cross of the Bath Lord Grey at the same time 
piomised his brother Su Charles Grey a Giand Cross, 
but Lord Hill (who as Commandei m-Chief has all the 
Ciosses at his disposal) was offended at what he considered a 
slight to him and went to the King to complain It is 
piobable that Loid Grey knew nothing of the matter, and 
fancied they were all recommended by himself As the 
' mattei stands now, Gordon’s appointment is suspended 
The only other difficulty is to find a Secretary at War 
Sandon is to have it, if they can make no better arrange- 
ment I had a long conversation with the Duke of Rich- 
mond yesterday about lefusmg the salary of his office, and 
entreated him to take it, foi most people think his declining 
it great nonsense He alleged a great many bad reasons for 
declining, but promised to consider the matter 

I am in a very disagreeable situation as regards my late 
colleague’s place Lord Bathurst wrote a lettei to Lord 



1880] DISTURBED STATE OF THE COUNTRi 75 

Lansdowne stating that the King had approved of his son’s 
appointment, and that he had intended to reduce the salarj 
of the office Loid Grey spoke to the King, and said that 
after what had passed in both Houses he did not wish to do 
anything, but to leave the office to be dealt with by a Com- 
mittee of the House of Commons, under whose consideration 
it would eome Lord Lansdowne said he certainly should do 
nothing either, so that it remains to be seen whether they 
will give me a colleague, a deputy, or nothing at all 

November 28 th — The Duke of Wellington, who as soon 
as he was out of office repaned to Hants, and exerted himself 
as Lord-Lieutenant to suppiess the disorders, returned yes- 
terday, having done much good, and communicated largely 
with the Secretary of State The Government are full of 
compliments and respects to him, and the Chancellor wiote 
him a lettei entieating he would name any gentleman to be 
added to the Special Commission which was going down to 
the county over which he £ so happilj presided ’ He named 
three 

There has been nothing new within these thiee days, but 
the alarm is still veiy great, and the geneial agitation which 
pervades men’s minds unlike what I have evei seen Reform, 
economy, echoed baekwaids and foi wards, the doubts, the 
hopes, and the fears of those who have anything to lose, the 
uncertainty of everybody’s future condition, the immense 
interests at stake, the magnitude and imminence of the 
dangei, all contribute to produce a neivous excitement, which 
extends to all classes — to almost eveiy individual Until the 
Ministers are re-elected nobody can tell what will be done in 
Parliament, and Lord Grey himself has no idea what sort of 
strength the Government will have m either House , but there 
is a prevailing opinion that they ought to be supported at 
this moment, although the Duke of Wellington and Peel 
mean to keep their party together Lyndhurst’s resignation 
with his colleagues (added to his not being invited to join 
this Government) has restored him to the good giaces of his 
party, for Lord Bathurst told me he had behaved very 
honourably He means now to set to work to gam character. 



76 


EEIGrJT 01- WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIII 


and as he is about the ablest public man going, and nearby 
the best speakei, he will jet bustle himself into considera- 
tion and play a pait once moie Peel, Lyndhurst, and Har- 
dmge are thr ee capital men foi the foundation of a party — 
as men of busmess supenoi to any three m this Cabinet But 
I doubt if the Duke will ever be m a civil office again, nor do 
I think the country would like to see him at the head of a 
Government, unless it was one conducted m a very diffeient 
manner from the last For the present deplorable state of 
things, and foi the effeivescence of public opinion, which 
thieatens the overthrow of the constitution m trying to 
amend it, Peel and the Duke aie entirely responsible, and 
the former is the less excusable because he might have 
known better, and if he had gone long ago to the Duke, and 
laid befoie him the state of public opinion, told him how irre- 
sistible it was, and had refused to cany on the Government 
m the House of Commons with such a eiew as he had, 
the Duke must have given way Notwithstanding the gieat 
measuies which have distinguished his Government, such as 
Catholic Emancipation, and the lepeal of the Test Acts, a 
continual series of systematic blunders, and utter ignorance of, 
and indifference to, public opinion, have lendeied the first 
of these great measuies almost useless Ii eland is on the 
point of becoming m a worse state than before the Catholic 
question was settled , and why ? Because, first of all, the set- 
tlement was put off too long, and the fever of agitation would 
not subside, and because it was accompanied by an insult to 
O’Connell, which he has been resolved to revenge, and which 
he knows he can punish. Then instead of depriving him of 
half his influence by paymg the priests, and so getting them 
under the influence of Government, they neglected this, and 
followed up the omission by taxing Ireland, and thus uniting 
the whole nation against us What is this but egiegious 
presumption, blindness, ignorance, and want of all political 
calculation and foresight 9 What remains now to be done 9 
Perhaps nothing, for the anti-Union question is spreading far 
and wide with a velocity that is irresistible, and it is the 
more dangerous because the desire for the lepeal of the Union 



1330 ] THE RESULTS OE TORY GOVERNMENT 77 

is rathei the offspring of imagination than of reason, and 
arises fiom vague, excited hopes, not, like the foimer agitation, 
from real wrongs, long and deeply felt But common shifts 
and expedients, partial measures, will not do now, and m the 
state of the game a deep stake must be played or all will 
be lost To buy O’Connell at any price, pay the Catholic 
Church, establish poor laws, encourage emigration, and 
repeal the obnoxious taxes and obnoxious laws, are the only 
expedients which have a chance of restoring order It is 
easy to write these things, but perhaps difficult to carry them 
into execution, but what we want is a head to conceive and a 
heart to execute such measures as the enormous difficulties of 
the times demand 

December 1st — The last two 01 three days have produced 
no remarkable outrages, and though the state of the country 
is still dreadful, it is rather better on the whole than it was , 
but London is like the capital of a country desolated by ciuel 
war or foieign invasion, and we aie always looking for 
reports of battles, burnings, and other disorders Wheievei 
theie has been anything like fighting, the mob has alwajs 
been beaten, and has shown the greatest cowardice They 
do not, however, seem to have been actuated by a very fero- 
cious spmt, and considering the disorders of* the times, it 
is lemarkable that they have not been more violent and 
rapacious Lord Craven, who is just of age, with three or four 
more young Lords, his friends, defeated and dispersed them m 
Hampshire They broke into the Duke of Beaufort’s house 
at Heythrop, but he and his sons got them out without 
mischief, and afterwards took some of them On Monday 
as the field which had been out with the King’s hounds were 
returning to town, they were summoned to assist m quell- 
ing a not at Woburn, which they did, the gentlemen 
charged and broke the people, and took some of them, and 
fortunately some troops came up to secure the prisoners 
The alarm, however* still continues, and a feverish anxiety 
about the future universally prevails, for no man can foresee 
what course events will take, nor how his own individual cir- 
cumstances may be affected by them 



78 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chip XIII 


The Government in the meantime pi onuses fail, and they 
hegm by a display of activity, m eaily attendance at then 
offices, and nnnsual recommendation of diligence and 
economy But Loid Giey’s Government is aheadv caiped 
at, and not without appaient reason The distribution of 
offices is in many instances bad , many of the appointments 
were bad, and the nurnbei of his own family piovided for is 
sevei ely criticised Thei o are of Lord Gi ey ’s family Howick, 
TJndei-Secretaiy , Ellice, Secretary of the Treasury, Bai- 
nngton, Lord of the Adnmalty , Durham, Pi ivy Seal , Wood, 
Private Seeietary (though he has no salary) , and Lambton’s 
brother m the Household Melbourne at the Home Office is 
considered an inefficient successor to Peel, Graham too young 
and not enough distinguished for the Admiralty , Poulett 
Thomson is said to entertain the most Radical opinions , 
Althorp put him m There never was a moie sudden rise 
than this , a young merchant, after two 01 three yeais of 
Parliament and two or three speeches, is made Vice-Piesident 
of the Boaid of Trade, Tieasurer of the Navy, and a Privy 
Councillor Then Althorp as Chancelloi of the Exchequei 
may be a good one, but nobody expects much from anything 
that is already known about him This constitution of the 
Government lias already done harm, and has stamped a 
eharactoi of rapacity upon Lord Grey, which he will hear of 
m proper time , but at this moment he has got all the pi ess 
on his side, and people are resolved to give him eiedit foi 
good intentions Brougham has captivated the Archbishop 
of Canterbury by offering to give livings to any deserving 
clergymen he would recommend to him I met him at 
dinner yesteiday in the greatest spirits, elated and not 
altered by his new dignity He is full of projects of refoim 
m the administration of justice, and talks of remodelling 
the Pnvy Council as a Court of Appeal, which would be of 
great use 

December 2 nd . — Yesterday a levee and Council and Re- 
corder’s report Clanricarde and Robert Grosvenor 1 sworn in 

The Liverpool election, which is just over, was, consi- 
1 [Afterwards Lord Ebury ] 



1830J 


LIVERPOOL ELECTION 


79 


dering tlie present state of things, a remarkable contest It 
is said to have cost near 100,000? to the two paities, and to 
have exhibited a scene of bnbeiy and corruption perfectly 
unparalleled , no concealment 01 even semblance of decency 
was observed, the price of tallies and of votes rose, like 
stock, as the demand increased, and single votes fetched fiom 
15? to 100? apiece They voted by tallies , as each tally 
voted for one or the other candidate they were furnished 
with a receipt for their votes, with which they went to the 
committee, when thiough a hole m the wall the receipt was 
handed m, and through another the stipulated sum handed 
out , and this scene of iniquity has been exhibited at a period 
when the cry for Reform is echoed from one end of the 
country to the other, and in the case of a man (Denison) 
who stood on the principle of Reform Nobody yet knows 
whence the money for Denison comes (the Ewarts aie enor- 
mously rich), but it will be still more remarkable if he should 
pay it himself, when he is poor, careful of money, and was 
going to India the other day m order to save 12,000? oi 
15,000? If anybody had gone down at the eleventh hour 
and polled one good vote, he would have beaten both candi- 
dates and disfranchised the borough As it is, it is probable 
the matter will be taken up and the borough disfranchised 
The right of voting is as bad as possible m the freemen, who 
are the lowest rabble of the town and, as it appears, a paicel 
of venal wretches Here comes the difficulty of Reform, for 
how is it possible to reform the electors 9 

December 5th — The country is getting quieter, but though 
the immediate panic is passing away, men’s minds are not 
the less disquieted as to our future prospects Not a soul 
knows what plan of Reform the Ministers will propose, noi 
how far they are disposed to go The Duke of Devonshne 
has begun m his own person by announcing to the Enares- 
borough people that he will never again interfere with that 
borough Then the Black Book, as it is called, m which all 
places and pensions are exhibited, has struck terror into all 
who are named and virtuous indignation into all who are 
not Nothing can be more mal a promos than the appear- 



80 


REIGN OR WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIII 


anee of this booh at such a season, when theie is such dis- 
content about our institutions and such unceasing endea- 
vours to b nn g them into contempt The lnstoiy of the book 
is this — Giaham moved last } ear foi a leturn of all Privy 
Councillors who had moie than 1,000£ a yeai, and Goulburn 
chose to give him a letum of all persons who had more than 
1,000 1 a year, because he thought the former return would 
be invidious to Pi ivy Councillors , so he caused that to be 
published, which will remove no obloquy fiom those he meant 
to save, but diaw down a gieat deal on hundreds of others, 
and on the Government under which such things exist I 
speak feelingly, for ‘ quoium pars magna sum ’ 

The Duke of Wellington gave a great dinner yesteiday 
to all the people who had gone out of office (about fifty), so 
that it is cleai they mean to keep together Whether he 
looks forwaid to be Prime Minister again it is impossible to 
say, but his real friends would prefer his taking the command 
of the aimy, whatever his fools and flatteiers may do Lord 
Lyndhurst, who loses everything by the fall of the late 
Government, cannot get over it, paiticularly as he feels that 
the Duke’s obstinacy brought it about, and that by timely 
concessions and good management he might have had Loid 
Grey, Palmerston, and all that are worth having Peel, on 
the contraiy, is delighted , he wants leisure, is glad to get 
out of such a firm, and will have time to form his own plans 
and avail himself of cucumstances, which, accordmg to every 
probability, must turn out m his favour His youth (for a 
public man), experience, and leal capacity for busmess will 
inevitably make him Munster hereafter The Duke of 
Wellington’s fall, 1 if the causes of it are dispassionately 
traced and considered, affords a great political lesson His 

1 [The following passage will no doubt be read with surprise, for in 
later years Mr Greville became and remained one of the Duke’s most 
steady admirers, and as he has himself stated in the memorandum written 
nineteen years afterwards, which is inserted at the end of it, the opinion 
he entertained of him at this time was unjust But he at the same time 
■decided 1 to leave it as it is, because it is of the essence of these Memoirs not 
to soften or tone down ludgments by the light of altered convictions, but 
toleaae them standing as contemporary evidence of what was thought at 
the time they were written ’ These aie his own words ] 



1830] 


POLITICAL CHAB1CTER OP WELLINGTON 


81 


is one of those mixed characteis which it is difficult to praise 
or blame without the risk of doing them more or less than 
justice He has talents which the event has proved to be 
sufficient to make him the second (and, now that Napoleon 
is gone, the first) general of the age, but which could not 
make him a tolerable Minister Confident, presumptuous, 
and dictatorial, but frank, open, and good-humoured, he 
contrived to rule m the Cabinet without moitifymg his 
colleagues, and he has brought it to rum without forfeiting 
their regaid Choosing with a veiy slender stock of know- 
ledge to take upon himself the sole direction of every depart- 
ment of Government, he completely sank under the buiden 
Originally imbued with the pimciples of Loid Castlereagh 
and the Holy Alliance, he brought all those predilections 
with him into office Incapable of foreseeing the mighty 
events with which the futuie was big, and of compieliending 
the prodigious alterations which the moral character of 
Bui ope had undergone, he pitted himself against Canning m 
the Cabinet, and stood up as the assertoi of maxims both of 
foreign and domestic policy which that great statesman saw 
were no longer fitted for the times we live m With a 
flexibility which was more lemarkably exhibited at subse- 
quent pefiods, when he found that the cause he advocated 
was lost, the Duke turned suddenly lound, and surrendered 
his opinions at discretion , but m his heart he never forgave 
Mr Canning, and from that time jealousy of him had a 
material influence on his political conduct, and was the 
primary motive of many of his subsequent resolutions This 
flexibility has been the cause of great benefits to the countiy, 
but ultimately of his own downfall, for it has always pro- 
ceeded from the pressure of circumstances and considerations 
of convenience to himself, and not from a rational adaptation 
of his opinions and conduct to the necessities and variations 
of the times He has not been thoroughly true to any prin- 
ciple or any party , he contrived to disgust and alienate his 
old friends and adherents without conciliating or attaching 
those whose measures he at the eleventh hour undertook to 
carry into execution Through the whole course of his 
vol n a 



82 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIII 


political conduct selfish considerations have never been out 
of sight His opposition to Canning’s Corn Bill was too 
gross to admit of excuse It was the old spite bursting forth, 
sharpened by Canning’s behavioui to, linn in foi ming his 
Administiation, which, if it was not contumelious, certainly 
was not courteous When at his death the Duke assum ed 
the Government, his disclaiming speech was thrown m his 
teeth, but without much justice, foi such expressions are 
nevei to be taken liteially, and m the subsequent quarrel 
with Huskisson, though it is probably tine that he was 
aiming at domination, he was peisuaded that Huskisson and 
his paity were endeavounng to form a cabal m the Cabinet, 
and his expulsion of them is not, theiefore, altogether without 
excuse On the question of the Test Act it was evident he 
was guided by no principle, probably by no opinion, and that 
he only thought of turning it as best he might to his own 
advantage Thioughout the Catholic question self was 
always appaient, not that he was caieless of the safety, or 
indifferent to the prospenty of the country, but that he cared 
as much for his own credit and powei, and never considered 
the first except m their connection with the second The 
business of Emancipation he certainly conducted with con- 
siderable judgment, boldly tiustmg to the baseness of many 
of his old friends, and showing that he had not mistak e n 
their characters , exercising that habitual mfluenee he had ac- 
quired over the mind of the King , preserving impenetrable 
secresy, using without scruple every artifice that could 
forward his object, and contriving to make tools or dupes of 
all his colleagues and adherents, and getting the whole merit 
to himself From the passing of the Catholic question his 
conduct has exhibited a series of blunders which have at 
length terminated in his fall The position in which he then 
stood was this — He had a Government composed of men 
who were for the most pait incompetent, but peifectly sub- 
servient to him He had a considerable body of adheients 
m both Houses The Whigs, whose suppoit (enthusiastically 
given) had earned him triumphantly through the great con- 
test, were willing to unite with him , the Tories, exasperated 



1830] POLITICAL CHAKA'JTEE OF WELLINGTON 83 

and indignant, feeling insulted and betrayed, vowed nothing 
but vengeance Intoxicated with his victory, he was resolved 
to neglect the Whigs, to whom he was so much indebted, 
and to regain the affections of the Tories, whom he con- 
sidered as his natural supporters, and whom he thought 
identity of opinion and interest would bung back to his 
standard By all sorts of slights and affronting insinuations 
that they wanted place, but that he could do without them, 
he offended the Whigs, but none of his cajolenes and ad- 
vances had the least effect on the sulky Tories It was m 
vain that he endeavoured to adapt his foreign policy to their 
worst prejudices by opposing with undeviating hostility that 
of Mr Canning (the great object of their detestation), and 
disseminating throughout all Europe the belief of his attach- 
ment to ultra-monarchical principles He opposed the spmt 
of the age, he bi ought England into contempt, but he did 
not conciliate the Tories Having succeeded m uniting two 
powerful parties (acting separately) m opposition to his 
Government, and having nobody but Peel to defend his 
measuies m the House of Commons, and nobody m the 
House of Lords, he manifested his sense of his own weakness 
by overtures and negotiations, and evinced his obstinate 
tenacity of power by never offeung teims which could be 
accepted, or extendmg his invitations to those whose authority 
he thought might cope with his own With his Government 
falling every day m public opinion, and his enemies gi owing 
more numerous and confident, with questions of vast import- 
ance using up with a vigour and celerity of growth which 
astonished the world, he met a new Parliament (constituted 
more unfavourably than the last, which he had found himself 
unable to manage) without any support but m his own con- 
fidence and the encouraging adulation of a little knot of 
devotees There still lingered round him some of that 
popularity which had once been so great, and which the re- 
collection of his victories would not suffer to be altogether 
extinguished By a judicious accommodation of his conduct 
to that public opinion which was running with an uncon- 
trollable tide, by a fiank invitation to all who were well dis- 



84 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIII 


posed io strengthen Ins Government, lie might have raised 
those embers of populanty into a flame once more, have saved 
himself, and still done good service to the State , but it was 
decieed that he should fall He appealed beieft of all judg- 
ment and discretion, and after a King’s Speech which gave 
gieat, and I think unnecessary offence, he delivered the 
famous philippic against Kefoim which sealed his fate 
From that moment it was not doubtful, and he was hurled 
from the seat of powei amidst univeisal acclamations 

[Memorandum added by Mr Ghreville m Apil 1850 ] 

KB — I leave this as it is, though it is unjust to the 
Duke of Wellington , but such as my impressions were at 
the time they shall remain, to be corrected afterwards when 
necessary It would be veiy wrong to impute selfishness to 
him m the ordinary sense of the term He coveted power, 
but he was perfectly disinterested, a great patnot if ever 
there was one, and he was always animated by a strong and 
abiding sense of duty I have done him justice m other 
places, and theie is aftei all a great deal of truth m what I 
have said here 

December 12 th — Foi the last few days the accounts from 
the countiy have been better, there aie disturbances m 
different paits, and alaims given, but the mischief seems to 
be subsiding The burnings go on, and though they say 
that one or two incendiaries have been taken up, nothing 
has yet been discovered likely to lead to the detection of the 
system I was at Couit on Wednesday, when Kemp and 
Foley weie sworn m, the first for the Ordnance, the other 
Gold Stick (the pensioneis) He refused it for a long time, 
but at last submitted to what he thought infra dig , because 
it was to be sugared with the Lieutenancy of Worcestei shire 
There was an Admiralty leport, 1 at which the Chief Justice 
was not present The Chancellor and the Judge (Sir C 
Robinson) were there for the first time, and not a soul knew 
what was the form oi what ought to be done, they did, 

1 [The High Couit of Admiralty had still a criminal jurisdiction, and 
the capital cases were submitted to the King m Council for approval ] 



1830] A 1ST ESCAPE FROM THE GALLOWS 85 

however, just as m the "Recorder’s leports Brougham leans 
to mercy, I see But what a curious sort of supplementary 
trial this is , how many accidents may deteimme the life or 
death of the culprit ? In one case m this report which they 
were discussing (before the Council) Brougham had for- 
gotten that the man was recommended to mercy, but he told 
me that at the last Eecorder’s report there was a great 
difference of opinion on one (a forgery case), when Tenterden 
was for hanging the man and he for saving him , that he 
had it put to the vote, and the man was saved Little did 
the criminal know when theie was a change of Ministry that 
he owed his life to it, for if Lyndhurst had been Chancellor 
he would most assuiedly have been hanged , not that 
Lyndhurst was particularly severe or cruel, but he would 
have concurred with the Chief Justice and have regarded 
the case solely m a judicial point of view, wheieas the mind 
of the other was probably biassed by some theory about the 
cr im e of forgery or by some fancy of his strange brain 

This was a curious case, as I have since heard The man 
owes his life to the curiosity of a woman of fashion, and 
then to another feeling Lady Burghersh and Lady Glen- 
gall wanted to hear St John Long’s trial (the quack who 
had ma^-slaughtered Miss Cashir), and they went to the 
Old Bailey for that purpose Castlereagh and somebody 
else, who of course were not up m time, weie to have at- 
tended them They wanted an escort, and the only man m 
London sure to be out of bed so early was the Master of the 
Eolls, so they went and carried him off When they got to 
the court there was no St John Long, but they thought 
they might as well stay and heai whatever was going on 
It chanced that a man was tried for an atrocious case of 
foigery and breach of crust He was found guilty and 
sentence passed, but he was twenty- three and good-looking 
Lady Burghersh could not bear he should be hanged, and 
.she went to all the late Ministers and the Judges to beg 
him off Leach told her it was no use, that nothing could 
save that man , and accordingly the old Government were 
•obdurate, when out they went Off she went again and 
attacked all the new ones, who m better humour, or of softer 



86 


KFIGrN OF WILLI 1M IV 


[Chap XIII 


natures, suffered themselves to be persuaded, and the wieteh 
was saved She went herself to Newgate to see him, but I 
nevei heaid if she had a pnvate interview, and if he was 
afforded an opportunity of expiessmg his gratitude with 
all the fervour that the seivice she had done him demanded 1 

In the meantime the Government is going on what is 
called well — that is, theie is a great disposition to give them 
a lair trial All they have done and promise to do about 
economy gives satisfaction, and Refoim (the awful question) 
is still at a distance There has been, however, some sharp 
skirmishing m the course of the week, and there is no want 
of bitterness and watchfulness on the part of the old Govern- 
ment In the Committee which has been named to enquire 
into the salaries of the Parliamentary offices they mean to 
leave the question m the hands of the country gentlemen , 
but they do not think any great reductions will be practi- 
cable, and as Baring is chairman it is not probable that much 
will be done They think Biougham speaks too often m the 
House of Loids, but he has done very well theie, and on 
Friday he made a reply to Loid Stanhope, which was the 
most beautiful piece of sarcasm and complete cuttmg-up 
(though with very good humour) that ever was lieaid, and 
xn exhibition to the like of which the Loids have not been 
accustomed The Dube of Wellington made another im- 
prudent speech, m which (in answei to Lord Radnor, who 
attributed the state of the country to the late Government) 
he said that it was attributable to the events of July and 
Augustin other countries, and spoke of themm a way which 
showed clearly his real opinion and feelings on the subject 

After some delay Lord Lansdowne made up his mind to 
fill up the vacancy m mj office, and to give it to William 
Bathurst , but he first spoke to the King, who said it was 

1 [Tins passage has been denounced by a well-known critic as £ a coarse 
insinuation and a nbald sneer 5 agamst a lady who is justly entitled to the 
highest respect The coarseness and the ubaldry are in the minds of those 
who could put on these words a constiuction they weie nevei intended to 
bear It is absurd to suppose that they convey the faintest imputation on 
Lady Westmoreland’s motives She had been interested by this unfortunate 
young man , she succeeded in saving his life and probably never saw him 
again, but the anecdote does the greatest honour to her humanity and good 
feelings ] 



1830] 


THE CLERKS OE THE COUNCIL 


87 


very true lie liad told Lord Bathuist that his son should 
have it, but that he now left the niattei entirely to his 
decision, showing no anxiety to have William Bathuist 
appointed However, he has it, but reduced to l,20OZ a 
year I was agreeably surprised yesterday by a communi- 
cation from Lord Lansdowne that he thought no alteiation 
could be made m my emoluments, and that he was quite pre- 
pared to defend them if anybody attacked them Still, 
though it is a very good thing to be so supported, I don’t 
consider myself safe from Parliam entaiy assaults In. these 
times it will not do to be idle, and I told Lord Lansdowne 
that I was anxious to keep my emoluments, but ready to 
work for them, and pioposed that we Clerks of the Council 
should be called upon to act really at the Boaid of Tiade, as 
we aie, m fact, bound to do, by which means Lack’s place 
when vacant need not be filled up, and a saving would be 
made My piedecessois Cottiell and Pawkener always acted^ 
their successors Buller and Chetwyndweie incompetent, and 
Lack, the Chancellor’s Clerk, was made Assistant-Secietary, 
and did the work Huskisson and Hume, his director, made 
the business a science , new Piesidents and Vice-Pi esidents 
succeeded one another in different Ministenal revolutions, 
they and Lack were incompetent, and Hume was made 
Assistant-Secretary, and it is he who advises, directs, 
legislates I believe he is one of the ablest practical men 
who have evei served, more like an Amencan statesman than 
an English official I am anxious to begin my Trade educa- 
tion under him 

Parliament is going to adjourn dnectly for thiee or four 
weeks, to give the Mmisteis time to make their arrangements 
and get rid of the load of business which besets them, 
although there is eveiy disposition to give them credit for 
good intentions, and to let them have a fan trial, there aie 
not wanting causes of discontent m many quarters 

All the Bussells are dissatisfied that Lord John has not a 
seat m the Cabinet, and that Grabam should be pieferred to 
him, and the more so because they know 01 believe that his 
preference is owing to Lambton, who does what he likes with 
Lord Grey My mmd has always misgiven me about Lord 



88 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIII 


Grey, and what I have lately heaid of him satisfies me that 
a more ovei rated man never lived, 01 one whose speaking 
was so fai above his general abilities, 01 who owed so much 
to his oiatoncal plausibility His tall, commanding, and 
dignified appearance his flow of language, gi aceful action, 
well rounded periods, and an exhibition of classical taste 
united with legal knowledge, render him the most finished 
oiator of his day, but Ins conduct has shown him to be 
influenced bj pride, still more by vanity, personal antipathies, 
caprice, indecision, and a thousand weaknesses generated by 
these passions and defects Anybody who is constantly with 
him and who can avail themselves of his vanity can govern 
him There was a time when Sn Eobert Wilson was his 
‘magnus Apollo ’ (and Codnngton), till they quarrelled 
How Lambton is all m all with him Lambton dislikes the 
Eussells, and hence Lord John’s exclusion and the preference 
of Graham Everybody remembers how Lord Grey refused 
to lead the Whig paity when Canning foimed his junction 
with the Whigs, and declared that he abdicated m favour 
of Lord Lansdowne, and then how he came and made 
that violent speech against Canning which half killed him 
with vexation, and m consequence of which he meant to 
have moved into the House of Loids for the express pur- 
pose of attacking Loid Grey Then when he had quanelled 
with his old Whig fnends he began to approach the Tories, 
the object of his constant aversion and contempt, and 
we knew what civilities passed between the Bathursts and 
him, and what political coquetries between him and the 
Duke of Wellington, and how he believed that it was only 
George IV who prevented his being invited by the Duke to 
join him Then George IV dies, King William succeeds, 
no invitation to Lord Grey, and he plunges into furious 
opposition to the Duke 

About three years ago the Chancellor, Lyndhurst, was the 
man m the world he ablxoried the most, and it was about 
this time that I well recollect one night at Madame de 
Lieven’s I introduced Lord Grey to Lady Lyndhurst We 
had dined together somewhere, and he had been praismg her 



1830 ] LORD GREY AND LORD LYNDHURST 89 

beauty, so when we all met theie I presented lnm, and 
very soon all his antipathies ceased and he and Lyndhuist 
became great friends This was the cause of Lady Ljnd- 
hurst’s partiality for the Whigs, which enraged the Tory 
ladies and some of then lords so much, but which seived 
her turn and enabled hei to keep two hot irons m the fire 
When the Duke went out Loid Grey was very anxious to 
keep Lyndhurst as his Chancellor, and would have done so 
if it had not been for Brougham, who, whirling Reform m 
terrorem over his head, announced to him that it must not 
be Reluctantly enough Grey was obliged to give way, for 
he saw that with Brougham in the House t)f Commons 
against him he could not stand for five minutes, and that 
the only alternative was to put Brougham on the Wool- 
sack Hence his delay in sending for Biougham, the lat- 
ter’s speech and subsequent acceptance of the Great Seal 
Grey, however, was still anxious to serve Lyndhuist, and 
to neutralise his opposition has now proposed to him to 
be Chief Baron This is tempting to a necessitous and 
ambitious man On the other hand he had a good game 
before him, if he had played it well, and that was to legam 
character, exhibit his great and general poweis, and be 
ready to avail himself of the course of events , but he has 
made his bargain and pocketed his pride He takes the 
judicial office upon an understanding that he is to have no 
political connection with the Government (though of course 
he will not oppose them), and that he is to be Chief Justice 
on Tenterden’s death or retirement This is the secret 
article of the treaty, and altogether he has not done amiss , 
for there are so few Chancellors m the field that he will 
probably (if he chooses) return to the Woolsack m the 
event of a change of Government, and he is now m a 
position m which he may join either party, and that without 
any additional loss of character The public will gam by 
the transaction, because they will get a good judge 

In Ireland the Government have made a change (the 
motives of which are not apparent) which will be very un- 
popular, and infallibly get them into trouble m various ways. 



90 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIII 


They have lemoved Halt and made Plunket Chancellor 
Hart was veiy popular with the Bai , he was slow, but had 
introduced oidei and legnlanty m the proceedings of the 
Court There weie no an ears and no appeals Plunket is 
unpopulai, and was a bad judge m the Common Pleas, and 
will probably make a woise Chancelloi , he is rash, hasty, 
and impiudent, and it is the more extraoidmary as Hart was 
affronted by Goderich and went with Anglesey, so upon the 
score of confidence (on which they put it) theie is m fact not 
a pretext for it 

As yet not much can be known of the efficiency of the 
lest of the Ministers The only one who has had anything 
to do is Melbourne, and he has surprised all those about him 
by a sudden display of activity and vigour, rapid and diligent 
tiansaetion of business, for which nobody was prepared, and 
which will piove a gieat mortification to Peel and his friends, 
who were m hopes lie would do nothing and let the country 
be burnt and plundered without interruption The Duke ot 
Richmond has plunged neck-deep m politics, and says he is 
delighted with it all, and with Lord Grey’s candoui and un- 
assuming beanng m the Cabinet He is evidently piqued that 
none of his party have followed him, and made a speech m 
the House of Lords the other night expressing his readiness 
to defend his having taken office, when nobody attacked him 
Knowing him as I do, and the exact extent of his capacity, 
I fancy he must feel rather small by the side of Lord Grey 
and Brougham Graham’s elevation is the most monstrous 
of all He was once my friend, a college intimacy revived 
in the world, and which lasted six months, when, thinking he 
could do better, he cut me, as he had done others before I 
am not a fair judge of him, because the pique which his 
conduct to me naturally gave me would induce me to under- 
rate him, but I take vanity and self-sufficiency to be the pro- 
minent features of his character, though of the extent of hi$ 
capacity I will give no opinion Let time show , I think he 
will fail [Time did show it to be very considerable, and the 
volvenda dies brought back our former friendship, as will 
hereafter appear, he certainly did not fail ] 



1830] 


SIR JAMES GRAHAM 


91 


He came into Parliament ten years ago, spoke and failed 
He had been a provincial heio, the Cicero and the Borneo of 
Yorkshire and Cumberland, a present Lovelace and a future 
Pitt He was disappointed m love (the paiticulars are of 
no consequence), married and retired to digest his mortifica- 
tions of various kinds, to become a country gentleman, 
patriot, leformei, financier, and what not, always good- 
looking (he had been very handsome), pleasing, intelligent, 
cultivated, agreeable as a man can be who is not witty and 
who is rather pompous and slow, after many years of retire- 
ment, m the course of which he gave to the w orld his lucu- 
brations on com and currency Time and the hour made 
him master of a laige but encumbered estate and member 
for his county Aimed with the impoitance of representing 
a gieat constituency, he started again m the House of 
Commons , took up Joseph Hume’s line, but ornamented it 
with graces and flounshes which had not usually decorated 
such dry topics He succeeded, and m that line is now the 
best speaker m the House I have no doubt he has studied 
his subjects and practised himself in public speaking Yeais 
and years ago I remember his delight on Hume’s comparison 
between Demosthenes and Ciceio, and how he knew the 
passage by heart , but it is one thing to attack strong abuses 
and fire off well-rounded set phrases, another to admmistei 
the naval affairs of the country and be ready to tilt against 
all comers, as he must do for the future 1 Palmeiston is said 
to have given the greatest satisfaction to the foreign 
Ministers, and to have begun very well So much for the 
Mmisters 

December 14th — There is a delay m Lyndhuist’s appoint- 
ment, if it takes place at all Alexander 2 * * 5 now will not resign, 

1 [This opinion of Sir Janies Giaham is the more curious as he after- 

wards became one of Mr Greville’s confidential friends, and rose to the 
first rank of oratory and authority in the House of Commons As Secre- 

tary of State for the Home Department m the great Admimstiation of Sir 

Robeit Peel he showed administrative ability ot the highest order, and he 
was, perhaps, the most trusted colleague of that lllustnous chief The 
principal failing of Sir James Graham was, m tiuth, that he was not so 
brave and bold a man as he looked ] 

5 [The Chief Baron ] 



92 


EEIG-N OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIII 


though, he himself proposed to do so in the first instance 
His physician signed a certificate to say that if he went on 
this Committee it would cost him his life , some difficulty 
about the pension is the cause, or the peerage that he wants 
He is seventy-six and veiy rich, a wietched judge, and 
nevei knew anything of Common Law If it is not arranged, 
it will be a bad business for Lyndhurst, for the Duke and his 
fi lends are gnevously annoyed at his taking the office, having 
counted on him as then gieat champion m the House of 
Lords Mis Arbuthnot told me the other night that they 
consideied themselves released from all obligations to him 
for the futuie However, they have not at all quarrelled, 
and they knew his deplorable state m point of money 
Dined yesterday at Agar Ellis’s with eighteen people 
Brougham m great force and very agieeable, and told some 
stories of Judge Allan Park, who is a most ridiculous man, 
and j et a good lawyer, a good judge, and was a most eminent 
counsel 

Park is evtraoi dmai ily i ldiculous He is a physiognomist, 
and is captivated by pleasant looks In a certain cause, m 
which a boy brought an action for defamation against his 
sehoolmastei, Campbell, his counsel, asked the solicitor if the 
boy was good-looking 6 Very 5 c Oh, then, have him m court , 
we shall get a verdict ’ And so he did His eyes are always 
wandering about, watching and noticing everything and 
everybody One day theie was a dog m court making a 
disturbance, on which he said, c Take away that dog 5 The 
officers went to lemove another dog, when he interposed 
* Ho, not that dog I have had my eye on that dog the whole 
day, and I will say that a better behaved little dog I never 
saw m a court of justice ’ 

One of Biougham’s best speeches was one of his last at 
the Bar, made in moving for a new trial on the ground 
of misdirection m a, great cause (Tatham and Wright) 
about a will He said that on that occasion Park did what 
he thought no man’s physical poweis were equal to, he 
spoke m summing-up for eleven hours and a half, and 
was as fresh at the end as at the beginning , the tual lasted 



1830J 


LORD LYJSDHURST AND THE WHIGS 


93 


eight days This same evening Lord Grosvenor, who is by 
way of being a friend to Government, made an armcalle 
attack upon everything, and talked nonsense Lord Grey 
answered him, and defended his own family appointments in 
a very good speech 

December 15 th — Dined yesterday with Loid Dudley , sat 
next to Lady Lyndhurst, and had a great deal of talk about 
politics She said that the Duke never consulted or communi- 
cated with the Chancellor, who never heard of his overtures to 
Palmerston till Madame de Lieven told him , that he had 
repeatedly remonstrated with the Duke upon going on m 
his weakness, and on one occasion had gone to Walmer on 
puipose (leaving her behind that he might talk moie freely) 
to urge him to take in Lord Grey and some of that paity, 
but he would not , said he had tried to settle with them, and 
it would not do , had tiled individuals and had tried the 
party Up to a very late period it appears that Lord Grey 
would have joined him, and Lambton came to her lepeatedly 
to try and arrange something , but this answer of the Duke’s 
put it out of the question Then aftei Lord Grey made his 
hostile speech it seems as if the Duke wanted to get him, 
for one day Jeisey made an appointment with Lady Lynd- 
hurst, never having called upon her m his life befoie, came, 
and entreated her to try and bung about an accommodation 
with Lord Grey, not making use of the Duke’s name, but 
saying he and Lady Jersey were so unhappy that the Duke 
and Lord Giey should not be on good terms, and were so 
anxious for the junction , but it was too late then, and the 
Lyndhursts themselves had something else to look to They 
both knew very well that Brougham alone prevented his 
lemaming on the Woolsack, still they have very wisely not 
quarrelled with him Aftei dmnei I took Lyndhurst to 
Lady Dudley Stuart’s, and had some more talk with him He 
thinks, as X do, that this Government does not piomise to be 
strong What passed in the House of Commons the other 
night exhibited deplorable weakness and the necessity of 
depending upon the caprices of hundreds of loose votes, 
without anything like a party with which they could venture 



94 


KEIG-N OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIII 


to oppose popular doctrines 01 measuies He thmks that 
Peel must be Mmistei if there is not a i evolution, and that 
the Duke’s being Prime Mmistei again is out of the question , 
says he l mows Peel would nevei consent to act with him 
again in the same capacity, that all the Duke’s little cabinet 
(the women and the toad-eateis) hate Peel, and that there 
never was anj leal coidiality between them Everything 
confiims raj belief that Peel, if he did not bung about the 
dissolution of the late Ministry by any oveit act, saw to what 
things weie tending, and saw it with satisfaction 

December 1 6 th — At Court yesterday, William Bathurst 
sworn m All the Ministers were iheie, and the Duke of Wel- 
lington at the levee lookmg out of sorts Dmed at the 
Lievens’ , Lady Cowpei told me that m the summer the Duke 
had not made a direct offer to Melbourne, but what was tan- 
tamount to it He had desired somebody (she did not say 
who) to speak to Frederick , 1 and said he would call on him 
himself the next day Something, however, prevented him, 
and she did not say whether he did call or not afterwards 
He denied evei having made any overturn at all To Pal- 
meiston he proposed the choice of four places, and she thinks 
he would ha\ e taken m Huskisson if the lattei had lived 
He would have done nothing but on compulsion, that is 
clear It is very tiue (what they say Peel said of him) that 
no man ever had any influence with him, only women , and 
those always the silliest But who are Peel’s confidants, 
friends, and parasites? Bonham, a stock-jobbing ex-mei- 
chant, Chailes Eoss, and the refuse of society of the House 
of Commons 

Lamb told me afterwards, talking of the Duke and 
Polignac, that Sebastian! had told him that Hyde de Neu- 
viUe (who was Minister at the time Polignac went ovei from 
here on his first short visit, before he became Mmistei) said 
that upon that occasion Polignac took over a letter from the 
Duke to the King of Prance, m which he said that the Cham- 
bers and the demociatical spmt required to be curbed, that 
he advised him t$ lose no time m lestrainmg them, and that 
1 [Sir Frederick Lamb ] 



1830] 


THE KING- AND HIS SONS 


95 


lie referred him to M de Polignac foi his opinion geneially, 
who was m possession of his entire confidence I think this 
may be true, never having doubted that these were his real 
sentiments, whether he expressed them or not 

There has been a desperate quail el between the King and 
his sons George Fitzclarence wanted to be made a Peer 
and have a pension , the King said he could not do it, so 
they struck work in a body, and George resigned his office 
of Deputy Adjutant-General and wrote the King a funous 
letter The King sent foi Lord Hill, and told him to try 
and bring him to his senses , but Lord Hill could do nothing, 
and then he sent for Brougham to talk to him about it It is 
not yet made up, but one of them (Frederick, I believe) dmed 
at the d inn er the King gave the day befoie yesterday They 
want to renew the days of Chailes II , instead of waiting 
patiently and letting the King do what he can for them, and 
as he can 

The affair at Warsaw seems to have begun with a con- 
spiracy against Constantine, and foui of the generals who 
were killed perished in his anteroom in defending him 
With the smallest beginnings, however, nothing is more 
probable than a general rising m Poland , and what between 
that, Belgians, and Piedmont, which is threatened with a 
revolution, the Continent is m a promising state I agree 
with Lamb, who says that such an imbrogho as this cannot 
be got right without a war , such a flame can only be quenched 
by blood 

December 19 th — The week has closed without much 
gam to the new Government On the debate m the House 
of Commons about the Evesham election they did not dare 
go to a division, as they would certainly have been beaten, 
but Peel made a speech which was very good m itself, 
and received m a way which proved that he has more con- 
sideration out of office than any of the Ministers, and much 
more than he ever had when he was m Men are looking 
more and more to him, and if there is not a revolution he 
will assuredly be Prime Minister The Government is fully 
aware how little strength they have, so they have taken a 



96 


BEIGN OF WILLIAM 17 


[Chap XIII 


new line, and affect to cairy on the Government without 
Parliamentary influence, and to throw themselves and their 
measures upon the impartial judgment of the House Seffcon 
mfoimed me the othei night that they had resolved not to 
take upon themselves the responsibility of proposing any 
renewal of the Civil List, but to lefer the whole question to 
Parliament I told him that I thought such conduct equally 
foolish and unjust, and that it amounted to an abdication of 
then Ministerial functions, and a surrender of them into the 
hands of the Legislative powei , m itself amountmg to a 
revolution not of dj nasty and institutions, but of system of 
Government m this country He is the dme damnee of Lord 
Giey, and defends everything of course 

O’Connell is gone labid to Ireland, having refused a silk 
gown and resolved to pull down Lord Anglesey’s popularity 
Sheil wntes woid that they have resolved not to give Lord 
Anglesey a public reception, and to propose an ovation foi 
O’Connell The law appointments there, made without any 
adequate reason, have been ingeniously contrived so as to 
disgust every party m Ii eland, and to do, 01 promise to do, 
m their ultimate results as much harm as possible So much 
tor the only act that the Ministers have yet performed 

I had some conversation with Lyndhuist yesterday, who 
thinks the way is already pi eparmg foi Peel’s return to oflice, 
and that he must be Prime Minister I told him that I 
thought Peel had a fine game to play, but that his own was 
just as good, as Peel could do nothing without him m the 
other House , to which he replied that they should have no 
difficulty, and could make a Government if the Duke of 
Wellington did not interpose Ins claims and aspire again to 
be at the head , to which I said that they must not listen to 
it, as the countiy would not bear it , he said he was afraid 
the Duke’s own set and his women were encouraging him in 
such views Now that it is all over his own Cabinet admit 
as freely as anybody his Ministerial despotism Lyndhurst 
partakes of the general alarm at the state of affairs, and of 
the astonishment which I and others feel at the apathy of 
those who are most interested in averting the impending 



1830] BISHOP OP EXETER AND LORD MELBOURNE 


97 


danger Yesterday Mr Stapleton (Canning’s late pnvate 
secietaxy) called on me to discuss tins subject* and the pi o- 
pnety and feasibility of settingup some dyke to arrest the 
ionent of innovation and revolution that is bui sting m on 
every side All the press almost is silenced, or united on 
the other side ‘John Bull’ alone fights the battle, but 
4 John Bull 5 defends so many indefensible things that its 
advocacy is not woith much An e Anti-Radical ’ upon the 
plan of the 4 Anti-Jacobm 9 might be of some use, provided it 
was well sustained I wrote a letter yesterday to Barnes, 1 
remonstrating upon the general tone of the ‘ Tunes,’ and 
inviting him to adopt some Conservative principles m the 
midst of his zeal for Reform Stanley told me that his 
election (at Preston) was lost by the stupidity or ill- will of 
the leturnmg officer, who managed the booths m such a 
wa} that Hunt’s voters weie enabled to vote over and over 
at diffeient booths, and that he had no doubt of reducing 
his majority on a scrutiny 

December 2 2nd —Dudley showed me Phillpotts’ (Bishop 
of Exeter) correspondence with Melbourne and minutes of 
conversation on the subject of the commendam of the living 
of Stanhope , trimming letters The Bishop made proposals 
to the Government which they rejected, and at last, after 
writing one of the ablest letteis I ever read, m which he 
exposed their formei conduct and present motives, he said 
that as the Ministers had thought fit to exert the power they 
had over him, he should show them that he had some over 
them, and appeal to public opinion to decide between them 
On this they gave way, and agreed to an airangement which, 
if not satisfactory to him, will leave him as to income not 
much worse off than he was before 

December 23 rd — Last night to Wilmot Horton’s second 
lecture at the Mechanics’ Institute, I could not go to the 
first He deserves great credit for his exertions, the object 
of which is to explain to the labouring classes some of the 

1 [Mr Barnes was then editor of the limes’ newspaper, and retained 
that position till his death in 1841 Mr Greville was well acquainted With 
him, and had a high opinion of his talents, chaiacter, and influence ] 

VOL II H 



98 


REIGN OR -WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIII 


truths of political economy, the folly of thinking that the 
breaking of machinery will better then condition, and of 
course the efficacy of his own plan of emigration The com- 
pany was respectable enough, and they heard him with great 
attention Ho is full of zeal and animation, but so totally 
without method and anangement that he is hardly intelli- 
gible The conclusion, which was an attack on Cobbett, was 
well done and even eloquent There were a good many 
women, and seveial wise men, such as Di Bnkbeck, 
M‘Culloch, and Owen of Lanai k 

O’Connell had a timmphant entry into Dublin, and 
advised that no honouis should be shown to Loid Anglesey 
They had an intei view of two hours m London, when Loid 
Anglesey asked him what he intended to do He said, 
‘Strive totib unbiii, to effect a repeal of the Union,’ when 
Loid Anglesey told him that he feared he should then be 
obliged to govern Ii eland by foice, so that they are at daggeis 
drawn Tlieie is not a doubt that Repeal is making rapid 
advances Mooie 1 told me that he had seen extiaordmaiv 
signs of it, and that men of the middle classes, intelligent 
and well educated, wished for it, though they knew the dis- 
advantages that would attend a seveianco of their connection 
with England He said that he could undeistxnd it, foi as 
an Inshman lie felt it himself 

Roehampton, Decembe) 26th — At Loid Clifden’s , Luttiell, 
Byng, and Dudley , the latter very mad, did nothing but 
soliloquise, walk about, munch, and rail at Reform of eveiy 
kind Lord Anglesey has enteied Dublin amidst silence and 
indifference, all produced by O’Connell’s orders, whose entry 
was greeted by the acclamations of thousands, and his 
speeches then and since have been more violent than ever 
His authority and popularity are unabated, and he is em- 
ploying them to do all the mischief he can, Eis first object 
being to make friends of the Orangemen, to whom he affects 
to humble himself, and he has on all public occasions caused 
the orange riband to be joined with the green 

We had a meeting at the Council Office on Enday to 
1 [Thomas Mooie, the poet ] 



1830] LORD ANGLESEY AND O’CONNELL 99 

order a prayer £ on account of the troubled state of certain 
parts of the United Kingdom ’— *-gieat nonsense 

The King of the French has put an end to the distuib- 
ances of Pans about the sentence on the ex-Mimsters by a 
gallant coup d’etat At night, when the streets were most 
crowded and agitated, he sallied fiom the Palais Royal on 
horseback, with his son, the Due de Nemours, and his 
personal cottSge, and paraded through Pans for two hours 
This did the business, he was received with shouts of 
applause, and at once reduced eveiythmg to tranquillity 
He deserves his throne foi this, and will piobably keep it 
December 30 th — Notwithstanding the conduct of King 
Louis Philippe, and the happy teimmation of the disorders 
and tumults at Pans last week, the gieatest alarm still pre- 
vails about the excitement m that place In consequence of" 
the Chamber of Deputies having passed some resolutions 
altering the constitution of the National Guard, and voting 
the post of Commandant-General unnecessary, Lafayette re- 
signed and has been leplaeed by Lobau I nevei remember 
times like these, nor read of such — the terror and lively 
expectation which prevail, and the way in which people’s 
minds are turned backwards and forwards from France to 
Ireland, then range excursively to Poland or Piedmont, and 
fix again on the burnings, riots, and executions here 

Lord Anglesey’s entry into Dublin turned out not to have 
been so moitifymg to him as was at first reported He was 
attended by a great number of people, and by all the most 
eminent and respectable m Dublin, so much so that he was 
very well pleased, and found it better than he expected 
War broke out between him and O’Connell without loss of 
time O’Connell had intended to have a piocession of the 
trades, and a notice from him was to have been published 
and stuck over the door of every chapel and public place m 
Dublin Anglesey issued his proclamation, and half an hour 
before the time when O’Connell’s notice was to appear had it 
pasted up, and one copy laid on O’Connell’s breakfast-table, 
at which anticipation he chuckled mightily O’Connell 
instantly issued a handbill desmng the people to obey, as if 



100 


REIGN O* WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIII 


the 01 dei of tlie Lord-Lieutenant was to derive its authority 
from his pei mission, and he afterwaids made an able speech 
Since the beginning of the woild there nevei was so extra- 
ordinary and so eccentric a position as his It is a moral 
power and influence as gieat m its way, and as stiangely 
acquned, as Buonapaite’s political powei was Utterly lost 
to all sense of shame and decency, trampling tiuth and 
honoui under his feet, cast off by all respectable men, he 
makes his faults and his vices subservient to the extension 
of his influence, for he says and does whatevei suits his 
puipose for the moment, secure that no detection or subse- 
quent exposure will have the slightest effect with those ovei 
whose minds and passions he rules with such despotic sway 
He caies not whom he insults, because, having covered his 
cowardice with the cloak of leligious scruples, he is invulner- 
able, and will lesent no retaliation that can be offered him 
He has chalked out to himself a course of ambition which, 
though not of the highest kind — if the consenhem laus 
bonorum is indispensable to the aspirations of noble minds — 
has everything m it that can chann a somewhat vulgar but 
highly active, restless, and imaginative being , and nobody 
can deny to him the praise of inimitable dextenty, versatility, 
and even prudence m the employment of the means which 
he makes conducive to his ends He is thoroughly acquainted 
with the audiences which he addresses and the people upon 
whom he piactises, and he operates upon their passions with 
the piecision of a dexterous anatomist who knows the direc- 
tion of every muscle and fibie of the human frame After 
having been throughout the Catholic question the furious 
enemy of the Orangemen, upon whom he lavished incessant 
and unmeasured abuse, he has suddenly turned round, and, 
inviting them to join him on the Eepeal question, has not 
only offered them a fraternal embrace and has humbled him- 
self to the dust m apologies and demands for paidon, but he 
has entirely and at once succeeded, and he is now as popular 
or more so with the Protestants (or rather Orangemen) as he 
was before with the Catholics, and Orampton writes word 
that the lower order of Protestants are with him to a man. 



1831 ] 


A DINNER AT THE ATHENJEUM 


101 


1831 

Jarmary 2nd — Came up to town yesteiday to dme with 
the Villiers at a dinner of clever men, got np at the 
Athenaeum, and was extiemely bored The original party 
was broken up by various excuses, and the vacancies sup- 
plied by men none of whom I knew There were Poulett 
Thomson, three Yilliers, Tayloi, Young, whom I knew, the 
rest I never saw before — Buller, Komilly, Semoi, Maule, 1 a 
man whose name I forget, and Walker, a police magistrate, 
all men of more oi less talent and information, and altogether 
producing anything but an agieeable paity Maule was 
senior wrangler and senior medallist at Cambridge, and is 
a lawyei He was nephew to the man Vvith whom I was at 
school thirty jears ago, and I had never seen him since , he 
was then a very clever boy, and assisted to teach the boys, 
being admirably well taught himself by his uncle, who was 
an excellent scholar and a great brute I have young Maule 
now m my mind’s eye suspended by the hair of his head 
while being well caned, and recollect as if it was yesterday 
his doggedly drumming a lesson of Terence into my dull and 
reluctant brain as we walked up and down the garden-walk 
before the house When I was mtioduced to him I had no 
recollection of him, but when I found out who he was I went 
up to him with the blandest manner as he sat leading a 
newspaper, and said that ‘ I believed we had once been well 
acquainted, though we had not met for twenty-seven years ’ 
He looked up and said, c Oh, it is too long ago to talk about,’ 
and then turned back to his paper So I set him down for a 
brute like his uncle and troubled hnn no further I am very 
suie that dinners of all fools have as good a chance of being 
agreeable as dinners of all clever people , at least the former 
aie often gay, and the latter are frequently heavy Nonsense 
and folly gilded over with good breeding and les usages du 
monde produce often more agreeable results than a collection 
of rude, awkward intellectual powers 

Boehampion , January 4th — Called on Lady Canning this 

1 [Afterwards Mr Justice Maule ] 



102 


ELION or WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIII 


morning 1 , who wanted me to lead some of her papers Most 
of them (which aie very cunous) I had seen befoie, but tor- 
gotten I read the long minute of Canning’s conveisation 
with the King ten days befoie his Majesty put the foimation 
of the Adm initiation m his hands They both appeal to 
have been explicit enough The King went through his 
whole life, and talked foi two hours and a half, paiticulaily 
about the Catholic question, on which he said he had always 
entertained the same opinions — the same as those of 
George III and the Duke of Yoik — and that with the 
speech of the lattei he entirely concurred, except in the c so 
help me God’ at the end, which he thought unnecessary 
He said he had wished the Coionation Oath to be alteied, 
and had pioposed it to Loid Liveipool His gieat anxiety 
was not to be annoyed with the discussion of the question, to 
keep Canning and Loid Livei pool’s colleagues, and to put at 
the head of the Tieasmj some anti-Catkolie Peei This 
Canning would not heai of, he said that having lost Loid 
Liverpool he had lost his only support in the Cabinet, that 
the Kmg knew how he had been th waited by otheis, and 
how impossible it would have been foi him to go on but foi 
Lord Liveipool, that he could not seive mdei anybody else, 
or act with efficacy except as Fust Mmistei, that he would 
not affoid m his peison an example of any such lule as that 
support of tlxe Catholic question was to be 'ipso facto an ex- 
clusion from the chief office of the Government, that he ad 
vised the King to try and make an anti-Oatholic Ministry, 
and thought that with his feelings and opinions on the 
subject it was what he ought to do This the King said was 
out of the question In the course of the discussion Canning 
said that if he continued m his service he must continue 
as free as he had been before , that desnous as he was to 
contribute to the King’s ease and comfort, he could not in 
any way pledge himself on the subject, because he should 
be assuiedly questioned in the House of Commons, and he 
must have it m his powei to reply that he was perfectly fiee 
to act on that question as he had ever done, and that he 
thought the King would better consult his own ease by 



1831] 


THE DUKE AND MR CANNING 


103 


retaining him m office without any pledge, relying on his 
desire above all things to consult his Majesty’s ease and 
comfort He said among other things that though leader 
of the House of Commons, he had never had any pationage 
placed at his disposal, nor a single place to give away 

About the time of this conveisation Canning was out of 
humour with the Duke of Wellington, for he had heard that 
many of the adheients of Government who pretended to be 
attached to the Duke had spoken of him (Canning) m the 
most violent and abusive terms In their opinions he con- 
ceived the Duke to be to a ceitam degree implicated, and 
this produced some coldness in his manner towards him 
Shortly after Arbuthnot came to him, complained first 
and explained after, and said the Duke would call upon him 
The Duke did call, and m a conversation of two hours Can- 
ning told him all that had passed between himself and the 
King, theieby putting the Duke, as he supposed, m complete 
possession of his sentiments as to the reconstruction of the 
Government A few days aftei Mr Canning was chaigedby 
the Kmg to lay befoie him the plan of an Administration, 
and upon this he wiote the lettei to his foimer colleagues 
which produced so much discussion I read the letters to the 
Duke, Bathurst, Melville, and Bexley, and I must say that 
the one to the Duke was rather the stiffest of the whole , 1 
though it was not so cold as the Duke chose to consider it 
Then came his lettei to the Duke on his speech, and the 
Duke’s answei When I lead these last year I thought the 
Duke had much the best of it , but I must alter this opinion 
if it be tiue that he knew Mr Canning’s opinions, as it is 
stated that he did entirely, aftei then long interview, at 
which the conversation with the King was communicated to 
him That materially alters the case Theie was a letter 
from Peel declining, entirely on the giound of objecting to a 
pro-Catholic Piemiei, and on the impossibility of his admin- 
istering Ireland with the Pirst Lord of the Treasury of a 
different opinion on that subject from his own There wa» 

1 [This correspondence is now published m the third volume of the 
Duke’s ‘ Correspondence/ New Senes, p 628 ] 



104 


ELIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chai Mill 


likewise a curious conespondence lelative to a papei written 
by the Duke of Yoik duinig Ins last illness, and not veij long 
befoie bis death, to Loid Liveipool on the dangeis of the 
countiy fiomthe piogiessof the Catholic question, the object 
of which (though it was vaguely expressed) was to turn out 
the Catholic nieuibeis and foini a Protestant Government foi 
the puipose of mushing the Catholic interest This Loid 
Liverpool communicated (pnvately) to Canning, ind it was 
afteiwaids communicated to the King, who appeals (the 
answei was not theie) to have given the Duke of York a lap 
on the knuckles, for there is a leply of the Duke’s to the 
King, full of devotion, zeal, and affection to his peison, and 
disclaiming any intention of breaking up the Government, 
an idea which could hive ausen only fiom misconception of 
the meaning of his lettei by Loid Liveipool It is very 
cleai, liowevei, that he did mean that, foi his lettei could 
have meant nothing else The whole thing is cunous, foi he 
was aware that he was dying, and he says so 

January 12th — Passed two days at Panshangei, but my 
room was so cold that I could not sit m it to wnte Nobod} 
there but P Lamb and J Russell Lady Cowper told me 
what had passed relative to the negotiation with Melbourne 
last year, and which the Duke 01 his fuends denied The 
person who was employed (and whom she did not name) told 
P Lamb that the Duke would take m Melbourne and two 
others (I am not suie it was not three), but not Huskisson. 
He said that it would be fairer at once to say that those 
terms would not be accepted, and to save him therefore from 
offering them, that Melbourne would not be satisfied with any 
Government which did not include Huskisson ana Lord Grey , 
and that upon this answer the matter dropped I don’t 
think the Duke can be blamed for answei ing to anybody who 
chose to ask him any questions on the subject that he had 
made no offer, it was the truth, though not the whole tiuth, 
and a Minister must have some shelter against impertinent 
questioners, or he would be at their meicy An Envoy is 
come here from the Poles, 1 who brought a letter fiom Prince 

1 [This Envov was Count Alexander "Walewshi, a natural son of the 
Emperor Napoleon, who aftei wards played a considerable pait m the affaus 



1831] 


CROKEBS * BOSWELL ’ 


105 


Czaitor) ski to Loid Grey, -who has not seen him, and whose 
ai rival has naturally given umbrage to the Lievens 

Jctnuayy IWi — To Roehampton on Saturday till Monday, 
having been at the Grove on Friday Geoige Yilliers at the 
Grove showed me a Dublin paper with an attack on Stanley’s 
proclamation, and also a* character of Plunket drawn with 
great seventy and by a masterly hand , it is supposed to 
be by Baron Smith, a judge who is veiy able, but fanciful 
and disaffected He will nevei suffei any but policemen 
or soldieis to be hanged of those whom he tnes Geoige 
Yillieis came fiom Hatfield, where he had a conversation 
with the Duke of Wellington, who told him that he had com- 
mitted a great error m his Admimstiation m not paying 
more attention to the pi ess, and m not secunng a portion of it 
on his side and getting good wnteis into his employment, that 
he had nevei thought it necessary to do so, and that he was 
now convinced what a gieat mistake it was At Roehampton 
nothing new, except that the Reform plan is supposed to be 
settled, 01 nearly so Duncannon has been consulted, and he 
and one oi two more have had meetings with Duiham, who 
were to lay their joint plans befoie Loid Giey fiist, and he 
afterwards bi ought them to the Cabinet 

Ellis told me (a curious thing enough) that Croker (fox 
his c Boswell’s Life of Johnson ’) had collected various anec- 
dotes from other books, but that the only new and original 
ones were those he had got from Lord Stowell, who was a 
friend of Johnson, and that he had written them under 
Stowell’s dictation Sir Walter Scott wanted to see them, 
and Crokei sent them to him m Scotland by the post The 
bag was lost, no tidings could be heard of it, Ciokei had 
no copy, and Stowell is in his dotage and can’t be got to 
dictate again So much for the anecdote , then comes the 
story I said how sui prising this was, fox nothing was so 
laie as a miscarriage by the post He said* ‘ Not at all, foi I 

of France and of Europe, especially under the Second Empire During his 
residence m London m 3831 he married Lady Caroline Montagu, a daughter 
of the Earl of Sandwich, but she did not live long I remember calling 
upon him m St James’s Place, and seeing cards of invitation for Lady Grey’s 
assemblies stuck m his glass The fact is he was wonderfully handsome and 
agreeable, and soon became popular in London society ] 



106 


EEIG-N OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIII 


myself lost two reviews m the same way I sent them both 
to Brougham to forward to Jeffrey (for the “Edinburgh”)? 
and they wet e loth lost m the same way * ’ That villain 
Brougham f 

G Lamb said that the King is supposed to be m a 
bad state of health, and this was confiimed to me by Keate 
the surgeon, who gave me to undei stand that he was going 
the way of both his brothers He will be a great loss m 
these times , he knows his business, lets his Ministers do as 
they please, but expects to be informed of everything He 
lives a stiange life at Brighton, with tagrag and bobtail 
about him, aud alwajs open house The Queen is a prude, 
and will not let the ladies come decolletees to hei parties 
George IV , who liked ample expanses of that sort, would not 
let them be covered In the meantime matteis don’t seem 
more promising either heie or abioad In Ii eland there is 
open war between Anglesey and O’Connell, to whom it is 
gloiy enough (of his soit) to be on a kind of par with the 
Viceroy, and to have a powei equal to that of the Govern- 
ment Anglesey issues proclamation aftei pioelamation, the 
other speeches and letteis m retoit His breakfasts and 
dinners are put down, but he finds other places to harangue 
at, and letters he can always publish , but he does not appear 
in quite so tnumphant an attitude as he did The O’Connell 
tribute is said to have failed , no men of property or respecta- 
bility join him, and he is aftei all only the leader of a mob , 
but it is a better sort of mob, and formidable fiom their 
numbers, and the oigamsation which has latterly become an 
integral part of mob tactics Nothing can be more awful 
than the state of that countiy, and everybody expects that 
it will be found necessary to strengthen the hands of the 
Government with extraoidmaiy powers to put an end to the 
prevailing anarchy O’Connell is a coward, and that is the 
best chance of his being beaten at last 

Lord Lyndhurst took his seat as Chief Baron yesterday 
morning, Alexander letirmg without an equivalent, and 
only havmg waited for quarter-day Brougham has had a 
violent squabble in his Court with Sugden, who having 



1831] 


O’CONNELL ARRESTED 


107 


bullied tlie Vice-Chancelloi and governed Lyndhurst, has a 
mmd to do the same bj Biougham, besides, he hates him 
for the repeated thrashings he got £tom him in the House of 
Commons, and has been heaid to say that he will take his 
levenge in the Court of Chancery The piesent affair was 
merely that Biougham began writing, when Sugden stopped 
and told him it was no use his going on if his Lordship 
would not attend to the argument,’ and so forth 

I met Lyndhurst at dmnei yesterday, who talks of him- 
self as standing on neutial ground, disconnected with 
politics It is certainly undei stood that he is not to fight 
the battles of the piesent Government, but of course he is 
not to be against them His example is a lesson to states- 
men to be fiugal, for if he had been rich he would have had 
a bettei gamebefoie him He told a curious anecdote about 
a trial Theie was a (civil) cause m which the juiy would 
not agree on then verdict They retiied on the evening of 
one day, and lemamed till one o’clock the next afternoon, 
when, being still disagieed, a juioi was drawn There was 
only one jui 01 who held out against the lest — Mi Berkeley 
(member foi Bustol) The case was tried ovei again, and the 
jury weie unanimously of Mi Beikeley’s opinion, which was 
m fact light, a piece of conscientious obstinacy which pre- 
vented the legal commission of wiong 

Roehampton > January 22nd — The event of the week is 
O’Connell’s arrest on a charge of conspnacj to defeat the 
Lord-Lieutenant’s proclamation Lord Anglesey writes to 
Lady Anglesey thus — 6 1 am just come fiom a consultation 
of six houis with the law officers, the result of which is a 
determination to arrest O’Connell, foi things are now come 
to that pass that the question is whether he or I shall 
govern Ireland’ We await the result with great anxiety, 
for the opinion of lawyers seems divided as to the legality of 
the airest, and laymen can foim none 

January 23i d — Ho news , Master of the Rolls, Geoige 
Ponsonby, and George Yilliers here The latter told a 
story of Plunket, of his wit Lord Wellesley’s aide-de- 
camp Keppel wrote a book of his travels, and called it his 



108 


KEIGrH OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIII 


peisonal narrative • Lord Wellesley was quizzing it, and 
said, c Personal narrative 9 what is a personal nanative & Lord 
Plunket, what should you say a peisonal narrative meant 9* 
Plunket answered, c My Loid, you know we lawyeis always 
understand personal as conti adistmguished fiom real 3 And 
one or two otheis of Parsons, the Irish bamstei Loid 
Norbury on some circuit was on the bench speaking, and an 
ass outside brayed so loud that nobody could heai He ex- 
claimed, ‘ Do stop that noise 1 3 Parsons said, ‘ My Lord, 
there is a great echo heie 3 Somebody said to him one day, 
4 Mr Parsons, have you heaid of my son 3 s robbeiy 9 3 ‘ No , 

whom has he robbed ? 3 

Nothing but talk about O’Connell and his tual, and we 
have more feais he will be acquitted than hopes that he will 
be convicted They still burn in the country, and I heard 
the other day that the manufacturing districts, though quiet, 
are m a high state of oiganisation 

January 25 th — Met Colonel Napiei 1 last night, and talked 
foi an hour of the state of the country He gave me a 
curious account of the organisation of the manufacturers m 
and about Manchester, who are divided into foui diffeient 
classes, with diffeient objects, partly political, geneially to 
better themselves, but with a regulai Government, the seat 
of which is in the Isle of Man He says that the agri- 
culturists aie likewise organised m Wiltshire, and that 
there is a sort of freemasonry among them , he thinks a 
revolution inevitable, and when I told him what Southey 
had said — that if he had money enough he would transport 
his family to America — he said he would not himself leave 
England m times of dangei, but that he should like to re- 
move his family if he could 

The King is ill I hope he won 3 ! die , if he does, and 
the little girl, we shall have Cumberland, and (though 
Lyndhurst said he would make a very good King the other 
night) that would be a good moment for dispensing with the 
regal office It is reported that they differ m the Cabinet 

1 [Sir William Napier, author of the i History of the Peninsular War 



1831] O’CONNELL’S CASE 10& 

about Reform , piobably not true What a state of terror 
and confusion we aie m, though it seems to make no 
difference f 

January 31s£ — At Roehampton on Satuidaj , Loid 
Robert Spencer and Sir G Robinson Agai Ellis had just 
resigned the Woods, after asking to be made a Peer, which 
they lefused All last week nobody thought of anything but 
O’Connell, and great was the joy at the charge of Judge Jebb, 
the unanimous opinion of the King’s Bench, and the finding 
of the Giand Juiy Whatever happens, Government are now 
justified m the course they have taken , and now he has tra- 
versed, which looks like weakness, and it is the geneial 
opinion that he is beaten , but he is so astute, and so full of 
resouices, that I would never answer foi his being beaten till 
I see him m puson or find his popularity gone The sub- 
scription produced between 7,000£ and 8,000 1 It is an 
extiaor dinar} thing, and the most wonderful effect I ever 
heard of the powei of moral causes over the human body, 
that Lord Anglesey, who has scarcely been out of pam at all 
foi j ears dui mg any consideiable intervals, has been quite 
tree fiom his complaint (the tic douloureux) since he has 
been m Ireland, the excitement of these events, and the 
influence of that excitement on his nervous system, have 
produced this effect There is a puzzler for philosophy, 
and such an amalgamation of moral and physical accidents 
as is well worth unravelling for those who are wise enough 

Yesterday there was a dinner at Lord Lansdowne’s to 
name the Shenffs, and there was I m attendance on my old 
schoolfellows and associates Richmond, Duiham, Graham, 
all great men now * 

While some do laugh, and some do weep, 

Thus runs the world away 

Lord Grey was not there, for he was gone to Brighton 
to lay the Reform Bill before the King What a man 
Biougham is * He wants to ride his Chancery steed to the 
Devil, as if he had not enough to do Nothing would satisf} 



110 BEIGrN or WILLIAM IV [Chap XIII 

him but to come and heai causes m onr Court , 1 but as I knew 
it was only to provoke Leach, I would not let him come, and 
told the Loid President we had no causes for him to hear 
He insisted, so did I, and he did not come , but some day 
I will invite him, and then he will have foi gotten it or have 
something else to do, and he won’t come He is a Jupiter- 
Scapm if evei theie was one 

February 6th — Parliament met again on the 3rd, and 
the House of Commons exhibited a great airay on the 
Opposition benches , nothing was done the first day but the 
announcement of the Eeform measure foi the 2nd of March, 
to be brought m by Lord John Eussell m the House of Com- 
mons, though not a Cabinet Minister The fact is that if 
a Cabinet Mmistei had mtioduced it, it must have been 
Althorp, and he is wholly unequal to it, he cannot speak 
at all, so that though the pretence is to pay a compliment to 
John Eussell because he had on formei occasions brought 
forward plans of Eefoim, it is leally expedient to take the 
burden off the leader of the Government The next night 
came on the Civil List, and as the last Government was turned 
out on this question, there had existed a geneialbut vague ex- 
pectation that some wonderful reductions were to be proposed 
by the new Chancellor of the Exchequei Great, then, was 
the exultation of the Opposition when it was found that no 
reductions would be made, and that the measure of this 
Government only differed fiom that of the last m the 
separation of the King’s personal expenses from the other 
charges and a prospective reduction m the Pension List 
Theie was not much of a debate Althoip did it ill by all 
accounts, Graham spoke pietty well, and Calcraft, who 
could do nothing while m office, found all his energies 
when he got back to the Opposition benches, and made 
(eveiybody says) a capital speech There is ceitamly a 
great disappointment that the Civil List does not produce 
some economical novelty, and to a certain degree the popu- 

1 [At the Privy Council, wheie the Master of the Rolls was at that time 
m the habit of sitting with two lay Privy Councillors to hear Plantation 
Appeals ] 



1831] 


THE CIVIL LIST 


111 


larity of the Government will be affected by it But they 
have taken the manliest course, and the tiuth is the Duke 
of Wellington had already made all possible reductions, 
unless the King and the Government were at once to hang 
out the flag of poveity and change their whole system 
After what Sefton had told me of the intentions of Govern- 
ment about the Pension List, and my reply to him, it was 
a satisfaction to me to find they could not act on such 
a principle, and accordingly Lord Althorp at once de- 
clared the opinion and intentions of Government about 
the Pensions, instead of abandoning them to the lage of 
the House of Commons There is not even a sui raise as 
to the intended measuie of Eefoim, the seciet of which is 
well kept, but I suspect the confidence of the Eeformers will 
be shaken by their disappointment about the Civil List 
It is by no means cleai, be it what it may, that the 
Government will be able to carry it, for the Opposition, 
promises to be very formidable m point of numbeis , and m 
speaking the two parties aie, as to the first class, pretty 
evenly divided— Palmerston, the Grants, Graham, Stanley, 
John Eussell, on one side , Peel, Calciaft, Haidmge, Dawson, 
on the othei , fewer m numbers, but Peel immeasurably 
the best on either side— but m the second line, and among 
the younger ones, the Opposition are far inferior 

February 9th — Just got into my new home — Poulett 
Thomson’s house, which I have taken for a year The day 
before yesterday came the news that the French had refused 
the nomination of the Due de Nemours to the throne of 
Belgium, the news of his being chosen having come on 
Sunday The Mmisteis were ray onnants , Lord Lansdowne 
came to his office and told it me with prodigious glee 

Met with Sn J Burke on Sunday at Brooks’s, who said 
that O’Connell was completely beaten by the address of the 
merchants and bankers, among whom were men — Mahon, for 
instance (O’Goiman Mahon’s uncle) — who had always stood 
by him I do not believe he is completely beaten, and his 
resources for mischief aie so great that he will rally again 
before long, I have little doubt However, what has occuried 



112 


FEIGH OF WILLI UI IV 


[Chap XIII 


lias been productive of great good, it has elicited a stiong 
Conservative demonstiation, and pioved that out of the rabble- 
ociacy (foi eveiy tiling is an ocracij now) his powei is anything 
but unlimited Theie aie 20,000 men m Ii eland, so Lord 
Hill told me last night Hunt 1 spoke foi two hours last 
night, his mannei and appeal ance very good, like a countiy 
gentleman of the old school, a soit of mial dignity about it, 
very civil, good-hum ouied, and respectful to the House, but 
dull, listened to, howevei, and veiy well received 

Febmanj 12th — The debate three nights ago on Ii eland, 
brought on bj O’Gorman Mahon, is said to have been the 
best that has been heard m the House of Commons foi many 
years Paltneiston, Burdett, A1 thorp. Peel, Wyse, all made 
good speeches , it was spirited, statesmanlike, and creditable 
to the House, which wanted some such exhibition toiaise its 
credit I saw the day before yesterday a curious letter hom 
Southey to Brougham, which some day or othei willpiobablj 
appear Taylor showed it me Brougham had wntten to 
him to ask him what his opmion was as to the encourage- 
ment that could be given to literatuie, by lewardmg or 
honouring hteiary men, and suggested (I did not see his 
letter) that the Guelphie Ordei should be bestowed upon 
them Southey’s reply was very courteous, but m a stjle of 
suppressed irony and forced politeness, and exhibited the 
marks of a chafed spirit, which was kept down by an effort 
‘You, my Loid, aie noiv on the Conservative side,’ was one 
of his phiases, which implied that the Chancellor had not 
always been on that side He suggested that it might be 
useful to establish a soit of lay fellowships, 10,00OZ would 
give 10 of 500i and 25 of 2002 , but he proposed them not to 
reward the meritorious, but as a means Of silencing or hiring 
the mischievous It was evident, however, that he laid no 
stress on this plan, or considered it practicable, and only pi o- 
posed it because he thought he must suggest something 
He said that honours might be desirable to scientific men, as 
they were so considered on the Continent, and Newton and 

1 [Henry Hunt, a well-known Radical, tad just been returned fox 
Pieston, wbeie be bad beaten Mr Stanley ] 



1831] 


THE FIRST WHIG- BUDGET 


113 


Davy had been titled, but for himself, if a Guelphic distinction 
was adopted, ‘he should be a Ghibelhne 9 He ended by 
saying that all he asked for was a lepeal of the Copyright 
Act, which took from the families of literary men the only 
property they had to give them, and this ‘ I ask for with the 
earnestness of one who is conscious that he has laboured for 
posterity 5 It is a remarkable letter 

February IWi — The Budget, which was brought forward 
two nights ago, has given great dissatisfaction , Goulburn 
attacked the taxation of the funds (half pei cent on trans- 
fer of stock and land) m the best speech he evei made. 
Peel m another good speech The bankers assailed it one 
after another, and not a man on the Government side 
spoke decently Gieat of course was the exultation of the 
Opposition, and it is supposed that this will be withdrawn 
and a Property Tax laid on instead There is a meeting to- 
day m Downing Street, at which I suspect it will be an- 
nounced The Budget must appear hurried, and nothing 
but the cncumstances m which they aie placed could have 
justified their bunging it on so soon In two months, 
besides having foreign affairs of the greatest consequence on 
their hands, they have concocted a Reform Bill and settled 
the finances of the nation foi the next year, which is quite 
ludicrous , but they are obliged to have money voted imme- 
diately, that m case they should be beaten on Reform or any 
other vital question which may compel them to dissolve 
Parliament, they may have passed their estimates and 
be provided with funds Their seciets are well kept — 
rather too well, foi nobody knew of this Budget, and not a 
soul has a guess what them Reform is to be At present 
nothing can cut a poorer figuie than the Government doesm 
the House of Commons, and they have shown how weak a 
Government a strong Opposition may make 

I have just been to hear Benson preach at the Temple* 
but I was so distant that I heard ill His manner is im- 
pressive, and language good, without bemg ambitious, but I 
was rathei disappointed Brougham was there, with Lord 
King of all people * 

VOL II i 



114 


EEIGrN 01 WILLIAM I\ 


[Chap XIII 


Fehuaty 15 th — Yesteiday morning news came that 
O’Connell had withdiawn Ins plea of not guilty and (by his 
counsel, Mi Pemn) pleaded guilty, to the unutteiable as- 
tonishment of everybody, and not less delight Shell wrote 
word that his heait sank at the teiror of a gaol, and ‘how 
would such a man face a battle, who could not encounter 
Newgate Eveiybodj’s impression was that it was a 
compromise with the law officers, and that he pleaded guilty 
on condition that he should not be bi ought up for judgment, 
but it was no such thing , he made m the preceding days 
several indirect oveitures to Loid Anglesey, who would listen 
to nothing, and told him that after his conduct he could do 
nothing for him, and that he must take his own comse 
He comes to England directly, and will be bi ought up for 
judgment (if at all, which I doubt) next term He gives out 
that he was foiced to do this m ordei to hasten to England 
and repan m the House of Commons the enors ot O’Gorman 
Mahon There is no calculating what may be the extent of 
the credulity of an lush mob with regard to him, but after 
all his bullies and bravadoes this will hardly go down even 
with them Shell says c O’Connell is fallen indeed ’ I tiust, 
though hardly dare hope, that ‘he sinks like stais that fall 
to rise no moie 5 It is impossible to foim an idea of the as- 
tonishment of everybody at this teimmation of the law pio- 
ceedmgs, which have ended so triumphantly for Loid An- 
glesey and Plunket Lord Anglesey, howevei, wiote word 
to Lady Anglesey that no one could foim an idea of the state 
of that countiy that fiesh plots weie discoveied every day, 
that fiom cncumstances he had been able to do more than 
another man would, but that it was not, he fiimly believed, 
possible to save it 

There was a meeting at Althoip’s on Sunday, when he 
agieed to withdiaw the Transfei Tax and that theie should 
be no Piopertj Tax A moie miseiable figure was nevei cut 
than his, but how should it be otheiwise^ A respectable 
countiy gentleman, well veised in ruial admmistration, m 
fanning and sporting, with all the mtegiity of 15,000? a 
yeai m possession and 50,000? m leversion, is all of a sudden 



1831] 


LORD ALTHORP’S BUDG-I T 


115 


made leader m the House of Commons without being able 
to speak, and Ohancelloi of the Exchequer without any know- 
ledge theoietical or piactical, of finance By way of being 
discreet, and that his plan may be a secret, he consults no- 
body , and then he closets himself with his familial Poulett 
Thomson, who puts this notable scheme into his head, and out 
he blurts it m the House of Commons, without an idea how 
it will be received, without making eithei piepaiations for 
defending it 01 for an alternative m case of its rejection If 
Althoip and Poulett Thomson aie to govern England, these 
things are likely to happen The Opposition cannot contain 
themselves, the women think they are to come m dnectly 
Goulbinn said to Baring as they left the House on Enday, 
‘Mi Baling, you said last yeai you thought my Budget was 
the most profligate that any Chancellor of the Exchequer had 
evei brought foiwaid, I think yon will now no longer say it 
was the most profligate 3 Last night Piaed 1 * made his first 
speech, which was veiy good 

February 17 fh — The day befoie yesteiday Duncannon 
called on me, and told me O’Connell had got up an oppo- 
sition to him ml Kilkenny , that he was of opinion that the 
recent events would dimmish neither his power nor his popu- 
larity, and that m fact he was infallible with the Irish mob 
As Richard says, ‘ if this have no effect, he is immortal 3 

The Duke of Wellington called on my family yesterday, 
he says the Reform question will not be carried, and he 
thinks the Government cannot stand, that things aie certainly 
better (internally), and that the great feai is lest people 
should be too much afraid 

Went to Lady Dudley Ste wait’s last night , a party, saw 
a vulgar-looking, fat man with spectacles, and a mincing, 
lather pretty pink and white woman, his wife The man was 
Napoleon’s nephew, the woman Washington’s gianddaugktei 
What a host of associations, all confused and degraded 1 He 

1 [Wmthrop Mackwortli Piaed, a young man of gi£at promise, who had 
just enteied Parliament He took his degiee m 1825, and was regarded hy 

the Tones as the rival and competitor of Thomas Babmgton Macaulay 

But unhappily he died m 1839 ] 



116 


RBKxN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIII 


is a son of Mm at, the King of Naples, who was said to be 
4 le dieu Mars jusqu’a sis henres du soir 5 He was heir to a 
throne, and is now a lawyer m the United States, and his 
wife, whose name I know not, Sandon told me, was Wash- 
ington’s gianddaughter (This must be a mistake, foi I 
think Washington never had any children ) l 

February 24 th — At Newmarket for three days, from 
Saturday till Tuesday, uding out at eight o’clock every 
morning and inhaling salubnous air Came back the night 
befoie last and found matters m a stiange state The 
Government, strong m the House of Lords (which is a 
secondary consideration), is weak m the House of Com- 
mons to a degiee which is contemptible and udiculous 
Even Sefton now confesses that Althorp is wretched Theie 
he is leading the House of Commons without the slightest 
acquaintance with the various subjects that come under dis- 
cussion, and hardly able to speak at all, not one of the 
Ministers exhibits anything like vigoui, ability, or discretion 
As Althorp cannot speak, Giaham is obliged to talk, or 
thinks he is, and, as I pi edicted, he is failing , 2 with some 
cleverness and plenty of fluency, he is unequal to the situa- 
tion he is placed m, and his difference with Giant the othei 
night and his apology to O’Gorman Mahon have been preju- 
dicial to the Government and to his own chaiactei The 
exultation of the Opposition is unbounded, and Peel plays 
with his power m the House, only not putting it forth be- 
cause it does not suit his convenience , but he does what he 
likes, and it is evident that the very existence of the Govern- 
ment depends upon his pleasure His game, however, is to 
display candour and moderation, and rathei to protect them 
than not, so he defends many of their measures and restrains 
the fieice animosity of his friends, but with a sort of sai castic 
civility, which, while it is put forth m their defence, is 

1 [Aehille Murat and his wife were living at this tune m the Alpha 
Road, Regent’s Park It was said she was "Washington’s giand-mece, b it 
I to not sure what the relationship was, if any She was ceitamly not his 
gianddaughter ] 

3 It was on Loid Ohandos’s motion to take into consideration the state 
of the West Indies 



1831] 


WEAKNESS OF THE OOVLRNME^T 


117 


always done m such a manner as shall best exhibit his own 
authority and his contempt for their peisons individually 
While he upholds the Government he does all he can to 
bring each member of it into contempt, and there they aie, 
helpless and confused, writhing under his lash and their own 
impotence, and only intent upon staving off a division which 
would show the world how feeble they are Neither the 
late noi any other Government ever cut so poor a figuie as 
this does Palmerston does nothing, Grant does worse, 
Giaham does no good, Althorp a great deal of haim, Stanley 
alone has distinguished himself, and what he has had to do 
has done very well It is not, howevei, only m the House 
of Commons that the Government aie m such discredit, the 
Budget did their business in the City, and alienated the trad- 
ing mteiest It is a curious circumstance that both Goul- 
bum and Hemes have been beset by deputations and indi- 
vidual applications for advice and assistance nearly as much 
since they left office as when they were m it by mei chants 
and otheis, who complain to them that it was quite use- 
less to go to Loid Althoip, foi they find that he has not 
the slightest acquaintance with any of the subjects and 
interests on which they addiessed themselves to him, and 
one man told Hemes this, at the same time owning that he 
was a Whig m principle, and had been an opponent of the 
late and a suppoiter of the piesent Government The press 
geneially aie falling off from the Government, which is an 
ominous sign While the Government is thus weak and 
powerless the elements of confusion and violence are gathei- 
mg fresh foice, and without any fixed and loyal authonty to 
check them will pursue their eccentnc course till some public 
commotion arrives, 01 till the Conseivative lesouices of the 
country are called into action and the antagonistic principles 
are fauly brought to trial 

The King went to the play the night before last , was well 
received m the house, but hooted and pelted coming home, 
and a stone shivered a window of his coach and fell into 
Punce George of Cumberland’s lap The King was ex- 
cessively annoyed, and sent for Baling, who was the officer 



118 


FEIGN OF WILLIAM l\ 


[Chap XIII 


riding by bis coach, and asked him if bo knew who bad 
thrown the stone , he said that it terrified the Queen, and 
c was very disagreeable, as be should always be going some- 
where 5 

In the House of Commons Committee on the Parliament 
Offices they are making the whole thing ridiculous by the 
sort of reductions they suggest Hume proposed to cut 
down the President of the Council to 1,000Z a year, on 
which Stormont moved he should have nothing, and this 
(which was intended to ridicule Hume’s proposal) was Gai- 
ned, but will piobably be lescmded There is no directing 
powei anywheie, and the sort of anaichy that is fast in- 
creasing must beget confusion Nobody has the least idea 
how Eefoim will go, 01 of the natuie of what they mean to 
propose, hut the King said to Cecil Fonestei yesteiday, who 
went to resign his office of Gioomof the Bedchambei, ‘ Why 
do you resign^ 5 He said he could not support Government 
or vote foi Eefoim ‘Well, but you don’t know what it is, 
and you might have waited till it came on, for it probably will 
not be carried , 5 and this he repeated twice Loxd Durham 
has volunteered to give up his salary as Pnvy Seal, which is 
no great sacnfice, considering how long he is likely to enjoy 
it, and everybody gives him ciedit for having suggested the 
relief to coals for his own mteiest Lady Holland, who has 
got a West Indian estate, attacked him about the sugar 
duties, and asked him if they would not reduce them He 
said No ’ She retorted, ‘ That is because you have no West 
Indian estate , you have got your own job about coals done, 
and you don’t caie about us 5 In the House of Lords they 
have it all their own wa j The other night, on Lord Strang- 
ford’s motion about the Methuen treaty, Brougham exhibited 
his wondeiful powers m his very best style Without any 
preparation for the question, and after it had been exhausted 
m a very good speech of Goderich’s, he got up, and m answer 
to Strangford and Ellenborough banged then heads together, 
and displayed all his power of ridicule, sarcasm, and argu- 
ment in a manner which they could not themselves help 
admiring The next might he brought forwaid his Chancery 



1831] 


LADY JERSEY AND LORD DURHAM 


119 


Refonn measure m a speech, of thiee hours, which, however 
luminous, was too long for then Loidships, and before the 
end of it the House had melted away to nothing But, not- 
withstanding this success, he must mwaidly chafe at being 
removed fiom his natural element and proper spheie of 
action, and he must burn with vexation at seeing Peel riot 
and revel m his unopposed power, like Hector when Achilles 
would not fight, though this Achilles can never fight again, 
but he would give a great deal to go back to the field, and 
would require much less pei suasion than Achilles did 

February 25 th — A diawmg-room yesterday, at which the 
Puncess Yictona made hei fust appeal ance I was not 
there Lady Jersey made a scene with Lord Dmham She 
got up and crossed the room to him and said, ‘Lord Durham, 
I hear that you have said things about me which are not 
true, and I desne that jou will call upon me to-moilow with 
a witness to hear my positive denial, and I beg that you will 
not repeat any such things about me, 5 or, as the Irishman 
said, c woids to that effect 5 She was m a fury, and he, I 
suppose, m a still greater He mutteied that he should 
never set foot m hei house again, which she did not hear, as 
aftei dehveimg hei self of her speech she flounced back again 
to hei seat, mighty proud of the exploit It arose out of his 
saying that he should make Lady Durham demand an 
audience of the Queen to contradict the things Lady Jersey 
had said of hei and the othei Whig ladies 

I saw Lady Jersey last night, and had a long con- 
versation with hei about hei squabbles She declares 
solemnly (and I believe it) that she never said a syllable to 
the Queen against hei quondam fi lends, owns she abused 
Sefton to other people, cued, and talked, and the end was 
that I am to tiy to put an end to these to acassenes She 
was mighty glorious about her sortie upon Lambton, whom 
she dislikes, but she is vexed at the hornets 5 nest she has 
brought lound her head All this comes of talking The 
wisest man mentioned m history was the vagrant in the 
Tuileries Gardens some years ago, who walked about with 
a gag on, and when taken up by th§ police and questioned 



120 


REItrN 0E WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIII 


why he went about m that guise, he said he was impiudent, 
and that he might not say anything to get himself mto 
jeopardy he had adopted this precaution I wondei what 
Lambton would say now about appointing others instead of 
Palmerston and Co if they should go out, which he talked 
of as such an easy and indifferent matter What airogance 
and folly there is m the world * I don’t know how long this 
will last, but it must end m Peel’s being Prime Minister 
What a foolish proverb that is that 6 honesty is the best 
policy * ’ 

I am just come home ftom breakfasting with Henry Tajloi 
to meet Wordswoith, the same party as when he had Southey 
— Mill, Elliot, Charles Villiers Wordsworth may be bor- 
dering on sixty , hard-featured, brown, wrinkled, with pro- 
minent teeth and a few scattered grey hairs, but nevertheless 
not a disagreeable countenance , and very cheerful, merry, 
courteous, and talkative, much more so than I should have 
expected from the grave and didactic character of his writings 
He held forth on poetry, painting, politics, and metaphysics, 
and with a great deal of eloquence, he is moie conversible 
and with a gi eater flow of animal spirits than Southey He 
mentioned that he never wrote down as he composed, but 
composed walking, udmg, or m bed, and wrote down after, 
that Southey always composes at his desk He talked a 
great deal of Brougham, whose talents and domestic virtues 
he gieatly admires , that he was very generous and affec- 
tionate m his disposition, full of duty and attention to his 
mother, and had adopted and provided for a whole family of 
his brother’s children, and treats his wife’s children as if they 
were his own He insisted upon taking them both with him 
to the drawing-room the other day when he went in state 
as Chancellor They remonstrated with him, but m vam 



121 


CHAPTEE XIV 

Introduction of the Reform Bill — Attitude of the Opposition — Refoim De- 
bates — Peel — Wilberforce and Canning — Old Sir Robert Peel — The City 
Address — Agitation for Reform — Effects of the Reform Bill — Brougham 
as Chancellor — Biougham at the Hoise Guaids — Miss Kemble — Vote on 
the Timbei Duties — Loid Lansdowne’s Opinion of the Bill — Reform 
Bill carried by one Vote — The Kmg m Mourning — The Prince of 
Orange — Peel’s Reseive — Ministers beaten — Parliament dissolved by 
the King m Person — Tumult m both Houses — Failure of the "Whig 
Ministry — The Kmg in their Hands — The Elections — Illumination m 
the City — The Queen alaimed — Loid Lyndhuist’s View of the Bill — 
Lord Grey takes the Garter — The King at \scot — Wmdsoi undei 
William IV — Brougham at Whitbread’s Breweiy and at the British 
Museum — Breakfast at Rogers’ — The Cholera — Quarantine— Meeting of 
Peers — New Parliament meets — Opened by the Kmg — ‘Remain’ at 
Budgewatei House — The Second Reform Bill — The King’s Coionation 
— Cobbett’s Trial — Prince Leopold accepts the Ciown of Belgium — 
Peel and the Tories — A Rabble Opposition — A Council foi the Coro- 
nation 

March 2nd — The gieat day at length arrived, and yester- 
day Lord John Russell moved foi leave to hung in his Reform 
Bill To describe the curiosity, the intensity of the expect- 
ation and excitement, would be impossible, and the secret 
had been so well kept that not a soul knew what the 
measure was (though most people guessed pretty well) till 
they heard it He rose at six o’clock, and spoke for two 
honrs and a quarter — a sweeping measure indeed, much 
more so than anyone had imagined, because the Ministers 
had said it was one which would give general satisfaction, 
wheieas this must dissatisfy all the moderate and will 
probably just stop short enough not to satisfy the Radicals 
They say it was ludicrous to see the faces of the members 
for those places which are to be disfranchised as they were 



122 


BEIG-N OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


seveially announced, and Wetherell, wlio began to take 
notes, as the plan was gradually developed, aftei sundiy 
contoitions and grimaces and fimgmg about his aims and 
legs, thiew down his notes with a mixture of despair and 
ridicule and horroi Not many people spoke last night 
Inglis followed John Bussell, and Fiancis Leveson closed the 
debate m the best speech he has evei made, though rather 
too flowery Eveiythmg is easy m these dajs, otherwise 
how Palmerston, Godench, and Grant can have joined m a 
measuieof this sweeping, violent, and speculative character 
it is difficult to conceive, they who were the disciples of 
Castlereagh and the adherents of Canning , but after the 
Duke of Wellington and Peel cany mg the Catholic question, 
Canning’s friends advocating Badical Befoim, and Eldon 
living to see Brougham on the Woolsack, what maj one not 
expect ? 

What everybody enquires is what line Peel will take, and 
though each party is confident of success m this question, it 
is thought to depend mainly upon the course he adopts and 
the sentiments he expresses Hitheito he has cautiously 
abstained from committing himself m any way, and he is 
free to ac$ as he thinks best, but he ceitamly occupies a 
grand position when he has omnium oculos m se conversos , 
and the whole House of Commons looking with unutterable 
anxiety to his opinions and conduct Such has the couise 
of events and circumstances made this man, who is pro- 
bably yet destined to play a great part, and it may be a veiy 
useful one God Knows how this plan may be received m 
the country, and what may be its fate m Parliament The 
Duke of Wellington, however, is right enough when he says 
that the great piesent danger is lest people should be too 
much afraid, for anything like the panic that prevails I 
never saw, the apprehension that enough will not be done 
to satiate the demon of popular opinion, and the disposition 
to submit implicitly to the universal bellow that pervades 
this country foi what they call Reform without knowing 
what it is As to this measure, the greatest evil of it is that 
it is a pure speculation, and may be productive of the best 



1831] 


THE EIEST RfEORM BILL 


123 


consequences* 01 the worst* 01 even of none at all* foi all that 
its authors and abettors can explain to us or to themselves 
O’Connell made his explanation the othei night* which 
was wi etched* and Stanley’s was very good* but it matters 
not* he will tell the people m Ii eland that he had a victory, 
and they will believe him Nevertheless his defeat m Kil- 
kenny is an excellent thing, and will contribute gieatly to 
destroy the prestige of his power 

Maxell 3 rd — Last night the debate went on* nobody 
remaikably speaking but Macaulay and Wetheiell* the 
formei very brilliant* the lattei long* rambling* and amusing, 
and he sat down with such loud and long cheering as eveiy- 
body agreed they had never heard before m the House of 
Commons* and which was taken not so much as a test of the 
ments of the speech as of an indication of the disposition 
of the majonty of the House Wetheiell was very good fun 
m a conversation he imagined at Cockei mouth between Sir 
James Graham and one of his constituents It is thought 
very sti ange that none of the Minister s have spoken* except 
Althorp the fust night The geneial opinion is that the 
Bill will he lost m the House of Commons* and that then 
Paihament will he dissolved* unless the King should take 
flight and prefei to change his Ministers 

March Bth — On Thursday night the gieat speeches were 
those of Hobhouse on one side and Peel on the other* which 
last was received with the greatest enthusiasm* and some said 
(as usual) that it was the finest oration they had evei heard 
within the walls* of Parliament , it seems by the report of it 
to have been very able and very eloquent The people come 
into the ‘Travellers’ aftei the debate* and bung their different 
accounts all tmctuied by their particular opinions and pre- 
judices* so that the exact tiuth of the relative merits of 
the speakers is only attainable by the newspapei reports, 
imperfect as they are* the next day The excitement is 
beyond anything I ever saw Last night Stanley answeied 
Peel m an excellent speech and one which is likely to raise 
his reputation very high He is evidently desirous of pitting 
himself against Peel* whom he dislikes , and it is probable 



124 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


that they are destined to be the rival leaders of two great 
Parliamentaiy parties, if things settle down into the ancient 
practices of Parliamentaiy warfare The othei events of 
last night were the resignation of Chailes Wjnne and his 
opposition to the Bill, and the unexpected defection from 
Government of Lord Seymoui, the Duke of Somerset’s son, 
and Jeffrey’s speech, which was very able, but somewhat 
tedious 

March 7th — Nothing talked of, thought of, dieamt of, 
but Reform Eveiy creature one meets asks. What is said 
now 9 How will it go 9 What is the last news & What do you 
think 9 and so it is fiom morning till night, m the streets, m 
the clubs, and m private houses Yesterday morning met 
Hobhouse , told him how well I heard he had spoken, and 
asked him what he thought of Peel’s speech , he said it was 
biilliant, imposing, but not much m it Eveiybody cries up 
(more than usual) the speeches on their own side, and despises 
those on the othei, which is peculiaily absurd, because the 
speaking has been very good, and there is so much to be 
said on both sides that the speech of an adveisary may be 
applauded without any admission of his being m the light 
Hobhouse told me he had at first been afiaid that his consti- 
tuents would disappio\e this measure, as so many of them 
would be disfranchised, but that they had behaved nobly and 
were quite content and leady to make any sacrifices for such 
an object I asked nun if he thought it wo*uld be earned, 
he said he did not like to think it would not, for he was 
desirous of keeping what he had, and he was peisuaded he 
should lose it if the Bill were rejected I said it was an 
unlucky dilemma when one-half of the woild thought like 
him and the othei half were equally convinced that if it be 
carried they shall lose everything 

Dined at Boodle’s with the Master of the Rolls and 
Charles Grant, who talked about Peel and the reconstruc- 
tion of the Tory party , that Peel and Wetherell do not yet 
speak, but that the parties have joined, and at the meeting 
at Wetherell’s Hemes went to represent Peel with sixteen 
or eighteen of his friends Ross, another of Peel’s times 



1831] 


THE FIRST SIR ROBERT PEEL 


125 


damnees , told me the same thing, and that they would soon 
come together again Grant said he knew that the Duke of 
Wellington had expressed his readiness to take any part m 
which it was thought he could lendei service, either a 
prominent or a subordinate one or none at all If so he 
will be a gi eater man than he has ever been yet 

Giant talked long and pathetically about the West Indies, 
and told me a cunous anecdote on the authonty of Seailett, 
who was piesent When Wilberfoice went out of Pailia- 
ment he went to Canning and offered him the lead and 
dnection of his party (the Saints), urging him to accept it, 
and assuring him that then support would give him a 
strength which to an ambitious man like him was invalu- 
able Canning took three days to consider it, but finally 
declined, and then the party elected Brougham as their 
chief, hence the representation of Yorkshne and many other 
incidents m Biougham’s caieei 

Grant gave me a curious account of old Sn Eobeit Peel 
He was the younger son o i a meichant, his foitune (very 
small) left to him m the house, and he was not to take it out 
He gave up the fortune and started m business without a 
shilling, but as the active paitner in a concern with two 
other men — Yates (whose daughter he aftei wards mained) 
and another — who between them made up 6,000 2 , from 
this beginning he left 250,0002 apiece to his five younger 
sons, 60,0002 to his £hree daughters each, and 22,0002 a year 
m land and 450,0002 m the funds to Peel In his lifetime he 
gave Peel 12,0002 a year, the others 3,0002 , and spent 3,0002 
himself He was always giving them money, and for objects 
which it might have been thought he would have undervalued 
He paid for Peel’s house when he built it, and for the Cha- 
peau de Paille (2,700 guineas) when he bought it 

Mm ch 10 th — The debate has gone on, and is to be ovei 
to-night , everybody heartily sick of it, but the excitement as 
gieat as ever Last night O’Connell was very good, and 
vehemently cheeied by the Government, Stanley, Dun cannon, 
and all, all differences giving way to then zeal , Attwood, 
the other way, good, Giaham, a total failure, got into 



126 


BEICtN OF WILLI 431 IV 


[Chap XIV 


nautical terms and a simile about a ship, m which he 
floundeied and sank Sn J Yoike quizzed him with great 
effect To-day tlie City went up witli then addiess, to which 
the King gave a veiy geneial answei Thoie was gieat 
curiosity to know what Ins answei would be I lather think 
this addiess was got up by Government Biougham had 
written to Liverpool to encourage the Ref o') mei 9 the i e, as he 
owned to Geoige Yilheis last night , and Pearson was with 
Ellice at the Treasurj foi an hom the day befoie this 
address was moved m the City They have gone so fai 
that they ceitamly wish foi agitation here The Duke of 
Wellington is alarmed, nobody guesses how the question 
will go Went to Lady Jeisey the day before yesterday to 
read hei conespondence with Biougham, who flummened 
hei over with notes full of affection and piaise, to which she 
lesponded m the same stiam, and so they are friends again 
While I was leading her leply the Duke of Wellington came 
m, on which she huddled it up, and I conclude he has not 
seen her effusion News arrived that the Poles have been 
beaten and have submitted There is a great fall m the 
Prench funds, as they aie expected not to paj then dividends 
Europe is m a nice mess The events of a quaitei of a 
century would haidly be food for a week now-a-days 

March 11 th — It is cunous to see the change of opinion 
as to the passing of this Bill The other day nobody would 
hear of the possibility of it, now eveiybody is beginning to 
think it will be carried The tactics of the Opposition have 
been very bad, for they ought to have come to a division 
immediately, when I think Government would have been 
beaten, but it was pietty ceitam that if they gave time to 
the country to declare itself the meetings and addi esses 
would fix the wavoimg and decide the doubtful Tlieie 
ceitamly nevei was anything like the unanimity which pei- 
\ades the countiy on the subject, and though I do not think 
they will break out into lebelhon if it is lost, it is impossible 
not to see that the feeling for it (kept alive as it will be by 
every sort of excitement) must prevail, and that if this 
particular Bill is not carried some other must veiy like it, 



1831] PROBABLE RESULTS OP THE REFORM BILL 127 

and which* if it is much short of this* will only leave a peg to 
hang fresh discussions upon The Government is desperate 
and sees no chance of safety but fiom their success m the 
measure, but I have my doubts whethei they will render 
themselves immoital by it It is quite impossible to guess 
at its effects at present upon the House of Commons m 
the first return which may be made under it* but if a vast 
difference is not made, and if it shall still leave to property 
and peisonal influence any great extent of power, the Tory 
party, which is suie to be levived, will m all probability be 
too strong for the Reforming Whigs The Duke of Wel- 
lington expected to gam stiength by passing the Catholic 
question, wheieas he was mined by it 

March 15 th — It is universally believed that this Bill will 
pass, except by some of the ultias against it, oi b} the fools 
But what next $ That nobody can tell, though to see the 
exultation of the Government one would imagine they saw 
their wa) clearly to a result of wonderful good I have little 
doubt that it will be read a second time, and be a good deal 
battled m Committee Although they are detei mined to 
carry it through the Committee with a high hand, and not to 
suffei any alterations, piobably some sort of compiomise m 
matters of mfenor moment will be made But when it 
comes into operation how disappointed everybody will be, 
and first of all the people 1 Their imaginations are raised to 
the highest pitch, but they will open their eyes very wide 
when they find no sort of advantage accruing to them, when 
they aie deprived of much of the expense and more of the 
excitement of elections, and see a House of Commons con- 
stiucted after their own hearts, which will probably be an 
assemblj m all lespects mferioi to the present Then they 
will not be satisfied, and as it will be impossible to go back, 
there will be plenty of agitators who will preach that we 
have not gone fai enough , and if a Reformed Pailiament 
does not do all that popular clamour shall demand, it will be 
treated with very little ceremony If, howevei, it be true 
that the tendency of this Bill will be to thiow power into the 
hands of the landed interest, we shall have a great Tory 



128 


EEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


party, winch will be selfish, bigoted, and ignoiant, and a 
Eadxcal paity, while the Whig party, who will have earned 
the measure, will sink into insignificance Such present 
themselves to mj nnnd as possible alternatives, as far as it is 
practicable to take anything like a view of probabilities m 
the chaos and confusion that mighty alteiations like these 
produce 

I dined with Lord Giej on Sunday, they are all m high 
spirits Howick told his fathei that he had received a letter 
from some mei chant m the North piaismg the Bill, and 
saying he approved of the whole Government except of 
Poulett Thomson In the evening Biougham, John Eussell, 
and others ai rived I heai of Biougham fiom Sefton, 

with whom he passes most of his spaie time, to lelieve his 
nnnd b} small talk, persiflage, and the gossip of the day 
He tells Sefton 6 that he likes his office, but that it is a mere 
plaything, and there is nothing to do , his life is too idle, and 
when he has cleared off the arreais, which he shall do forth- 
with, that he really does not know how he shall get rid of 
his time , 5 that ‘ he does not suffer the prolixity of counsel, 
and when they wander from the point he bungs them back 
and says, “ You need not say anything on that point , what I 
want to be informed upon is so and so 55 ’ He is a wonderful 
man, the most extraordmaiy I ever saw, but theie is more 
of the mountebank than of greatness m all this It may 
do well enough for Sefton, who is as ignorant as he is sharp 
and shrewd, and captivated with his congenial offhand- 
ism, but it lequires something more than Brougham’s flip- 
pant ipse dimt to convince me that the office of Chancellor 
is such a sinecure and bagatelle He had a levee the 
other night, which was brilliantly attended — the Arch- 
bishops, Duke of Wellington, Lord Grey, a host of people 
Sefton goes and sits m his private room and sees his lecep- 
tions of people, and gives veiy amusing accounts of his 
extreme politeness to the Lord Mayoi and his cool insou- 
ciance with the Archbishop of Canterbuiy The stories of 
him as told by Sefton would be invaluable to his future 
biographer, and never was a life more sure to be written 
hereafter 



1831] 


BROUGHAM AT THE HORSE GUARDS 


129 


March 17 th — The night befoie last Wynfoid attacked 
Brougham’s Bill, and got lashed m return with prodigious 
seventy He is resolved to press it, though George Yilliers 
told me he had promised Lyndhurst to wait for his 
return to town Notwithstanding his vapouring about the 
Court of Chanceiy, and treating it as such child’s play, 
Leach affirms (but he is disappointed and hates him) that he 
is a very bad judge and knows nothing of his business *He 
was a verj bad advocate , why should he make a good 
judge & ’ 

The Eeform Bill is just printed, and already aie the 
vanous objections raised against diffeient parts of it suffi- 
cient to show that it will be pulled to pieces in Com- 
mittee Both parties confident of success on the second 
reading, but the countiy mil have it, theie is a determina- 
tion on the subject, and a unanimity peifectly maivellous, 
and no demonstration of the unfitness of any of its paits will 
be of any avail, some of its details may be corrected and 
amended, but substantially it must pass pretty much as 
it is 

Brougham has been getting into a squabble with the 
military At the drawmg-i oom on Thui sday they refused to let 
his carnage pass through the Hoise Guards, when he oidered 
his coachman to force his way through, which he did He 
was quite wrong, and it was very unbecoming and undignified 
Loid Londonderry called for an explanation m the House 
of Lords, when Brougham made a speech, and a very lame 
one He said he ordered his coachman to go back, who did 
not hear hnn and went on, and when he had got through he 
thought it was not worth while to turn back The Loids 
laughed A few days aftei he drove over the soldieis m 
Downing Stieet, who were relieving guard, but this time he 
did no great harm to the men, and it was not his fault, but 
these things are talked of 

Dined yesterday with General Macdonald to meet the 
Kembles Miss Fanny is neai being veiy handsome from 
the extraordinary expression of hei countenance and fine 
eyes, but her figure is not good She is short, hands and 
von ii k 



130 


KLIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


feet large, aims handsome, skin daik and coarse, and her 
manner wants ease and repose Her mofchei is a veiy agiee- 
able woman I did not sit next to Fanny, and had no talk 
with hei afterwards 

Mm ch 18 th — Met Robeit Clive yesteiday mom mg, \eiy 
low about the Bill, which he thinks so suie to be earned 
that he questions the expediency of dividing on the second 
reading , complained bitteily of the bad tactics and want of 
union of the party, and especially of Peeks inactivity and 
backwaidness m not having rallied and taken the lead moie 
than he has , he is m fact so cold, phlegmatic, and calculat- 
ing that he disgusts those who can’t do without him as a 
leader , he will always have political but never peisonal 
influence 

March 20 th — On Friday night, after not a long but an 
angry and noisy debate, theie was a division on the timber 
duties, and Government was beaten by forty -three, all the 
Saints, West Indians, and anti-Fi ee-traders voting with the 
gieat body of Opposition Then satisfaction was tumultuous 
They have long been desnous of bunging Mmisteis to a trial 
of strength, and they did not care much upon what , they 
wanted to let the woild see the weakness of Government, 
and besides on this occasion they hoped that a defeat might 
be prejudicial to the Reform Bill, so that this mattei of com- 
mercial and fiscal policy is not decided on its own merits, but 
is influenced by passion, violence, paity tactics, and its 
remote beaimg upon another question with which it has no 
immediate relation Althoip was obliged to abandon his 
original proposition of taking off 5s from the duty on Baltic 
timber, which is 55s (and 45s on deals), and adding 10s to 
the Canadian, which is alieady 10s He proposed instead to 
take off 6s from the foimei this yeai, 6s next, and 3s next, 
so as to give plenty of time for the withdrawal of capital, 
and to meet all contingencies The proposal was not unfair, 
and m other times would have been carried Poulett Thom- 
son made a very good speech, clear and satisfactory Peel 
was what is called very factious — that is, m opposition— just 
what the others were, violent and unreasonable as far as the 



1831 ] 


THE REFORM BILL 


131 


question is concerned, but acting upon a system having for 
its object to embarrass the Government 

I still think the second leading of the Refoim Bill will 
pass, and, all things consideied, that it would be the best 
thing that could happen , it is better to capitulate than 
to be taken by storm The people are unanimous, good- 
humouied, and determined, if the Bill is thrown out, their 
good humour will disappear, the country will be a scene of 
violence and upioar, and a most feiocious Parliament will 
be returned, which will not only carry the question of 
Reform, but possibly do so m a very diffeient foim We 
should see the irce leonum vmcla recmantum , and this propo- 
sition is so evident, this state of things is so indisputable, 
that it is marvellous to me how anybody can triumph and 
exult m the anticipation of a victoiy the consequences of 
which would be more unfortunate than a defeat If indeed 
a victoiy could set the matter at lest, confirm, our present in- 
stitutions, and pacify the people, it would be very well , but 
Reform the people will have, and no human powei, moral 01 
physical, can now airest its careei It would be better, then, 
to concede with a good giace, and to modify the measure m 
Committee, which may still be practicable, than to oppose 
it point-blank without a piospect of success 

Maxell 22nd — The debate began again last night, and was 
adjourned It was dull, and the House impatient To-night 
they will divide, and after a thousand fluctuations of opinion 
it is thought the Bill will be thrown out by a small majority 
Then will come the question of a dissolution, which one side 
affiims will take place directly, and the other that the King 
will not consent to it, knowing, as ‘the man m the street 5 (as 
we call him at Newmarket) always does, the greatest seciets 
of kings, and being the confidant of then most hidden 
thoughts As for me, I see nothing but a choice of diffi 
culties eithei way, and victory or defeat would be equally bad 
It is odd enough, but I believe Lord Lansdowne thinks just 
the same, for he asked me yesterday morning what I expected 
would be the result, and I told him my opmion on the whole 
question, and he replied, tf I can add nothing to what you 



132 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IT 


[Chap XIY 


have said , that is exactly ray own opinion/ and I have very 
little doubt that moie than half the Cabinet m their hearts 
abhor the measuie Knatchbull was taken ill m the morning, 
and could not go to the House at all 

March 23 id — The House divided at three o’clock this 
morning, and the second reading was earned by a majonty 
of one m the fullest House that ever was known — 303 to 302 — 
both parties confident up to the moment of division , but the 
Opposition most so, and at last the Government expected to 
be beaten Denman told somebody as they were going to 
divide that the question would be lost, Caleraft and the 
Wynnes’ going ovei at the eleventh houi did the business 
I believe that this division is the best thing that could 
happen, and so I told the Duke in the morning, and that I 
had wished it to be earned by a small majority , I met him 
walking with Aibuthnot m the Park He said, c I could not 
take such a couise’ (that was m answer to my saying I 
wished it to be lead a second time, to be lost m the Com- 
mittee) I said, c But you would have nothing to do with it 
peisonally ’ € No , but as belonging to the party I could not 
recommend such a course,’ which seemed as if he did not 
altogether disagiee with my view of it I stopped at the 
* Tiavelleis ’ till past three, when a man came m and told me 
the news I walked home, and found the streets swarming 
with members of Pailiament coming fiom the House My 
belief is (if they manage well and are active and determined) 
that the Bill will be lost m Committee, and then this will be 
the best thing that could have occurred 

Mwi ch 24<ih — The agitation the other night on the divi- 
sion was prodigious The Government, who stayed m the 
House, thought they had lost it by ten, and the Opposition, 
who weie crowded m the lobby, fancied from then number b 
that they weie sure of winning There was betting going on 
all night long, and large sums have been won and lost The 
people m the lobby were miscounted, and they thought they 
had 303 At the levee jesterday and Council, the Govern- 
ment aie by way of being satisfied, but hardly can be I met 
the Duke of Wellington afterwards, who owned to me that he 



1831] REFORM BILL CABRIED BY ONE VOTE 133 

thought this small majority for the Bill was on the whole the 
best thing that could nave occurred, and that seems to be the 
opinion generally of its opponents 

Nothing particularly at the levee, Biougham very good 
fun The King, who had put off going to the Opera on 
account of the death of his son-in-law Kennedy, appeared m 
mourning (crape, that is), which is reckoned bad taste, the 
public allow natural feeling to supeisede law and etiquette, 
but it is too much to extend that courtesy to a 4 son-in-law/ 
and his daughter is not m England Somebody said that 
4 it was the fiist time a King of England had appeared m 
mourning that his subjects did not wear ’ In the evening to 
the Ancient Concert, where the Queen was, and by-th e-bye 
m mourning, and the Landgravine [of Hesse Homburg] and 
Duchess of Gloucester too, but they (the two latter) could 
hardly be mourning for Lord Cassilis’s son Horace Seymour, 
Mejnell, and Calveit weie all turned out of their places m 
the Lord Chamberlain’s department on account of their votes 
the other night 

The change of Ministers at Pans and Casimn Perier’s 
speech have restored something like confidence about Pi each 
affairs The Prmce of Orange is gone back to Holland, to his 
infinite disgust, he was escorted by Lady Dudley Stewart 
and Mrs Pox as far as Gravesend, I believe, where they were 
found the next day m then white satin shoes and evening 
dresses He made a gieat fool of himself heie, and destroyed 
any sympathy there might have been foi his political mis- 
fortunes, supping, dancing, and acting, and little (rather 
innocent) orgies at these ladies’ houses foimed his habitual 
occupation 

A sort of repose from the cuised Bill for a moment, but 
it is said that many who opposed it before aie going to sup- 
port it m Committee , nobody knows When the Speaker 
put the question, each party roared 4 Aye’ and 4 No’ toks 
mnbus He said he did not know, and put it again After 
that he said, 4 1 am not suie, but I thmk the ayes have it * 
Then the noes went out into the lobby, and the others thought 
they nevei would have done filing out, and the House looked 
so empty when they were gone that the Government was m 



134 


KEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


despair They say the excitement was beyond anything I 
continue to heai gieat complaints of Peel — of his coldness, 
mcommumcativeness, and deficiency m all the qualities 
requisite foi a leader, particularly at such a time There is 
nobody else, or he would be deseited foi any man who had 
talents enough to take a piomment pait, so much does he 
disgust his adherents Nobody knows what are his 
opinions, feelings, wishes, 01 intentions , he will not go en 
avant , and nobod} feels any dependence upon him Theie is 
no help for it and the man’s nature can’t be alteied I said 
all this to Ross jesteidaj, his devoted adheient, and he was 
obliged to own it, with all kinds of 1 eg rets and endeavours to 
soften the picture 

April 14th — The Refoira campaign has leopened with a 
violent speech fiom Hunt denouncing the whole thing as a 
delusion, that the people begin to find out how they are 
humbugged, and that as it will make nothing cheapei they 
don’t care about it The man’s drift is not very cleai 
whether the Bill is leally unpalatable at Preston or whethei 
he wants to go fuithei dnectlj At the same time John 
Russell announced some alterations m the Bill, not, as he 
asseited, trenching upon its pimciple, but, as the Opposition 
declares, altering it altogether On the whole, these things 
have mspiuted its opponents, and, as they must produce 
delay, are m so fai bad for the Reform cause Besides, 
though the opinion of the countiy is universally in its favour, 
people are beginning to think that it may be rejected without 
any apprehension of such dieadful consequences ensuing as 
have been piedieted Then the state of Ii eland is such that 
it is thought the Mmisteis cannot encounter a dissolution, 
not that I feel any secunty on that head, foi I believe the 
Cabinet is ruled by two 01 thiee men reckless of everything 
provided they can prolong their own powei 

April 24 ih — At Newmaiket all last week, and returned 
to town last night to hear fiom those who saw them the extra- 
ordinary scenes m both Houses of Parliament (the day before) 
which closed the eventful week The Refoim battle began 
again on Monday last The night befoie I went out of town 



1831] 


DEFEAT AND DISSOLUTION 


135 


I met Duncannon, and walked with, him up Kegent Stieet, 
when he told me that he did not believe the Mimsteis would 
be beaten, but if they weie they should certainly dissolve 
instantly, that he should have liked to dissolve long ago, 
but they owed it to their friends not to have recourse to a 
dissolution if they could help it On Monday General 
Gascoyne moved that the Committee should be instructed 
not to reduce the members of the House of Commons, and 
this was earned aftei two nights’ debate by eight The dis- 
solution was then decided upon Meanwhile Lord Wham- 
cliffe gave notice of a motion to addiess the King not to 
dissolve Pailiament, and this was to have come on on Friday 
On Thursday the Ministers weie again beaten m the House 
of Commons on a question of adjournment, and on Friday 
morning they got the King to go down and piorogue Parlia- 
ment m person the same da> This coup d’etat was so 
sudden that nobody was aware of it till within two 01 thiee 
houis of the time, and many not at all They told him that 
the cieam-eolouied horses could not be got leady, when he 
said, ‘Then I will go with anybody else’s hoises 7 Somebody 
went off m a carnage to the Tower, to fetch the mown, and 
they collected such attendants as they could find to go with 
his Majesty The Houses met at one oi two o’clock In the 
House of Commons Sir E Vyvyan made a furious speech, 
attacking the Government on ever} point, and (excited as he 
was) it was veiy well done The Ministers made no leply, 
but Sn Francis Buidett and Tennjson endeavoured to inter- 
rupt with calls to ordei, and when the Speaker decided that 
Vyvyan was not out of Older Tennyson disputed his opinion, 
which enraged the Speakei , and soon aftei called up Peel, 
for whom he was resolved to procure a hearing The scene 
then resembled that which took place on Lord Noith’s 
resignation m 1782, foi Altlioip (I think) moved that Buidett 
should be heard, and the Speaker said that ‘ Peel was m 
possession of the House to speak on that motion 9 He made 
a very violent speech, attacking the Government foi their 
incompetence, folly, and lecklessness, and tieated them with 
the utmost asperity and contempt In the midst of his 



136 


EEIGN OF WILLI 1M IV 


LChap XIV 


speech the guns announced the arrival of the King, and at 
each explosion the Government gave a loud cheei, and Peel 
was still speaking m the midst of every sort of noise and 
tumult when the Ushei of the Black Eod knocked at the door 
to summon the Commons to the House of Peers There 
the proceedings weie if possible still more violent and cut- 
in ageous, those who weie present tell me it resembled 
nothing but what we lead of the Serment du Jeu de Paume/ 
and the whole scene was as much like the prepaiatory days 
of a revolution as can well be imagined Whaincliffe was 
to have moved an addiess to the Crown against dissolving 
Parliamept, and this motion the Mmisteis weie resolved 
should not come on, but he contrived to bring it on so far as- 
to get it put upon the Journals The Duke of Richmond 
endeavoured to pi event any speaking by laismg points of 
ordei, and moving that the Lords should take then regular 
places (m separate ranks), which, howevei, is impossible at 
a loyal sitting, because the cioss benches aie removed, this 
put Lord Londondeny m such a fury that he rose, i oared, 
gesticulated, held up his whip, and foui or hve Lords held 
him down by the tail of his coat to prevent his flymg on 
somebody Loid Lyndhuist was equally furious, and some 
sharp words passed which were not distinctly heaid In the 
midst of all the dm Lord Mansfield rose and obtained a. 
hearing Whaincliffe said to him, ‘ For God’s sake, Mans- 
field, take caie what you aie about, and don’t disgiace us 
more m the state we are m J 6 Don’t be afraid/ he said , ‘I 
will say nothing that will alarm you / and accordingly he 
pronounced a tumming philippic on the Government, which, 
delivered as it was m an imposing mannei, attired m his 
lobes, and with the greatest eneigy and excitation, was pro- 
digiously effective While he was still speaking, the King 
arrived, but he did not desist even while his Majesty 1 was 

1 When Lord Mansheld sat down he said, ( I have spoken English to 
them at least ’ Loid Lyndhurst told me that Lord Mansfield stopped 
speaking as soon as the door opened to admit the Kng He said he never 
saw him so excited before, and in his lobes he looked verj giand lie also* 
told me that he was at Lady Holland’s giving an account of the scene 
when Brougham came m He said, ( I was telling them what passed the 



1831] 


THE KING- DISSOLVES PARLIAMENT 


137 


enteimg the House of Loids, nor till he appioaehed the 
throne, and while the King was ascending the steps the 
hoarse voice of Lord Londonderry was heard crying i Hear, 
hear, hear^ The King from the robmg-ioom heaid the 
noise, and asked what it all meant The conduct of the 
Chancelloi was most extraordmaiy, skipping m and out of 
the House and making most extraordinary speeches In 
the midst of the uproar he went out of the House, when 
Lord Shaftesbury was moved into the chan In the middle 
of the debate Brougham again came m and said, ‘it was 
most extraoidmary that the King’s undoubted right to dis- 
solve Parliament should be questioned at a moment when 
the House of Commons had taken the unpiecedented course 
of stopping the supplies , 5 and having so said (which was a 
lie) he flounced out of the House to leceive the King on his 
arrival The King ought not propeily to have worn the 
crown, nevei having been crowned , but when he w^as m the 
lobmg-ioom he said to Loid Hastings, ‘Loid Hastings, I 
wear the crown , wheie is it & 5 It was brought to him, and 
when Loid Hastings was going to put it on his head he said, 

4 Nobody shall put the ciown on my head but myself 5 He 
put it on, and then turned to Loid Grey and said, ‘ Now, my 
Lord, the coionation is over 5 George Villieis said that m 
his life he never saw such a scene, and as he looked at the 
King upon the thione with the ciown loose upon his head, 
and the tall, grim figuie of Lord Giey close beside him, with 
the swoid of state m his hand, it was as if the King had 
got his executionei by his side, and the whole picture looked 
strikingly typical of his and our futuie destinies 

Such has been the termination of this Parliament and of 
the first act of the new Mmistenal drama, there nevei was 
a Government ousted with more ignominy than the last, nor 
a Ministr} that came m with higher pretensions, greater 
professions, and better prospects than the present, but 

other day m our house,’ when Brougham explained his pait by saying that 
the Ushei of the Black Rod (Tyiwhit) was at Its elbow saying, ‘My Lord 
Chancelloi, you must come , the King is waiting for } ou come along , you 
must come,’ and that he was thus dragged out of the House m this hurry 
and without having time to sit down or say any moie 



138 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


nothing evei corresponded less than then performances 
with then pietensions The composition of the Government 
was radically defective, and with a good deal of loose talent 
there was so much of passion, folly, violence, and knavery, 
together with inexperience and ignoiance mixed up with it, 
that fiom the very beginning they cut the soinest possible 
figuie Such men as Richmond, Dui ham, Althoip, and 
Graham, m their diffeient ways, weie enough to spoil any 
Cabinet, and consequently their couise has been marked by 
a series of blundeis and defeats Up to the moment of the 
dissolution few people expected it would happen, some 
thinking the King would not consent, otheis that the 
Government would nevei venture upon it, but the King is 
weak and the Mimstiy leckless That disposition, which at 
first appeared so laudable, of putting himself implicitly into 
the hands of his Ministers, and which seemed the more so 
fiom the contrast it afforded to the conduct of the late King, 
who was always thwarting his Ministers, throwing diffi- 
culties m their waj, and playing a double part, becomes 
\icious when earned to the extent of paralysing all free 
action and fiee opinion on his part, and of suffeung himself 
to be made the mstiument of any measures, however violent 
It may be said, indeed, that he cordially agrees with these 
men, and has opinions coincident with thems, but this is not 
piobable , and when we lemembei his unlimited confidence m 
the Duke up to the moment of his resignation, it is impossible 
to believe that he can have so rapidly imbibed principles the 
very reverse of those which the Duke maintained 1 * * It is 
more likely that he has no opinions, and is really a meie 
puppet m the hands into which he may happen to fall Lord 
Mansfield had an audience, and gave him his sentiments 
upon the state of affairs He will not sav what passed 
between, them, but it is clear that it was of no use 

The Queen and the Royal Family are extremely unhappy 
at all these things, but the former has no influence whatever 

1 The King was extremely opposed to the dissolution, and had remon- 

strated against it ever since it was first proposed to him. m March See 

Lord Grey’s letter m the ; Times 9 of March 26, 1866 



1831] 


THE GENEKAL ELECTION 


139 


with, the King In the meantime theie are veiy different 
opinions as to the result of the elections, some thinking that 
Government will not gam much by the dissolution, others 
that they (or at least Reform) will win everything It seems 
to me quite impossible that they should not win everything, 
but time is gained to the othei side The census of 1831 will 
be out, and the chaptei of accidents may and must make much 
diffeience, still I see no possibility of ariestxng the progress 
of Reform, and whether this Bill oi anothei like it passes is 
much the same thing The Government have made it up 
with O’Connell, which is one mouthful of the duty pudding 
they have had to swallow, as one of then own friends said of 
them 

Apil 26th — Last night at the Queen’s ball, heaps of 
people of all sorts , eveiybody talking of the elections Both 
parties pretend to be confident, but the Government with 
the best leason The county membeis, as Sefton says, aie 
tumbling about like lime-pnis, and though it seems not 
improbable that the Opposition will gam m the boroughs, 
they must lose gieatly m the counties, and we must not 
only look to the relative numbeis, but to the composition of 
the respective parties A large mmoiity composed of borough 
nominees, coiporation membeis, and onty a spi inkling of 
what is called independence would not look well Large 
sums have been subscribed on both sides, but on that of the 
Opposition tbeie is a want of candidates moie than of places 
to send them to 

I met Lyndhurst last night, and asked him what it was 
he said m the House of Lords He said it was nothing very 
violent, but that it was not heaid The Duke of Richmond 
had spoken to the point of oidei, and said m a veiy marked 
way c he saw a noble Eail sitting by a junior Baron ’ This 
was Lyndhuist, who was offended at the sneer upon his want 
of cmciennete, and who retorted that before the noble Duke 
made such speeches on points of ordei he would do well to 
make himself acquainted with the orders of the House, of 
which it was obvious he knew nothing The Duke of Devon- 
shire told Lady Lyndhurst that her husband ought to resign 



140 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


liis judicial situation because he had displayed hostility to 
Government the other night, but it would be a new maxim 
to establish that the Judges weie to be amenable to the 
Minister foi their political opinions and Pailiamentary con- 
duct 

April 29th — The night before last there was an illumi- 
nation, got up by the foolish Lord Majoi, which of course 
produced an uproar and a geneial breaking of obnoxious 
windows Loid Mansfield and the Duke of Buccleuch went 
to Melbourne m the morning and remonstiated, asking what 
protection he meant to afford to then properties A gun 
(with powder only) was fired over the heads of the mob from 
Apsley House, and they did not go thei e again The Govern- 
ment might have discouraged this manifestation of triumph, 
but they wished foi it for the purpose of increasing the 
popular excitement They don’t care what they do, or what 
otheis do, so long as they can keep the people m a ferment 
It is disgusting to the last degree to hear their joy and ex- 
ultation at the success of their measures and the good pros- 
pects held out to them by the elections , all of which may 
turn out very well, but if it does not c who shall set hoddj - 
doddy up again ? 9 Lord Cleveland has subscribed 10,000? 
to the election fund 

Lord Yarboiough, by a veiy questionable piece of political 
morality, has given the Holmes boroughs m the Isle of Wight 
to Government, they are the property of Sir L Holmes’s 
daughter, whose guaidian he is as well as executor under 
the will In this capacity he has the disposal of the boroughs, 
and he gives them to the Ministers to fill with men who are 
to vote for their disfianchisement A large price is paid for 
them — 4,000? — but it makes a difference of eight votes, and if 
the Bill is carried they will be worth nothing The elections 
promise well for Government even m the boroughs, as I was 
persuaded they would O’Connell has put forth a pioclama- 
tion entreating, commanding peace, ordei, and suppoit of the 
Bill’s supporters Tom Moore called on me yesterday morning 
He said that he was a Eeformer and liked the Bill, but he 
was fully awaie of all that it might produce of evil to the 



1831] 


THE QUEEN ALA EM ED IN THE CITY 


141 


present system He owned frankly that he felt like an Irish- 
man, and that the wrongs of Ireland and the obstinacy of 
the faction who had oppressed her still rankled m his heart, 
and that he should not be sorry at any vengeance which 
might overtake them at last I hear renewed complaints of 
Peel, of his selfish, cold, calculating, cowardly policy , that 
we are indebted to him principally for our present condition 
I have no doubt —to his obstinacy and to his conduct m the 
Catholic question fiist, to his opposition and then to his sup- 
poit of it Opposing all and every sort of Reform tofos vimbus 
while he daied, now he makes a death-bed profession of 
acquiescence m something which should be more moderate 
than this All these things disgust people inconceivably, and 
it is not the less melancholy that he is our only resource, and 
his capacity foi business and power m the House of Com- 
mons places him so far above all his competitois that if we 
aie to have a Conseivative paity we must look to him alone 
to lead it 

May 7th — Nothing could go on worse than the elections 
— Refoimeis returned everywheie, so much so that the 
contest is over, and we have onl} to await the event and 
see w ha t the House of Lords will do In the House of 
Commons the Bill is already earned It is supposed that the 
Ministers themselves begin to be alarmed at the devil they 
have let loose, and well they may , but he is out, and stop 
him who can The King has put off his visit to the Citj 
because he is ill, as the Government would have it believed, 
but really because he is furious with the Lord Mayor at all 
the liots and uproai on the night of the illumination That 
night the Queen went to the Ancient Concert, and on hei 
return the mob surrounded the carriage , she had no guards, 
and the footmen were obliged to beat the people off with 
their canes to prevent their thiustmg then heads anto the 
coach She was frightened and the King very much annoyed 
He heard the noise and tumult, and paced backwards and 
forwards m his room waiting for her return When she 
came back Lord Howe, bei chamberlain, as usual preceded 
her, when the King said, ‘How is the Queen 9 ’ and went 



142 


REIGN OE "WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


down to meet laei Howe, who is an eager anti-Reformer, 
said, ‘Very much frightened, sir/ and made the worst of it 
She was in fact temfied, and as she detests the whole of 
these proceedings, the more distressed and disgusted The 
King was veiy angry and immediately declared he would 
not go to the City at all It is supposed that Government 
will make a large batch of Peers to secme the Bill m the 
House of Loids, but the press have alieady begun to attack 
that House, declaring that if they pass the Bill it will be 
from compulsion, and if they do not that they aie the ene- 
mies of the people 

May 1 1th — The elections aie going on universally m 
favour of Reform , the great interests m the counties aie 
everywhere broken, and old connections dissevered In Wor- 
cestershire Captain Spencer, who has nothing to do with the 
county, and was bi ought there by his brother-in-law, Loid 
Lyttelton, has beaten Lygon, backed by all the wealth of his 
family , the Manneis have withdrawn fiom Leicestershire and 
Cambridgeshire, and Lord E Someiset fiom Gloucester- 
shire , Lord Worcestei too is beaten at Monmouth Every- 
where the tide is n resistible , all considerations are sacrificed 
to the success of the measure At the last Essex election 
Colonel Tynell saved Western, who would have been beaten 
by Long Wellesley, and now Western has coalesced with 
Wellesley against Tynell, and will throw him out In 
Northamptonshire Altkorp had pledged himself to Cait- 
wnght not to bnng foiwaid another candidate on his side, 
and Milton joins him and stands The state of excitement, 
doubt, and apprehension which prevails will not quickly 
subside, foi the battle is only beginning , when the Bill is 
carried we must prepare for the second act 

May lMli — The elections are still going for Reform They 
count upon a majonty of 140 m the House of Commons, but 
the Tones meditate resistance in the House of Lords, which 
it is to be hoped will be fruitless, and it is piobable the Peers 
will trot round as they did about the Catholic question when 
it comes to the point There is a great hubbub at Northamp- 
ton about a pledge which Althorp is supposed to have 



1831] 


LORD MUNSTER’S PEERAGE 


143 


given not to bring foi ward anothei candidate against Cart- 
wright, which the anti-Reformers say he has violated in 
putting up Milton, and moreover that such conduct is very 
dishonest , and as his honesty was his puncipal lecommenda- 
tion, if he should have foifeited that what would lemain to 
him 9 On the contraiy his fi lends say that he gave no such 
pledge, that he expiessed a hope there might be no contest, 
but the people would have Milton , and though Althoip le- 
gretted his standing, as he did stand they were obliged to 
join foi their common safety So much foi this electioneering 
squabble, of which time will elicit the tiuth Last night I 
went to Prince Leopold’s, where was Geoige Fit/claience 
receiving congiatulations on his new dignity (Eail of 
Munstei) He told me everybody had been very kind about 
it — the King, Loid Giey, his fuends, and the public He 
had told Lord Grey he was anxious his biotheis and sisters 
should have the rank of maiquis’s sons and daughters (to 
give them titles) Grey had only objected that then titles 
would then lepiesent a higher rank than his own 1 but that 
he laid no stress on that objection, and it would be done 
directly Melbourne has wntten a lettei to the Lord Mayor 
assuring him that ill health is the only obstacle to the King’s 
visit to the City, and that there is no foundation for the 
report of his displeasuie, the Lord Mayor’s explanation 
having pioved quite satisfactory This is not true, I believe, 
but they make him say so 

May 22nd — -At Epsom all last week for the races at a 
house which Loid Chestei field took, nobody there but the 
three sisters 2 and then two husbands Rode out on the downs 
every morning, and enjoyed the fine countiy, as beautiful as 
any I have seen of the kind After the races on Enday 
I went to Richmond to dme with Lord and Lady Lyndhurst, 
and was refreshed by his vigorous mind after the three oi 
four days I had passed He thinks the state of things veiy 
bad, has a great contempt for this Government, is very 

1 [If Lord Grey said this it was a mistake The younger sons and 
daughters of marquises take rank after earls ] 

3 [Lady Chesterfield, Mrs Anson, and Miss Forester ] 



144 


BEIGN OF WILLIAM I\ 


[Chap XIV 


doubtful what will happen, thinks Lord Grej will not stand, 
and that Biougham will be Chancelloi and Pume Minister, 
like Claiendon, he talked of the late Government, the Duke 
of Wellington and Peel, he said that the formei meddled 
with no depaitment but that of Foreign Affairs, which he 
conducted entirely, that he undei stood them better than 
anything else, and if he came into office again would be 
Foreign Secietaiy , that m the Cabinet he was always can- 
did, leasonable, and leady to discuss fairly eveiy subject, but 
not so Peel He, if his opinion was not adopted, would take 
up a newspapei and sulk Lyndhurst agreed with me about 
his manneis, his coldness, and how he disgusted instead of 
conciliating people , he said that when any of his friends m 
Parliament pioposed to speak m any debate, he never en- 
couiaged 01 assisted them, but answ eied with a diy c Do you 
to then notification of a wish or intention He said that this 
Bill was drawn up b} Lambton himself, but so ill done, so 
ignorantly and inefficiently, that thev weie obliged to send 
for Harrison, who, m conjunction with the Attorney-General, 
diew it up afiesh, that when John Russell brought it for- 
ward the Bill was still undrawn 1 He says that there is not 
the least doubt they never had an idea of bringing forward 
any such measure as this till they found themselves so weak 
m the House of Commons that nothing but a populai ciy and 
Radical suppoit could possibly save them It is very lemark- 
able when we look back to the moment of the dissolution of 
the late Government, when Brougham was m the House of 
Commons armed with his Bill, which, though unknown, was 
so dreaded, and which turns out to have been mere milk and 
water compared with this He said Brougham was offered 
the Attorney- Geneialship by a note, which he tore m pieces 
and stamped upon, and sent woid that theie was no answer, 
that he has long aspued to be Chancelloi, and wished to get 
into 1 the House of Lords He ridicules his pietensions to 

fc* 1 [Compare the details of the prepaiation of the Refoim Bill published 
by Lord Bussell in the last edition of his £ Essay on the Biitish Constitution 9 
Much of this conversation of Lord Lyndhurst’s is extremely wide of the 
truth, but it is letamed to show what was said and believed by competent 
persons at the time ] 



1831] 


LORD BROUGHAM AS A JUDGE 


145 


such wonderful doings in his Court and in the Bills he has an- 
nounced , says that he has decided no bankruptcy cases, and, 
except some Scotch appeals m the House of Lords, has got 
nd of haidly any arreais , and as to his Bills, the Bank- 
ruptcy Bill was objectionable and the Chancery Bill he has 
never bi ought on at all , that he knows he affects a short cut 
to judicial eminence, but that without labour and leading 
he cannot adnnnistei justice in that Couit, although no 
doubt his gieat acuteness and lapid perception may often 
enable him at once to see the ments of a case and hit upon 
the important points This he said m reply to what I 
told him of Brougham’s trumpeter Sefton, who echoes from 
his own lips that ‘ the Court of Chancery is such a sinecure 
and mere child’s play ’ 

In the me antim e the elections have been going languidly 
on, and are now neaily over , contiai) to the prognostications 
of the Tories, they have gone off very quietly, even m Ire- 
land not many contests, the anti-Reformers being unable to 
make any fight at all , except m Shropshire they are dead- 
beat eveiy where Northamptonshire the sharpest contest, 
and the one which has made the most ill blood , this par- 
ticular election has produced a good deal of violence , else- 
wheie the Reformers have it hollow, no matter what the 
characters of the candidates, if they are only for the Bill. 
Calcraft and Wellesley, the former not respected, the latter 
covered with disgrace, have beat Bankes and Tyrrell Low- 
ther had not a chance m Cumberland, where Sir James 
Graham got into another scrape, for in an impertinent speech 
he made an attack upon Scarlett, which drew upon him a 
message and from him an apology Foimerly, when a man 
use of offensive expressions and was called to account, 
he thought it right to go out and stand a shot before he ate 
his words, but now-a-days that piece of chivalry is dispensed 
with, and politicians make nothing of being scurrilous one 
da) and humble the next Hyde Yilliers bas been appointed 
to succeed Sandon at the Board of Control as a Whig and a 
Reformer He was m a hundred minds what line he should 
take, and had written a pamphlet to prove the necessity of 

VOL II L 



i46 


EEIGN OF WILLIAM I\ 


[Chap XIV 


giving Mmisteis seats in. both Houses (as in France), which 
he has piobably put m the fire I am veiy glad he has got 
the place , and though his opinions were not very decided 
before, he has always been anti-Tory, and lias done nothing 
discreditable to get it, and it was offered to him m a very 
flattering mannei 

May 2 8th — Yesterday Lord Grey was invested with the 
blue riband, though there is no vacancy, the only piecedent 
is that of Loids Liverpool and Castlereagh (which was 
thought wiong), but it was on the occasion of the peace 
after Buonaparte’s overthrow and when Castlereagh returned 
with such eclat fiom Paris that the whole House of Commons 
rose and cheeied hnn as he entered it 

I met Alexander Baling the other night, who said it was 
certain that the King was full of 1 egrets at the extent of the 
measures into which he had been huiried, when I told him 
of Lord Giey’s Garter, and asked him what he said to that, 
and how that boie out the assertion of the King’s regrets 
The fact is that although on one side a most indecent though 
effectual use of the King’s name has been made, on the other 
there is nothing that is not asserted with equal confidence 
about c his difficulties and his scruples 9 Sefton told me that 
it was the soit of things that were said that made the King 
write to Loid Giey (he saw the letter) and tell him that he 
thought it of the greatest importance at the present moment 
to confer upon him a signal mark of his legaid and of his 
satisfaction with the whole of his conduct It is, I believe, 
true that the King felt some alarm and some doubt about 
the dissolution, but I do not believe that he has any doubts 
or fears at present Indeed, how should he not have ^uffeied 
himself to be led away by these people and to become iden- 
tified with their measure ^ They have given him an ample 
share of the praise of it , they assure him it will be eminently 
successful, he sees himself popular and applauded to the 
skies, and as far as things have gone it has been successful, 
for the elections have gone on and gone off very peaceably, 
and the country m expectation of the passing of the Bill is 
m a state of profound tranquillity 



1831] 


THE KING- AT ASCOT 


147 


June 5th — All last week at Fern Hill for the Ascot races , 
the Chesterfields, Tavistocks, Belfasts, George Ansons, Mon- 
tague, Stradbi oke, and Brooke Greville wei e thei e The Royal 
Family came to the course the fiist day with a great cortege — 
eight coaches-and-foui, two phaetons, pony sociables, and 
led hoises — Munster riding on hoiseback behind the King’s 
carnage, Augustus (the parson) and Frederick driving phae- 
tons The Duke of Richmond was m the King’s caleche 
and Loid Grey m one of the coaches The reception was 
strikingly cold and indifferent, not half so good as that 
which the late King used to receive William was boied 
to death with the races, and his own hoise broke down On 
Wednesday he did not come , on Thursday they came again 
Beautiful weather and unprecedented multitudes The King 
was much moie cheered than the first day, oi the greatei 
number of people made a greater noise A few cheers were 
given to Lord Grey as he retained, which he just acknow- 
ledged and no more On Friday we dined at the Castle, 
each day the King asked a ciowd of people from the neigh- 
bourhood We arrived at a little before seven , the Queen 
was only just come m fiom riding, so we had to wait till 
near eight Above forty people at dinnei, for which the 
room is not nearly large enough , the dinner was not bad, 
but the room insufferably hot The Queen was taken 
out by the Duke of Richmond, and the King followed 
with the Duchess of Saxe Weimai, the Queen’s sister He 
drinks wine with everybody, asking seven or eight at a time 
After dinner he drops asleep We sat for a short time 
Dnectly after coffee the band began to play, a good band, 
not numerous, and principally of violins and stringed instru- 
ments The Queen and the whole party sat theie all the 
evening, so that it was, m fact, a conceit of instrumental 
music The King took Ladj Tavistock to St George’s Hall 
and the ball-room, where we walked about, with two or three 
servants carrying lamps to show the proportions, for it was 
not lit up The whole thing is exceedmglj magnificent, and 
the manner of life does not appear to be very formal, and 
need not be disagreeable but for the boie of never dining 



148 


REIGN OR WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


•without twenty sti angeis The Castle holds veiy few people, 
and with the King’s and Queen’s immediate suite and toute la, 
Idtarckse it was quite full The King’s four sons were 
theie, signor eg giantt tutti, and the whole thing ‘ donnait a, 
penser ’ to those who looked back a little and had seen other 
days We sat m that 100m m which Lyndhuist has often 
talked to me of the famous five hours’ discussion with the 
late King, when the Catholic Bill hung upon his caprice 
Palmerston told me he had never been m the Castle since 
the eventful day of Hemes’ appointment and non-appoint- 
ment , and how many things have happened smee 1 What a 
changemmt de decoration , no longer George IY , capricious, 
luxurious, and misanthiopic, liking nothing but the society 
of listeners and flatteieis, with the Conyngham tribe and 
one 01 two Toiy Ministers and foreign Ambassadois, but a 
plain, vulgar, hospitable gentleman, opening his doors to all 
the world, with a numeious family and suite, a Whig 
Mimstij, no foreigneis, and no toad-eaters at all Nothing 
can be more different, and looking at him one sees how 
soon this act will be finished, and the same be changed 
for another probably not less dissimilar Queen, bastards, 
Whigs , 1 all will disappear, and God knows what replaces 
them Came to town yesteiday, and found a quarrel between 
Henry Bentmek and Sn Roger Gresley, which I had to 
settle, and did settle amicably in the course of the evening 

June 1th — Dined with Sefton yesterday, who gave me an 
account of a dinner at Rowell Buxton’s on Saturday to see 
the breweiy, at which Biougham was the ‘magnus Apollo ’ 
Sefton is excellent as a commentator on Biougham, he says 
that he watches him incessantly, nevei listens to anybody 
else when he is theie, and rows him unmercifully aftei wards 
for all the humbug, nonsense, and palavei he hears him talk 
to people They were twenty-seven at dinnei Talleyrand 
was to have gone, but was frightened by being told that he 
would get nothing but beefsteaks and porter, so he stayed 

1 Not Wbigs — they are les btentenus , which they were not before — July 
1888 



1831] 


DINNER AT HAN RUBY’S BREWER! 


149 


awaj They dined m the brewliouse and visited the whole 
establishment Loid Giey was there m star, garter, and 
riband Theie were people ready to show and explain every- 
thing, but not a bit — Brougham took the explanation of 
everything into his own hands— the mode of brewing, the 
machinery, down to the feeding of the cait-horses After 
dmnei the account-books were brought, and the young Bux- 
tons were beckoned up to the top of the table by then father 
to hear the words of wisdom that flowed from the lips of my 
Lord Chancelloi He affected to study the ledger, and made 
various pertinent remarks on the mannei of book-keeping 
There was a man whom Biougham called ‘ Cornelius 5 (Sefton 
did not know who he was) with whom he seemed veiy familiar 
While Biougham was talkmg he dropped his voice, on which 
‘ Cornelius 5 said, ‘ Earl Gi ey is listening , 5 that he might 
speak loudei and so nothing be lost He was talking of 
Paley, and said that ‘ although he did not always understand 
his own meannig, he always contrived to make it intelligible 
to others , 5 on which 6 Cornelius 5 said, c My good friend, if he 
made it so cleai to others he must have had some compre- 
hension of it himself , 5 on which Sefton attacked him after- 
wards, and swore that c he was a meie child m the hands of 
“ Cornelius , 55 5 that he never saw anybody so put down 5 
These people are all subscribes to the London Univer- 
sity, and Sefton swears he overheaid Brougham tell them 
that 4 Sir Isaac Hewton was nothing compaied to some of 
the present professors , 5 or something to that effect I put 
down all this nonsense because it amused me m the recital, 
and is excessively characteristic of the man, one of the most 
remarkable who ever existed Lady Sefton told me that he 
went with them to the British Museum, where all the officers 
of the Museum were in attendance to receive them He 
would not let anybody explain anything, but did all the 
honours himself At last they came to the collection of 
minerals, when she thought he must be bi ought to a stand- 
still Their conductor began to describe them, when Broug- 
ham took the words out of his mouth, and dashed off with 



150 


REIGN OP WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


as uracil ease and familianty as if he had been a Buckland 
or a Cuviei Such is the man, a grand mixtuie of moial, 
political, and intellectual incongruities 

June 10 th — Breakfasted the day before yesteiday with 
Rogers, Sydney Smith, Luttrell, John Russell, and Mooie , 
excessively agieeabie I nevei heard anything more entei- 
taming than Sydney Smith , such bursts of meniment and 
so diamatic Bieakfasts aie the meals for poets I met 
Wordsworth and Southey at breakfast Rogeis’ are always 
agreeable 

June 15 th — Five new peerages came out yesteiday — 
Seffcon, Kmnand, Fmgall, Leitrim, and Agar Ellis , John 
Russell and Stanley aie to be m the Cabinet At the ball 
at St James’s the othei night George Dawson told me that 
they had 270 people m the House of Commons on the side 
of the Opposition, if they could command their attendance , 
that he did not mean to say no Reform Bill would pass, but 
that the details of this Bill had nevei yet been discussed, 
and when they weie it would be so clearly shown that it is 
impracticable that this identical measuie nevei could pass 
The Opposition are beginning to recover fiom their dis- 
couragement , there is to be a meeting at Lord Mansfield’s 
on Friday, and they do, I believe, mean to fight it out 

June 1 9th — The last few days I have been completely 
taken up with quaiantme, and taking means to prevent the 
cholera coming here That disease made great ravages m 
Russia last year, and in the winter the attention of Govern- 
ment was called to it, and the question was laised whether 
we should have to purify goods coming here m case it broke 
out again, and if so how it was to be done Government 
was thinking of Reform and other matters, and would not 
bestow much attention upon this subject, and accoidmgly 
neither regulations nor prepaiations were made All that 
was done was to commission a Dr Walkei, a physician 
lesidmg at St Petersburg, to go to Moscow and elsewhere 
and make enquiries into the natme and progress of the 
disease, and report the result of his investigation to us He 
turned out, however, to be a very useless and inefficient 



1831] 


THE CHOLERA 


151 


agent In the meantime as the warm weathei letumed the 
cholera again appealed in Russia, but still we took no fur- 
ther measures until intelligence arrived that it had leached 
Riga, at which place 700 or 800 sail of English vessels, 
loaded pnneipall} with hemp and flax, were waiting to come 
to this country This report soon diffused a general alarm, 
and for many days past the newspapers have been full of 
letteis and full of lies, and every sort of representation is 
made to Government oi thiough the pi ess, as feai or interest 
happens to dictate The Consuls and Ministers abroad had 
been for some time supplying us with such information as 
they could obtain, so that we were m possession of a great 
deal of documentary evidence legal ding the natuie, cha- 
racter, and piogiess of the disease The first thing we did 
was to issue two successive Oideis m Council placing all 
vessels coming from the Baltic m quarantine, and we sent 
for Sn Heniy Halford and placed all the papers we had m 
his hands, desinng that he would associate with himself 
some othei piactitioneis, and report then opinion as speedily 
as possible whether the disease was contagious and whether 
it could be conveyed by goods They lepoited the next day 
yes to the fiist question, no to the second In 1804, on the 
occasion of the yellow fever at Gibialtai, Government formed 
a Boaid of Health, and took the opinion of the College of 
Physicians, and it was intended to pursue the same course 
m this instance, but Lords Lansdowne and Auckland chose 
to take Halford’s preliminary opinion, contrarv to my advice, 
for I foresaw that theie would be a gieat embarrassment if 
he and the College did not agree Just so it turned out, for 
when the case was submitted, with all the papers, to the 
College, they would not adopt his opinion, much to his 
annoyance, and, as I believe, because they did not like to be 
meiely called on to confirm what he had already said, and 
that they thought then independence required a show of 
dissent The report they sent was very short and very 
unsatisfactoiy, and entirely against all the evidence they 
had before them, they advised precautionary measures I 
immediately wrote back an answer saying that their report 



152 


BEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


was not satisfactory, and desmng a more detailed opinion, 
and the reasons which had dictated their conclusion , but m 
the meantime we set to work in earnest to adopt measures 
against any emergency The only way of peiformmg qua- 
rantine (with goods), it was found, would be by the employ- 
ment of men-of-war, and we accordingly asked the Admiralty 
to supply ships for the purpose This Lord Grey, Sir James 
Graham, and Sir Byam Martin objected to, but Sir Thomas 
Hardy and Captain Elliot did not We proved that the ships 
would sustain no mjuiy, so after a battle they agreed to give 
them We made a variety of regulations, and gave strict 
orders for the due performance of quarantine, and to-morrow 
a proclamation is to be issued for constituting a Board of 
Health and enjoining obedience to the quarantine laws, so 
that everything has been done that can be done, and if the 
cholera comes here it is not our fault Most of the autho- 
rities think it will come, but I doubt it If indeed it is 
wafted thiough the air it may, but I don’t think it will if 
it is only to be communicated by contact All the evidence 
proves that goods cannot convey it , nevertheless we have 
placed merchandise under a discretionary quarantine, and 
though we have not promulgated any general legulations, we 
release no vessels that come from infected places, or that 
have got enumerated goods on board Poulett Thomson, 
who is a tiader as well as Privy Councillor, is very much 
disgusted m his former capacity at the measures he is 
obliged to concur m m his latter This topic la$>s now oc- 
cupied for some days a good deal of the attention even of 
the fine fools of this town, and the Tones would even make 
it a matter of party accusation against the Government, 
only they don’t know exactly how It is always safe to deal 
m generalities, so they say that c Government ought to be 
impeached if the disease comes here ’ 

There was a meeting of Peers to the amount of nearly 
seventy at Lord Mansfield’s the other day, which went off 
greatly to their satisfaction They unanimously agreed to 
determine upon nothing m the way of amendment until they 
had seen the King’s Speech, to which, howevei, they will con- 



1831] 


MEETING- OP PEERS 


153 


sider themselves hound to move an amendment, provided it 
contains anything laudatory of the Reform Bill The Duke 
of Wellington was not at the meeting, having been taken ill 
I met him the day before at dmnei, and had a good deal of 
conversation with him He is m pretty good spirits, and 
thinks they may make a good fight of it yet , told me that 
Lyndhnrst would certainly go thoroughly with them, praised 
him largely, said he was the best colleague that any man 
ever had, and that he should be very sorry ever to go into 
any Cabinet of which he was not a membei The King 
dined with the Duke yesterday, and was to give him a very 
fine swoid Aubm, who was to have acted m Hernani ’ before 
the Queen on Wednesday next, is suddenly gone off to Rome 
as attache to Brook Tayloi, who is there negotiating 
Taylor happened to be m Italy, and they sent him there, 
some doubts existing whether they could by law send a 
diplomatic agent to negotiate with the Pope, but it was 
refened to Denman, who said there was no danger He is 
not accredited, and bears no official character, but it is a 
regular mission Lord Lansdowne told me that Leopold is 
inconceivably anxious to be King of Belgium, that short of 
going m direct opposition to the wishes and advice of all the 
Royal Family and of the Government he would do any- 
thing to be belong’d, and, what is equally absurd, that the 
others cannot bear that he should be thus elevated 

June 23 rd — The King opened Pailiament on Tuesday, 
with a gi eater crowd assembled to see him pass than was 
ever congiegated before, and the House of Lords was so full 
of ladies that the Peers could not find places The Speech 
was long, but good, and such as to preclude the possibility 
of an amendment There was, however, a long discussion 
m each House, and the greatest bitterness and violence 
evinced m both — every piomise of a stormy session Lord 
Lansdowne said to the King , 4 T am afraid, sn, you won’t be 
able to see the Commons ’ 6 Never mind/ said he , fc they shall 
hear me, I promise you,’ and accordingly he thundered forth 
the Speech so that not a woid was lost 

There has been a reconciliation between the Welling- 



154 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


tomans and tlie old Tones, and they aie now fiimly knit m 
opposition to the present Government Wmchilsea, who 
was the last Toiy who stuck to Lord Grey, renounced him 
m a hot speech, which evidentlj annoyed Loid Grej veiy 
much, foi he made a long one m leply to him Wmchilsea 
is a silly, blustering, but good-natured and well-meaning 
man Last night c Hemani 5 was acted at Budgewater House 
hefoie the Queen and all the Royal Family Aubm, who had 
acted Don Buy, was sent to Rome, so Francis Leveson took 
the pait I was disappointed, though all the company were 
or pietended to be in ecstasies The ihyme does not do, 
the room is not good for healing, and with the exception of 
Miss Kemble (who was not so Effective as I expected) and 
(haven, the actors weie execrable 

News came the day before jesteiday that Maishal Die- 
bitsch had died of the cholera It was suspected that he 
had made away with himself, for he has failed so signally 
m his campaign against the Poles that his military re- 
putation is tarnished , and it is known that his lecall had 
been decreed, and that Count Paskiewitch was to succeed 
him The alarm about the choleia still continues, but the 
Government aie thrown into great peiplexity by the danger 
on one hand of the choleia and the loss to tiade on the 
othei A Boaid of Health has been foimed, composed of 
certain members of the College of Physicians, Six William 
Pym, Sir William Burnet, Sir By am Maitm, Sir James 
M‘Grigor and Mr Stewart , and they m then first sitting 
advised that all the precautions established by orn Orders m 
Council against the plague should be adopted against the 
cholera This opinion was given under the authority of 
Di Warren, who, it appears, exeicises the same ascendency 
in this Boaid that he had pieviously done m the College of 
Physicians on the same subject The fact is that he takes 
the safe side They have nothing to do with trade and 
commerce, which must shift foi themselves, and probably the 
other members will not take upon themselves the respon- 
sibility of opposing measures which, if the disease ever 



1831] 


PREVENTION OP CHOLERA 


155 


appeals lieie, and should they be lelaxed, will expose the 
physicians to the odium and repioach of having been in- 
strumental to its mtioduetion We, howevei (Auckland, 
Poulett Thomson, and I), are lesolved to make the Cabinet 
take upon themselves the responsibility of framing the pei- 
manent lules which are to guide us dui mg the continuance 
of the malady It is remarkable that theie never was moie 
sickness than theie is at present, without its being epidemic, 
but thousands of colds, soie throats, fe\ers, and such like, 
and a man at Blackwall has died of the English cholera, and 
another is ill of it, but their disordeis seem to have nothing 
to do with the Indian cholera, though some of the symptoms 
aie similai These men cannot have got then choleia fiom 
Russia, but their cases spread alarm 

June 25th — John Russell bi ought his Bill m last night, 
m a good speech as his fi lends, and a dull one as his enemies, 
say In the Lords Abeideen attacked Lord Giey’s foreign 
policy m a poor speech, which just did to show Ins bitterness 
and as a peg for Grey to hang a veiy good reply upon The 
Duke of Wellington spoke afterwards , not much of a speech, 
but gentlemanlrke and anti-factious, and approving of all Lord 
Grey had done about Belgium Loid Grey passed a very 
fine eulogium upon Lord Ponsonby Howevei, this was 
necessary, for he is going as Minister to Naples, not having 
a guinea The Emperor Don Pedio is coming here, and 
Henry Webstei is to be his conductor 

June 30 th — At Court yesterday to swear m the Duke of 
Leinster, Mr Justice Vaughan, and Sir E Hyde East Lord 
Ponsonby was there, just returned fiom Brussels The fiist 
time of Stanley’s and John Russell’s being at a Council 
since they came into the Cabinet 

July 3 rd — Went to Oatlands on Saturday, returned on 
Monday , nobody theie but Emily Eden Many revolutions 
that place has undergone m my time, from the days of the 
Duke of York and its gaieties (well remembered and much 
legietted) to its present quiet state The Belgians have not 
yet made up their mind about Leopold, who does not know 



156 


EEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


whethei lie is king 01 no king The Reform Bill came on 
again last night, but it no longer excites so much interest 
Nobody spoke well but Lord Porchester 

July 5 th — The night before last Lord Harewood attacked 
Brougham m the House of Lords about the appointment of 
a magistrate without consulting him as Loid-Lieutenant 
As usual his own party say he made out a good case, and 
the others that he made none They say (and I believe with 
truth) that Brougham does not dislike such scrapes, and is 
so confident m his own ingenuity that he never doubts of 
getting out of them Lyndhurst attacked him sharply 
In the House of Commons last night the debate went on 
languidly, except a splendid speech from Macaulay and an 
answer (not bad, they say) from Muiray Lord Grey sent 
for me yesterday morning to talk ovei the coronation, for m 
consequence of what the Duke of Wellington said m the 
House the night before he thinks there must be one The 
object is to make it shorter and cheaper than the last, 
which occupied the whole day and cost 240,000? 

July 8 th — The second reading of the Reform Bill was 
carried at five m the morning by 136 majority, somewhat 
greater than the Opposition had reckoned on Peel made a 
powerful speech, but not so good as either of his others on 
Reform Goulburn told me that the speech m answer to 
the Lord Advocate on the Irish Bill, when not 100 people 
were m the House, was his best The coronation fixed for 
the 23rd Breakfasted with Rogeis , went afterwards to the 
Duchess of Bedford’s, wheie I met Lady Lyndhurst I desired 
her to tell Lyndhurst all the Duke had said to me about him, 
for m these times it is as well they should draw together He 
will be a match for Brougham m the House of Loids, for he 
can be concise, which the other cannot, and the Lords m the 
long run will prefei brevity to art, sarcasm, and anything 
else 

People are beginning to recover from their terroi of the 
cholera, seeing that it does not come, and we are now beset 
with alarms of a different kind, which are those of the 
Scotch merchants for their cargoes We have a most 



1881] 


CONTEST IN POIAND 


157 


disagreeable business on our bands, veiy troublesome, odious, 
and expensive Tbe public requires that we should take care 
of its health, the mercantile world that we should not injure 
then trade All evidence proves that goods are not capable 
of bringing m the disorder, but we have appointed a Boaid 
of Health, which is contagiomst, and we can’t get them to 
subscube to that opinion We dare not act without its 
sanction, and so we are obliged to an goods This an mg 
requires more ships and lazaiets than we have, and the result 
is a perpetual squabbling, disputing, and complaining between 
the Privy Council, the Admiralty, the Boaid of Health, and 
the merchants We have gone on pretty well hitheito, but 
moie ships amve every day , the complaints will grow louder, 
and the disease rathei spreads than diminishes on the 
Continent This choleia has affoided stiong proofs of the 
partiality of the Prussians in the contest between the 
Russians and the Poles The quarantine restrictions are 
always dispensed with foi officeis passing thiough the 
Prussian territory to join the Russian army Count Pas- 
kiewitch was allowed to pass without peifoimmg any qua- 
rantine at all, and stores and provisions aie suffered to be 
conveyed to the army, with eveiy facility afforded by the 
Prussian authorities, and eveiy relaxation of the sanitary 
laws The Duke of W ellmgton says that the contest will very 

soon be over, that the Russian army could not act before 
June, and that between February and June the country is 
not practicable foi military operations They have now so 
many months befoie them that the weight of their numerical 
supenonty will crush the Poles Austria and Prussia, too, 
do their utmost by affording every sort of indirect assistance 
to the Russians and thwarting the Poles as much as they 
can 

July 10 th — The last two or three days I have been settling 
everything for the coronation, 1 which is to be confined to the 
ceremony m the Abbey and cost as little money and as 
little trouble as possible , and yesterday I was the medium 

1 [The arrangements for coronations are made by a Committee of the 
Pnvy Council, which sits as a Court of Claims ] 



158 


EEIGKN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


of great civilities from Loid Grej to the Duke He desned 
me to go to the Duke and show him the course of pro- 
ceeding we mean to adopt, and request him to make any 
suggestion that occuned to him, and to enqune if he would 
have any objection to attend the Council at which it is to be 
formally settled on Wednesday, to which Peel and Rosslyn 
aie likewise invited I spoke to the Duke and Peel, and 
they will both come All this is mighty polite 

They have made a fine business of Cobbett’s tual, his 
insolence and violence weie past endurance, but he made an 
able speech The Chief Justice was very tnnid, and favoured 
and complimented him thioughout , veiy unlike what Ellen- 
boiough would have done The jury were shut up the whole 
night, and in the morning the Chief Justice, without consult- 
ing eithei paitv, dischaiged them, which was probably on the 
whole the best that could be done Denman told me that 
he expected they would have acquitted him without leavmg 
the box, and this puncipally on account of Brougham's 
evidence, foi Cobbett bi ought the Chancellor forward and 
made him piove that after these very writings, and while 
this piosecution was hanging ovei him, Brougham wiote to 
his son c Deal Sn, 5 and lequestmg he would ask his father 
for some former publications of his, which he thought would be 
of gieat use on the piesent occasion m quieting the laboureis 
This made a gieat impiession, and the Attorney-General 
never knew one word of the lettei till he heard it m e\i- 
dence, the Chancellor having flourished it off, as is his 
custom, and then quite forgotten it The Attorney told me 
that Gurney overheard one juryman say to another, c Don’t 
you think we had bettei stop the case * It is useless to go 
on 9 The othei, howevei, declared foi hearing it out, so on 
the whole it ended as well as it might, just bettei than an 
acquittal, and that is all 

July 11th — Dmed with Loid Grey yesterday In the 
middle of dinner Talleyiand got a letter announcing that 
Leopold’s conditional acceptance of the Belgian thione had 
been agreed to by a great majonty of the Chamber , and a Mi 
Walker, who brought the news (and left Brussels at five 



1831] 


WELLINGTON AND THE GOVERNMENT 


159 


o’clock the day before), came to Loid Giey and told him with 
what enthusiasm it had been leceived there Loid Grey 
wrote to the Chancelloi, with whom Leopold was dining, to 
tell him of the event 

This morning I got a note fiom the Duke of Wellington 
dechmng to attend the Council on Wednesday, and desiring 
I would impart the same to Lord Grey and the "King He 
says that it would give rise to misrepresentations, and so it 
would He is right to decline It is, however. Peel who 
has prevented him, I am certain When I told Peel on 
Satuiday he looked very giave, did not seem to like it, and 
said he must confer with the Duke fust, as he should be 
sony to do otherwise than he did Yesterday I know the 
Duke dined with Peel, who I have no doubt peisuaded him 
to send this excuse The Government are m exceeding 
delight at the Duke’s conduct evei since he has been m oppo- 
sition, which ceitamly has been very noble, stiaightfoiwaid, 
gentlemanlike, and without an atom of faction or mischief 
about it He has done himself great honoui , he thiew over 
Abeideen completely on that business about foreign policy 
which he intioduced soon aftei the meeting of Pailiament, 
and now he is assisting the Government in their Lieutenancy 
Bill, and he is m constant communication with Melbourne on 
the subject 

July 13 th — I took the Duke’s note to Loid Grey, who 
seemed annoyed, and lepeated that he had only intended the 
invitation as a mark of attention, and never thought of 
shifting any responsibility from his own shouldeis , that as 
there was a deviation fiomthe old ceiemonial, he thought the 
Duke’s sanction would have satisfied those who might other- 
wise have disputed the propi lety of such a change * Does he 
then,’ he asked, 4 mean to attend the Committee 9 ’ I did not 
then know , but yesterday m the House of Lords I asked the 
Duke, and he said ‘Ho, foi the same leasons,’ that upon con- 
sideration he was sure he had bettei not go, that by so doing 
he might give umbiage to his own party, and he could only 
do good by exercising a poweiful influence over them and re- 
straining them, and that his means of doing good would be 



160 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


unpaired by any appeal ance of appioximating himself to 
Government, that when the geneial plan of the anange- 
ments was settled he should have no objection to lend a 
helping hand, if wanted, to the details with which he was veiy 
conversant I wiote on a slip of papei that he would not 
come, and gave it to Loid Giey, who said nothing Peel 
did not write to me, but he and Rosslyn do the same as the 
Duke 

The Belgian deputation came yesteiday, and Lebeau and 
his colleagues were m the House of Lords We had been 
promised a good day theie between Londondeiry and 
Biougham and Plunket, but the formei made a tnesome, 
long speech, the latter spoke civilly and dully, and 
Biougham not at all, so it ended m smoke In the other 
House on Monday the Mmisteis got a good majority (102) on 
the wine duties, to their gieat delight, but the Opposition were 
not only mortified at the defeat, but disgusted and enraged at 
the conduct of Peel (then leader, as they considered him)* 
who came into the House, got up m the middle of Hemes’ 
speech, walked out, and was heard of no more that night , 
nevei voted, noi gave any notice of his intention not to vote 
The moral effect of this upon his party is immense, and has 
served to destroy the very little confidence they had m him 
before It is impossible to conceive by what motives he is 
actuated, because if they were purely selfish it would seem 
that he defeats his own object , for what can he gam by dis- 
gusting and alienating his party, when although they cannot 
do without him, it is equally true that he cannot do without 
them ^ I walked home with William Banks, who went 
largely into the whole question of Peel’s extraordinary dispo- 
sition and conduct, and said how disheartenmg it was, and 
what a blow to those who looked to him as a leader in these 
troublous tunes Henry Currey (no important peison, but 
whose opinion is that of fifty others like him) told me that his 
conduct had been atrocious , and that he had himself voted m 
the mmonty against his opinion because he thought it right 
to sacrifice that opinion to the interests of his party The 
fact is, if Peel had imparted his sentiments to his party he 



1831] 


RESERVE OE MR PEEL 


161 


might have pi evented their dividing on this question with 
the gieatest ease There is nothing they are not leady to do 
at his bidding, but his coldness and leserve aie so impene- 
tiable that nobody can asceitain his sentiments or divine his 
intentions, and thus he leaves his party m the lurch without 
vouchsafing to give them any leason or explanation of his 
conduct In the meantime the other paity (as if each was 
destined to suffer more fiom the folly of its friends than the 
hostility of its foes) has been thrown into gieat confusion by 
Lord Milton’s notice to pi opose an alteration mthe franchise, 
and a meeting was called of all the friends of Government 
at Althorp, when Milton made a speech just such as any 
opponent of the Bill might make m the House of Commons, 
going over the old giound of Box, Pitt, Burke, and others 
having sat for rotten boioughs They were annoyed to the 
last degree, and the moie piovoked when reflecting that it was 
foi him Althoip had been led to spend an immense sum of 
monej , and compiomise his charactei besides, in the North- 
amptonshire election His obstinacy and impiacticability 
are so extreme that nobody can move him, and Sefton told 
me that nothing could be moie unsatisfactory than the ter- 
mination of the meeting I guess, however, that they will 
find some means or other of quietmg him 

The Opposition divided last night 187 against 284 on the 
question of heaung counsel for the condemned boioughs — not 
so good a division for the minority as they expected, and 
after a very powerful speech of Attwood’s, to which nobody 
listened 

There is a hesh access of alarm on account of the cholera* 
which has broken out at St Petersburg, and will probably 
spread over Germany The cordon of troops which kept it 
off last year from St Petersburg appears to have been with- 
drawn, which is no doubt the cause of its appearance there* 
We have constant reports of supposed cases of disease and 
death, but up to this period it does not appeal to have shown 
itself here, though a case was transmitted to us from 
Glasgow exceedmgly like it The sick man had not come from 

VOL II it 



162 


REIGN OE WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


any infected place The Boaid of Health aie, however, m 
great alarm, and the anthoiities generally think we shall 
have it Fiom all T can obseive from the facts of the case 
I am convinced that the liability to contagion is gieatly 
diminished by the influence of sea air, foi which reason I 
doubt that it will be brought here acioss the water If it 
does come it will pass through Fiance first The King of 
Prussia has at last insisted upon a rigid execution of the 
quarantme laws m his dominions Marshal Paskiewitch was 
detained on his road to take the command of the army, and 
sent a courier to the King to request he might be released 
forthwith, uigmg the importance of the Emperor to have his 
report of the state of the army , but the King refused, and 
sent word that the Emperor himself had submitted to quaran- 
tine, and so his aide-de-camp might do the same 

July IMh — The effects of Peel’s leaving the party to shift 
for itselt were exhibited the night before last He went away 
(there was no reason why he should not, except that he 
should have stayed to manage the debate and keep his people 
m order), and the consequence was that they went on m a 
vexatious squabble of repeated adjournments till eight o’clock 
m the morning, when Government at last beat them The 
Opposition gradually dwindled down to twenty-five people 
headed by Stoimont, Tullamore, and Brudenell, while the 
Government kept 180 tcgethei to the last , between parties 
so animated and so led theie can be no doubt on which 
side will be the success The Government weie m high 
spirits at the result, and thought the fatigue well repaid 
by the display of devotion on the part of their friends and 
of factious obstinacy on that of their enemies After these 
two nights it is impossible not to consider the Tory party as 
having ceased to exist for all the practical and legitimate 
ends of political association — that is, as fai as the House of 
Commons is concerned, wheie after all the battle must be 
fought Theie is still a rabble of Opposition, tossed about by 
every wind of folly and passion, and left to the vagaries and 
eccentricities of Wether ell, or Attwood, or Sadler, or the m- 



3831] 


PREPARATIONS POR THE CORONATION 


163 


temperate zeal of such weak fanatics as the thiee Loids above 
mentioned , but for a grave, deliberative, efficient Opposition 
there seem to be no longer the elements, or they aie so scat- 
teied and disunited that they never can come together, and 
the only man who might have collected, and formed, and 
directed them begs leave to be excused It is a wretched 
state of things and can portend no good If there had not 
been prognostications of rum and destruction to the State m 
all times, proceeding from all parties, which the event has 
universally falsified, I should believe that the consummation 
of evil was really at hand , as it is I cannot feel that cer- 
tainty of destruction that many do, though I think we are 
more seriously menaced than ever we were before, because 
the danger is of a very different description But there is 
an elasticity m the institutions of this country, which may 
nse up for the purpose of checking these proceedings, and m 
the very uncertainty of what may be produced and engendered 
by such measures there is hope of salvation 

Yesterday a Council was held at St James’s for the coro- 
nation, the Princes, Ministers, Archbishop of Canterbury, and 
Bishop of London were present The King read an addiess 
to the Lords desiring that his coronation might be short, and 
that all the ceremonies might be dispensed with except those 
m the chuich Lord Grey had composed a paper m which he 
had made the King say that these ceremonies were at variance 
with the genius of the age we live m, and suited to another 
period of society, but the Aichbishop objected to these 
expiessions, and thought it better to give the injunction with- 
out the comments , so Lord Grey wrote another and shortei 
paper, but he showed the first to Lord Lansdowne and me, 
and we both told him that we thought the Archbishop was 
right and that the second paper was the best The Duke of 
Gloucestei was veiy indignant at not having been summoned 
m a more respectful way than by a common circular, and com- 
plained to the Lord President 1 I told him to throw it all on 

1 [It is customary to summon tlie Ro^al Dukes to a Council by a letter 
This formality seems to have been overlooked m this instance ] 



164 


KEIG-N OE WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIV 


me He had been grumbling to the Duke of Sussex before, 
who did not care Leopold was too much of a kmg to 
attend, so be came to tbe levee (but m prince only) and not 
to tbe Council Lieven told me it was true that tbe Grand 
Duke Constantine was dead, and that it was a very good 
thing 



CHAPTEB XY 


Piepaiations for the Coionation— Long Wellesley committed by the 
Chancelloi foi Contempt — Alderman Thompson and his Constituents — 
Pnnce Leopold goes to Belgium — R03 al Tombs and Remains — The Lieu- 
tenanc} of the Tower — The Cholera — The Belgian Toitiesses — Secret 
Negotiations of Canning with the Whigs — Tiansactionsbefoie the Close 
of the Liveipool Administration — Duhe of Wellington and Peel — The 
Butch invade Belgium — Defeat of the Belgian Aimy — The French enter 
Belgium — Loid Gie3 rJ s Composuie — \udience at Windsoi — Dangei of 
Reform — Ellen Tiee — The Fiench m Belgium — Goodwood — The Duke 
of Richmond — The Refoim Bill m Difficulties — Duke of V elliugton 
calls on Lord Giey — The King declines to be kissed by the Bishops — 
Tallej lands Conversation — Stite of Euiope and Frxnce — Coronation 
Squabbles— The King divides the old Gieat Seal between Brougham and 
Ly ndhuist — Relations of the Duchess of Kent to Geoi ge IV and V llliam 
IV — The Coronation — Irritation of the King — The Cholera — A Dinner 
at St James’s — State of the Reform Bill — Sn Augustus d’Este — Madame 
Junot — State of France — Poland 

July 15 th — A Committee of Council sat yesterday at the 
Office about the coronation , present, the Cabinet, Dukes of 
Gloucester and Sussex, Aiehbishop and Bishop of London , 
much discussion and nothing done Brougham raised every 
sort of objection about the services and the dispensing with 
them, and would have it the King could not dispense with 
them, finally, the Attoi ney-G-enei al and Solicitoi -General 
were sent for to the House of Lords and desned to reconsider 
the Proclamation 

July 20 th — I have been laid up with the gout these last 
few days, unable to move, but without violent pam The 
Committee of Council met again on Pnday last, when the 
Proclamation was settled A Couit of Claims is to sit, but to 
be prohibited from receiving any claims except those relating 
to the ceremonies m the Abbey The Lords went to St 



166 


J&EIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XV 


James’s and held the Council, at which the King made a 
little speech, to the effect that he would be crowned to satisfy 
the tendei consciences of those who thought it necessary, 
but that he thought that it was his duty (as this country, 
m common with every other, was labouring under distress) 
to make it as economical as possible A difficulty arose 
about the publication of the Proclamation, usually done by 
heralds with certain ceremonies The first proclamation is 
not the one to be acted on , the second does not announce 
the coronation, but refers to the first I asked Brougham 
what was to be done He said both must be lead Loid 
Giey suggested neither, which was done 

The other day Long Wellesley carried off his daughter, 
a ward m Chancery, from her guardians, and secieted her 
The matter was brought before the Chancellor, who sent for 
Wellesley He came, and lefused to give her up, so Broug- 
ham committed him to the Fleet Prison The mattei was 
brought the next day before the House of Commons, and re- 
ferred to their Committee of Pnvileges , and m the mean- 
time Brougham has been making a gieat spluttei about his 
authority and his Court both on the judicial bench and 
from the Woolsack The lawyers in the House of Commons 
were divided as to Wellesley’s right of privilege m such a 
case 1 

There has been exhibited m the course of the last few 
days one of the most disgi aceful scenes (pioduced by the 
Reform Bill) ever witnessed On the question of the dis- 
franchisement of Appleby a certain Alderman Thompson, 
membei for the City, who stood deeply pledged to Reform, 
voted for heaung counsel m defence of the borough, on which 
there was a meeting of his ward, or of certain of his consti- 

1 [Both the Chancellor and Mr Wellesley wrote to the Speaker, and 
their letters were read to the House before the Committee of Privileges was 
appointed Meanwhile Mr Wellesley remained at his house m Dovei 
Street in charge of two officers of the Court of Chancery Theie is I 
believe, no doubt that the committal was good, and that Mr Wellesley’s 
pimlege as a member of Parliament did not protect him, a contempt of the 
Court having been committed A similai point has recently been raised in 
the Court of Queen’s Bench upon the committal of Mr Whalley ] 



1831] ALDERMAN THOMPSON AND HIS CONSTITUENTS 167 


tuents, to consider his conduct He was obliged to appeal 
befoie them, and, aftei lecemng a seveie lecture, to confess 
that he had been guilty of inadvertence, to make many sub- 
missive apologies, and promise to vote no more but m obedi 
ence to the Minister It is always an agreeable pastime to 
indulge one’s virtuous indignation, and wish to have been m 
the place of such an one for the sake of doing what he ought to 
have done but did not do, by which, without any of the risk 
of a very difficult and unpleasant situation, one has all the 
imaginary triumph of eloquence, independence, and all kinds 
of virtue , and so m this instance I feel that I should have 
liked to pour upon these wretches the phials ot my wrath 
and contempt If the alderman had had one spaik of spirit 
he would have spumed the tenors of this plebeian inquisition, 
and told them that they had elected him, and that it was 
his intention, as long as he continued their representative, 
to vote as he thought propel, always ledeemmg the pledges 
he had given at his election , that he would not submit to 
be questioned foi this or any other vote, and if they were 
not satisfied with his conduct when the Pailiament should 
be ovei they might choose whom they would m his place* 
What makes the case the more absurd is, that this question 
of Appleby is monstrous, and it never ought (by their own 
principle) to have been put in Schedule A at all There was 
a debate and a division on it last night, and a majority for 
the Ministers of seventy-five in a very full House , the worst 
division they have yet had Eveiy small victoiy in the 
House of Commons is piobably equivalent to a great defeat 
in the House of Lords, unless they do what is now talked of 
- — make as many Peers as may be necessary to cany the Bill, 
which I doubt then daring to do 01 the King consenting to 
do The lapse of time and such difficulties and absurdities 
will probably obstruct the Bill, so as to present its passing 
God knows what we shall have instead 

Pi nice Leopold started on Satuiday, having put his pen- 
sion into trustees’ hands (by the advice of Lambton), to keep 
up Claiemont and pay his debts and pensions, and then hand 
over the lesidue to the Exchequei , the odds being that 



168 


EEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XV 


none of it evei gets there, and that he is hack heie befoie 
the debts are paid It seems that, desirous as he had been 
to go, when the time drew near he got alarmed, and wanted 
to back out, but they brought him (though with difficulty) to 
the point He has proposed to the Princess Louise, King 
Louis Philippe’s daughter 

Halford has been with me this morning gossiping (which 
he likes) , he gave me an account of the discovery of the head 
of Chailes I m St George’s Chapel, Windsor, to which he 
was directed by Wood’s account in the c Athense Oxonienses ’ 
He says that they also found the coffin of Heniy VIII , but 
that the air had penetrated and the body had been reduced 
to a skeleton By his side was Jane Seymour’s coffin 
untouched, and he has no doubt her body is perfect The 
late Kmg intended to have it opened, and he says he will 
propose it to this Kmg By degiees we may visit the 
remains of the whole lme of Tudor and Plantagenet too, 
and see if those famous old creatures weie like then effigies 
He says Chailes’s head was exactly as Vandyke had painted 
him 

July 26th — At Oatlands on Saturday, and came back on 
Sunday night Nobody there but my father, mothei, Wal- 
pole, Sneyd, and Alava, very diffeient from what I once 
remember it There has been a gieat deal of talk about the 
Duke of Wellington giving Loid Munster the Lieutenancy 
of the Towei, the truth of which is as follows — It is m the 
King’s gift, and he sent to the Duke and desired him to name 
somebody The Duke would have liked to name one of three — 
Fitzroy Somerset, Cohn Campbell, or Hardmge The latter 
would not have been agreeable to Government, and there- 
fore it would have occasioned the King an embanassment, 
the second was provided for, and Lord Hill advised the first 
to remain as he is (though I don’t see why he could not have 
had both) , so the Duke thought it would gratify the King if 
he was to name Munstei Munstei wrote a very civil letter 
to the Duke, full of thanks, and saying that he begged he would 
not think of him if he had anybody else to give it to, and 
that he would take upon himself to explain to the King his 



1831] 


THE CHOLEKi 


169 


not accepting it The Duke persisted, and so he had it I 
must say he might have found some one out of the number 
of his old officeis to give it to rathei than Munstei 

The King of Fiance’s Speech amved yesteiday, but 
nothing was said m the House of Loids, because Lord Grey 
was at Windsor It will make a stir — the general tone of it, 
and the demolition of the foi tresses which cost us seven 
millions Hot one of the papeis made a lemarkupon it, 
nothing will do for them but Reform 

Fiesh claims have been laised about cholera moibus 
A man at Port Glasgow insists upon it, without much ap- 
parent reason, that it pi emails theie , so we have sent a medical 
man down, in oidei to quiet people’s minds and to set the 
question at lest Loid Giey, who is ciedulous, believes the 
Glasgow man’s stoiy, and spiead the news in his own familj, 
who immediately dispei sed it ovei the lest of the town, and 
yesteiday nobody could talk of anything else, not believing 
it veiy much, and not undei standing it at all, foi if they did 
they would not be so flippant Lady Holland wrote to Loid 
Lansdowne to desire he would recommend liei the best 
cliolem doctor that he had heaid of I have just received a 
lettei from Moore saying he has ordeied his publisher to 
send me a copy of c Loid Edwaid Fitzgeiald,’ and that he 
only sends copies to the Duke of Leinster and me, but begs I 
will send him no opinion, for c opinions fldget him 5 — ‘ genus 
irritabile vatum 9 

July 27th — Yesteiday Aberdeen asked Loid Giey some 
questions m a veiy few words, accompanied as usual with 
a sneei, which is verj unbecoming, and of course gave 
Loid Grey the advantage of repelling it with scorn The 
Duke spoke, and pietty well, but laid some stress more on 
Poitugal than upon Belgium, which is what I cannot under- 
stand, but Alava told me that when he came to town } ester - 
day he had said to him that, as an Englishman, he had never 
felt so deeply affected for the honoui of his countiy as m 
this transaction I met him after the debate, and he said 
he thought he had done some good by what he said The 
question of the Belgian foi ti esses is not without great diffi- 



170 


KEIGrN OF WILLIAM I\ 


[Chap XV 


culty, and the stiong part of it for Government is that their 
demolition was agreed to by all the Poweis interested (except 
Holland), and without the piesence of the French Plenipo- 
tentiary at the meeting when it was decided I am inclined 
to think that the manner in which it was blurted out m the 
King of France’s Speech, as a clap-tiap foi him, will have 
made the principal difficulty, though the policy may be very 
questionable 

July 28 th — On Tuesday night they got through Schedule 
A, but in a very bungling manner, and the events of the 
night, its enemies say, damaged the Bill, not, however, 
that anything can hurt it m the House of Commons, though 
such things may tell m the House of Lords, but on the 
question of Saltash, which the Opposition did not consider 
as a very strong case, so little that they had not intended to 
divide on it, John Russell and the rest suddenly gave way, 
and without informing their friends moved that it ought to 
be m Schedule B On a division all the Ministers voted with 
the Opposition, so the boiough was tiansfened to B Then 
friends were funous, and not without leason, that they had 
not determined wheie it ought to be placed, and have trans- 
ferred it themselves instead of leaving them m the dilemma 
they were m when the division arrived A Couit and levee 
yesterday 

Oatlandsy July 31 st — The Arbuthnots and Mi Loch here 
I rode down after the Opera last night , walked for an hour 
and a half with Arbuthnot under the shade of one of the great 
trees, talking of various old matters and some new, princi- 
pally about Canning and his disputes and differences with 
the Duke of Wellington He says that the Duke’s pnncipal 
objection to Canning was the knowledge of his having 
negotiated with the Whigs previously to Lord Liverpool’s 
illness, which was communicated to the Duke , he would not 
say by whom The peison who went between them was Sir 
Robeit Wilson, deputed by Brougham, and those who after- 
wards joined Canning Sn Robert spoke to Huskisson, and 
he to Canning What the} said was this that finding his 
view so liberal, they weie read} to support and join him, and 



1881 J CANNINGS NEGOTIATION WITH THE WHIGS 


171 


m the event of his becoming Mimstei (on Lord Liveipool’s 
death 01 resignation) that they would seive under him Ar- 
buthnot does not know what answei Canning sent to this, noi 
whether he did anything on it, but when on Loid Liverpool’s 
illness Canning went to the King at Wmdsoi, he told him that 
if the Tories would not consent to his being named Minister 
he was suie of the Whigs/ but this he entreated the King 
not to mention Immediately after Canning the Duke went 
to the King, and to him the King directly lepeated what 
Canning had said The Duke told the King that he was 
already aware of Canning’s mtei course with the Whigs, and 
with that knowledge that he could not consent to his being 
Prime Minister, as he could have no confidence m him 
Shortly after this, and before the resignation of the Ministers, 
but aftei the difficulties had begun, Knighton came to 
Arbuthnot, and said he was afiaid his Royal Mastei had done 
a gieat deal of mischief by iepeatmg to the Duke what 
Canning had said, that he was veiy anxious to bung the 
Duke and Canning together again, and asked him (Arbuth- 
not) to go with him to Canning and see what could be done 
Aibuthnot declined, but said if Canning wished to see him he 
would go Canning sent foi him, and they had a long con- 
versation in which he expressed his desire to go on with the 
Duke, and it was agreed the Duke should call on him and 
have a conversation and see what could be arranged The 
Duke called on him, and they talked of a vanetj of matteis, 
but not a word passed about the foi matron of a new Minis- 
try Aibuthnot went to the House, and told Canning how 
much he was surprised and disappointed that nothing had 
come of this conversation, to which he made no reply, but 
Arbuthnot found afterwards that between his leaving Can- 
ning and the Duke’s going to him Peel had been to lum 
and proposed that the Duke should be Prime Minister This 
so offended Canning, behevmg that it was a measure of the 
party and done with the Duke’s consent, that he resolved 
not to uttei a word to the Duke on the subject, and so ended 
the hopes of then agreement 

It does not appear, howevei, as if anything could have 



172 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XV 


been done, foi Canning was bent upon being Pume Mmis- 
tei , and I asked Aibuthnot to what the Duke would have 
consented, and he said, c Not to that , J that aftei the tians- 
actionwith the Whigs he could not have felt sufficient confi- 
dence m Canning to agiee to his being Pume Mimstei 
(If he distrusted Canning he ought to have lefused to act 
with him at all, not meiely objected to his being Pume 
Mimstei, but the giound of his objection was shifted) 
Originally the King could not beai Canning, and he was 
only persuaded by the Duke to take him into the Cabi- 
net Afterwards he was so offended at the influence he 
acquned theie, and paitieulaily with that which he had got 
ovei the mind of Loid Liveipool, that he one day sent foi 
Arbuthnot and desired hnn to tell Loid Liveipool that he 
could not endure to see Canning make a puppet of him, and 
he would latliei he was Prime Mimstei at once than have 
all the powei without the name by govexnmg him (Lord 
Liverpool) as he pleased, and that unless he could shake off 
this influence he was detei mined not to kt him continue at 
the head of the Government, and, moieovei, he must find 
some means of getting nd of Canning altogethei This 
Arbuthnot wiote to Loid Liveipool, who wiotc an answei 
couched m teims of indignation, saying he by no means 
coveted his situation, that he was suie his colleagues would 
resent any indignity offeied to him, and that the King had 
bettei take caie what he was about, and not, by pioducmg 
disunion m the Government, incur the usk of making the 
end of his leign as disastious as the beginning of it had been 
piosperous 

Not very long aftei Canning got into favoui, and in 
this way — Harnet Wilson at the time of her connection 
with Loid Ponsonby got hold of some of Lady Conyng- 
hams letters to him, and she wiote to Ponsonby, threaten- 
ing, unless he gave her a laige sum, to come to England 
and publish eveiy thing she could This pioduced dismay 
among all the paities, and they wanted to get Ponsonby 
away and to silence the woman In this dilemma Knighton 
advised the King to have lecourse to Canning, who saw 



1831] CANNING AND THE LIVERPOOL ADMINISTRATION 173 

the opening to favour, jumped at it, and instantly offered 
to provide for Ponsonby and do anything which could 
relieve the King fiom trouble Ponsonby was sent to Buenos 
Ayres forthwith, and the letters were bought up From 
this time Canning grew m favoui, which he took every 
means to improve, and shortly gained complete ascendency 
over the King 

Arbuthnot said that Canning and Castlereagh had always 
gone on well togethei aftei tlieir reconciliation, but that 
Lord Liverpool’s subjection to him aiose morefiom fear than 
affection Liverpool told Arbuthnot that he earnestly de- 
sired to resign his office, that his health was broken, and he 
was only retained by the consideration that his retirement 
might be the means of bieakmg up a Government which he 
had (through the kindness of his colleagues to him) been 
enabled to hold together, that Canning worked with a 
twenty-hoise powei , that his sensitiveness was such that he 
[Canning] felt eveij paragraph m a newspapei that leflected 
on him, and that the most tnfhng causes pioduced an imita- 
tion on his mind, which was always vented upon him (Lord 
Liverpool), and that eveiy time the door was opened he 
dreaded the aruval of a packet from Canning Arbuthnot 
had been m great favoui with the King, who talked to him 
and consulted him, but he nearly cut him aftei the disunion 
consequent on Canning’s appointment Knighton came to 
Arbuthnot and desired him to try and prevail on the Duke to 
consent to Canning’s being Prime Minister, which he told 
him was useless, and from that time the Kmg was just civil 
to the Duke, and that was all The Duke had always sus- 
pected that Canning wanted all along to be Prime Minister, 
and that when he sent him to Russia to congiatulate Nicho- 
las it was to get him out of the way, and he was the more 
convinced because Canning proposed to him to go on to 
Moscow for the coionation, which he positively lefused, 
having promised his friends to be back m April, which he ac- 
cordingly was Canning never had a great opinion of Huskis- 
son, nor really liked him, though he thought him very useful 
from being conversant with the subjects on which he was 



174 


REIGN OE WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XV 


lumself most ignorant — tiade and finance , but lie did not 
contemplate his being m the Cabinet, and had no confidence 
in his judgment or his discretion , and this tallies with what 
Lady Canning told me, though certainly he did not do Huskis- 
son justice m any way, which Aibuthnot admitted Knighton 
behaved exceedingly well dui mg the King’s illness, and by 
the vigilant watch he kept over the property of various kinds 
prevented the pillage which Lady Conyngham would other- 
wise have made She knew everything, but did not much 
tiouble herself about affairs, being chiefly intent upon amass- 
ing money and collecting jewels 

He talked a great deal of Peel, of the difficulty of going on 
with him, of his coldness, incommunicativeness , that at the 
time of the opening the Liverpool Kailroad he had invited the 
Duke, Aberdeen, and some more to meet at Drayton to consider 
of strengthening themselves , that they had left the place just 
as they had gone to it, nothing settled and nothing elicited 
from Peel , that on the late occasion of the wine duties they 
had gone to Peel and asked him whether they should fight 
out and divide on it , that he had referred them to Goul- 
burn, who had decided m the affirmative, on which he had 
agreed to their friends being mustered, but that he took 
offence at something that was said in debate, and marched 
off sans mot dire , that somebody was sent after him to repre- 
sent the bad effect of his departure, and entreat him to 
return, but he was gone to bed Tins is by no means the 
fiist time Arbuthnot had spoken to me about Peel m this 
strain and with, such feelings How are the Duke and he 
to make a Government again, especially after what Lynd- 
hurst said of the Duke 0 Necessity may bring them together, 
but though common interest and common danger may unite 
them, there the seeds of disunion always must be I have 
scribbled down all I can recollect of a veiy loose conversation, 
and perhaps something else may oeeui to me by-and-by 
In the meantime, to return to the events of the present 
day Althorp raised a terrible storm on Friday by proposing 
that the House should sit on Saturday They spent six 
hours debating the question, which might have been occu- 



1831] LONG- WELLESLEY AND BROUGHAM 175 

pied in. the business , so that, though they did not sit yester- 
day, they gained nothing and made bad blood Yesterday 
morning Murray made a coneiliatoiy speech, which Burdett 
complimented, and all went on haimoniously John Russell 
is ill, nearly done up with fatigue and exertion and the bad 
atmosphere he breathes for several hours every night 

Long Wellesley has given up Ins daughter and has been 
discharged from arrest I met the Solicitor-General yesterday, 
who told me this, and said that Brougham had been m the 
midst of his blustering terribly nervous about it This was 
clear, for both he and Wellesley were waiting for the report 
of the Committee of the House of Commons, though Broug- 
ham affected to hold it cheap, and talked very big of what he 
should do and should have done had it been unfavourable 
to his authority The fact is that Long Wellesley was 
contumacious, but after a short confinement he knocked under 
and yielded to the Chancellor on all points, and was released 
from durance 

We had a meeting on the Coionation business yesterday 
morning, and took into consideration the estimates That 
from the Chamberlain’s Office was 70,000Z and upwards, 
which was referred to a sub-committee to dissect and report 
upon 

August 5 th — Yesterday morning arrived the news of 
Casimir Perier’s resignation m consequence of the division 
in the Chamber of Deputies on the election of President 
He had very unnecessarily committed himself by declaung he 
would lesign if Lafitte was elected, and though the other 
candidate (M Girod de PAm) was chosen, as it was, only by 
a majority of five, he considered this tantamount to a defeat, 
and accordingly went out of office 1 It was supposed, but not 
quite cei tain, that Mole would be Fnst Minister, but without 
much chance of being able to keep that post 

At the same time comes intelligence that the King of 
Holland has marched into Belgium at three points with 

1 [M Casimir P6ner did not retue fiom office on this occasion, though 
he had momentarily resigned it He remained in power till his death, 
which took place from cholera m the following yeai See the further note 
by M de RSmusat on this subject at p 179 ] 



176 


REIG-N OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XV 


three corps, undei the Pi nice of Orange, Punce Frederick, 
and the Prince of Nassau This, howevei, was piemature, 
foi it turns out that the Prince of Orange m a proclamation 
to his army declares that the armistice was to end last night 
at half-past nine, and that he marches 6 to secure equitable 
terms of separation , 5 not therefore foi the purpose of lecon- 
quest I saw Loid Giey m the morning m a state of great 
consternation, the moie particularly as he told me a Dutch 
Plenipotentiary had arrived the day before with full powers 
to treat, and that he had not m his mtei course with him 
and with Palmerston utteied one word of the King of Hol- 
land’s intentions In the evening I had a long conversa- 
tion with Matuscewitz He says that it is impossible to 
foresee the end of all this, but that the most piobable event 
is a genexal war Coming at the moment of a change m the 
French Ministry, nobody can guess what the Fiench may do, 
and the Conferences are useless, because any resolution they 
may make may probably be totally inapplicable to the state 
of things pioduced by events hastening on elsewhere The 
King of Holland has all along very justly complained of the 
proceedings of the Allies towards him, which they justify by 
necessity (‘the tyrant’s plea’), and to which he has been 
obliged sulkily to submit, though always protesting and 
never acquiescing, except m an armistice to which he agreed 
Meantime the Allies went on negotiating, but without 
making much progress, and the Dutchman borrowed money 
and put his airnyon a respectable footing It is remarkable 
that as long as he held out that he sought the reunion he 
could get no money at all, but no sooner did he renounce the 
idea of reunion, and propose to make war foi objects more 
immediately national to the Dutch, than he got a loan filled 
(in two days) to the amount of about a million sterling 
When the proposition was made to Leopold, though no 
arrangement was actually agreed upon, there was a general 
understanding that the King of Holland would consent to the 
separation of the two States, and that the Belgians should 
resign then claims to Limbourg and Luxembourg, and afbei 
Lord Ponsonby’s letter which made so much noise, Falck’s 



1831] HOLLAND AND BELGIUM 177 

protestation, and Ponsonby’s lecall this seemed to be cleaily 
established When Leopold received the offer of the Crown, 
he only consented to take it upon an understanding that the 
Belgians would agiee to the terms pi escribed by the Allies, 
but before the whole thing was settled he took fright and 
began to repent, and it was with some difficulty he was at last 
persuaded to go by the Belgian deputies with assuiances that 
these terms would be complied with Go, however, he did, 
and that unaccompanied by any person of weight 01 con- 
sequence from this countiy Matuscewitz told me that he 
went on his knees to Palmerston to send somebody with 
him who would prevent his getting mto scrapes, and that 
Talleyrand and Palck, by far the best heads among them, 
had both predicted that Leopold would speedily commit 
some folly, the consequences of which might be meparable 1 
Our Government, howevei, paid no attention to these le- 
monsiiances, and he was suffered to go alone Accordingly 
he had no sooner ai rived than, intoxicated with the applause 
he leceived, he foigot all that had occuned here and all 
the lesolutions of the Allies, and flourished off speeches m 
direct conti adiction to them, and announced his determina- 
tion to comprehend the disputed provinces m his new 
kingdom It is no wondei that this excited the indignation 
of the King of Holland, but it is unfortunate that he could 

1 [This account of Leopold’s airnal in Belgium is hardly fan, md foims 
an amusing contiast to Baion Stockmar’s nairative of the same occunence m 
his 1 Memoirs,’ p 180 Unquestionably Leopold showed far moie foiesight, 
judgment, and lesolution than Mi Gievjlle gTvehim cieditfoi He was 
not accompanied by 1 * * any person of weight oi consequence 5 from this 
countiy, because that would have given him the air of a puppet and a 
Butish nominee But Stochmar was with him The King enteied 
Bi issels on the 21st of July, and was well receiv ed On the 4th of August 
the Dutch broke the truce and invaded Belgium It was impossible to 
piovide against so sudden a movement, and the Army of the Scheldt was 
beaten at Louvain on the 12th of August The King then claimed the 
mtenention of France and England in defence of the neutrality and inde- 
pendence of Belgium, which had been guaranteed to him by the tieaty of 
the eighteen aiticles undei which he had accepted the Ciown But the 

passage m the text is cunous, because it shows how little confidence was 

felt at that time m a prince who tinned out to he one of the ablest rnlei* 

and politicians of his time ] 

VOL II 4r 



178 


KEIG-N OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XV 


not be patient a little longer Notwithstanding his march, 
howevei, his Plenipotentiary here has full power to tieat of 
all the disputed points, and is authonsed to ptit a stop to 
hostilities at any moment when he can see the prospect of 
satisfaction, it is, however, believed heie (though at present 
not on any sufficient giounds) that Prussia secretly supports 
the King of Holland The dangei is that Prance may 
without any further communication with her Allies consider 
the aggiession of the Dutch as a justification of a eoire- 
spondmg movement on her part, and should this happen the 
Prussians would no longer deem themselves bound by the 
common obligations which united all the conferring and 
mediating Poweis, and a general war would infallibly ensue 
Nor is it unlikely that the Prench Ministry, beset as they are 
with difficulties, and holding their offices de die m diem , may 
think a war the best expedient for occupying the nation and 
bringing all the restless spirits and unquiet humours into one 
focus I have long been of opinion that such mighty arma- 
ments and such a nervous state of things cannot end without 
a good deal of blood-letting [The Piussians did not support 
the Dutch, the French did march, and war did not ensue — 
August 28th ] 

At night — Loid Grej was attacked by Aberdeen to-night 
on his foieign policy, and particularly about Portugal, and 
he is said to have made a splendid speech Sir Henry 
Seton arrived fiom Liveipool to announce what is going on, 
and he is bent on fighting at piesent Abercromby, who is 
come likewise, repoits that he has 50 000 or 60,000 men 

August 9th — On Sat ui day morning we were saluted 
with intelligence that on the Fiench King’s hearing of the 
Dutch invasion he ordeied Maishal Geraid, with 50,000 
men, to march into Belgium, and gieat was the alaim 
here the funds fell and everybody was prepared for im- 
mediate wai In the afternoon I called upon Lord Giey 
at East Sheen (m my way to Monk’s Grove, where I was 
going) to say something to him about the coronation, and 
found him with a more cheerful countenance than I expected 
He did not appear alarmed at what the Prench had done* 



1831] 


A CBISIS IN PARIS 


179 


and very well satisfied with. the manner of their doing it, 
marching only m virtue of their guarantee and proclaiming 
their own neutrality and the Belgian independence, and the 
King had pieviously received the Belgian Minister 1 told 
him I thought Leopold’s folly had been the cause of it, and 
that his speeches about Luxembourg had given the Dutch 
King a pietext He said, not at all, and that the King of 
Holland would have done this under any circumstances, 
which I took leave to doubt, though I did not think it 
necessary to say so 1 

1 [It was stated m foimei editions of tins woik that Loid Grey’s com- 
posure was mainly due to the entue confidence he felt in the honour of the 
Due de Broglie, then French Mimstei of Foreign Affairs, who had given 
positive assurances to the Butish Cabinet that the intervention of Fiance 
would be confined to the immediate object in view, and I had this state- 
ment from the late M A an de Weye*, who leid these Journals before they 
were published but he was mistaken, foi the Due de Broglie was not then 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, and did not succeed Casimir Penei m that 
office until the 11th of October, 1832 I am indebted for this correction and 
for these particulars to M Charles de Remu&at, who has since played so 
distinguished a pait m the political affairs and in the hteratuie of France, 
and I shall conclude this note by citing a memoianduin this gentleman has 
been so good as to place m my hands — 

i Quand l’attaque mattendue du pimee d’Orange fut connue a Pans la 
nouvelle tiouva le Cabinet au moment de se dissoudre Casimir Pener, qui 
en etait le chef tres-effectif \ meeontent de Fmsuffisance de la majonte quhl 
avait obtenue dans la Cliambie des Deputes (p 175), avait donnd sa demis- 
sion, et ll y etait decide Je lemplissais alois aupres de lui temporairement 
les fonctions de chef de son Cabinet J’etais piesent loisqu’il re 9 ut Fmfoi- 
matmn, elle chang ea sui le champ sa resolution La ruptuie offensive de 
Farmistice pouvait lemettre en question toute I’affane de Belgique Ce 
letour d’hostilites pouvait amenei meme la guene g&ierale L’evinenient 
pouvait etre un dementi donne aux espeiances pacifiques du Gouvernement 
fran^ais II ne pouvait abandonnei le pays dans une 3premve quhl n’avait 
pas prevue Periei retira done sa demission et mamtmt son Cabinet Ce- 
pendant la Conference, et surtout FAngleteire, ne pouvait guere toleier une 
mfi action aux engagements anteneurs, et la France en particuliei etait 
mteressee a etouffei dans leur germe les hostilites lenaissantes Un coipa, 
d’aim^e eut done ordre de passer la fiontiere Cette mesure etait necessaire, 
mais elle etait grave , on ne savait pas comment elle serait envisagee pai les 
Puissances 6trangeies Loid Grey et loid Palmerston la pment dans son 
vrai sens ils virent bien qu’au fond la Fiance n’ avait d’autie but que de 
mettre immediatement un terme a un conflit menacant Ils eurent avee 
raison confiance en Casimir P&iei, et en Sebastian! et Talleyrand, que dm- 
geaient sous lui les affanes etrangeres L’ev^nement justifia la mamere 

N 2 



180 


REIGN 01 WILLI VM IV 


[Chap W 


On Sunday, ovei taken by the most dieadful stoim I evei 
saw — flashes of lightning, clashes of thundei, and the lam 
descending like a waterspout — I rode to Wmdsoi, to settle 
with the Queen what sort of ciown she would have to be 
crowned m I was ushered into the King’s piesence, who 
was sitting at a led table m the sittmg-ioom of Geoige IV , 
looking ovei the flower garden A picture of Adolphus Fitz- 
clarence was behind him (a full-length), and one of the 
paison, Kev Augustus Fitzclarenee, in a Grieek diess, 
opposite He sent for the Queen, who came with the 
Landgiavme and one of the King’s daughteis, Lad} Augusta 
Eiskine, the widow of Lord Cassilis’s son She looked at 
the diawmgs, meant apparently to be civil to me in hei un- 
gracious v ay, and said she would have none of our crowns, 
that she did not like to weai a hned ciown, and asked me if 
I thought it was right that she should I said, c Madam, 
I can only sa} that the late King woie one at his coro- 
nation ’ However she said, ‘ I do not like it, and I have 
got jewels enough, so I will have them made up myself 9 The 
King said to me, c Very well, then you will have to pa} foi 
the setting’ c Oh, no,’ she said, ‘I shall pay foi it all 
myself 5 The King looked well, but seemed infirm I talked 
to Tayloi aftei wards, who said he had very little doubt this 
stoim in Belgium would blow over, and agreed that Leopolds 
foil} had been m great measuie the cause of it There haie 
been discussions m both Houses, which have m some measuie 
quieted people’s apprehensions To-day that ass Lord 
Londonderi} (who has never yet had his windows mended 
fiom the tune they were broken by the mob at the Refoim 
illumination) brings on a motion about Belgium 

voir de tons deux Gomel nement* Les Hollondais s’aneteient et Fannie 
fran^aise rentia dans seslignes sans tv oir biule une amorce 

4 H est\iaique dans une occasion ]a confiance qu’mspirait le caiactere 
du due de Bioglie put eontnbuei a faire accepter une demonstration mili- 
tate du meme genie et beaucoup plus serieuse Ce fut lor^qu’au moic 
d’octobie ou de novembre de Fannee suivante 1’armee fian^aise fit en Bel- 
gique la campagne qui aboutit a la prise de la cite d* Anvers, niais cette 
opeiation fut concertee entre la Fiance et FAngleteire, qui ont du meme v 
participei ’] J 



1S31J 1EABS OF DEVOLUTION 181 

August 11 th — Nothing new these last two dayt> Lon- 
donderry^ motion produced an angry debate, but no division 
Brougham is said to have been very good The Government 
wanted to divide, but the Opposition know that it is not 
their interest to provoke a trial of stiength The Mmistei s, 
if beaten, would not go out, and they are anxious to see what 
their opponents 5 strength is At Court yesteiday, when 
Yan de Weyer, the new Belgian Minister, made his appear- 
ance I said to Esterhazy, ‘ You will blow this business 
over, shaVt you^ 5 He said, ‘Yes, I think we shall tins 
Ume 5 

Nothing remarkable in the House of Commons but Lord 
John Bussell’s declaration that ‘this Bill would not be final 
if it was not found to work as well as the people desned, 5 
which is sufficiently impudent considering that hitherto they 
have always pretended that it was to be final, and that it 
was made so comprehensive only that it might be so , this 
has been one of their grand arguments, and now we aie 
never to sit down and rest, but go on changing till we get a 
good fit, and that foi a country which will have been made 
so fidgety that it won’t stand still to be measured Hai- 
dmge, whom I found at dinner at the Athenseum yesterday, 
told me he was convinced that a revolution m this countiy 
was inevitable, and such is the opinion of otheis who 
support this Bill, not because they think concession will 
avert it, but will let it come more gradually and with less 
violence I have always been com meed that the countiy 
was m no danger of revolution, and still believe that if one 
does come it will be from the passing of this Bill, which will 
introduce the principle of change and whet the appetites of 
those who never will be satisfied with any existing order of 
things , oi if it follows on the rejection of this Bill, which 
I doubt, it will be owing to the concenmation of all the 
forces that are opposed to oui present institutions, and the 
divisions, jealousies, nvalships, and consequent weakness of 
all those who ought to defend them God only knows how 
it will all end There has been but one man for many years 
past able to arrest this torrent, and that was Canning , and 



182 


BEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XV 


hun the Tories— idiots that they weie, and never discovering 
that he was their best friend— hunted to death with their 
besotted and ignorant hostility 

I went to the play last night at a veiy shabby little house 
called the City Theatre — a long way beyond the Post Office 
— to see Ellen Tree act m a translation of ‘TJne Faute,’ 
one of the best pieces of acting I ever saw This girl 
will turn out very good if she lemains on the stage [She 
married Chailes Kean, lost her good looks, and became a 
tiresome, second-rate actress ] 

Auqmt 12 th — Yesterday a Committee of Council met to 
settle the order of the coionation and submit the estimates, 
which we have bi ought undei 80,000? instead of 240,OOOZ , 
which they were last time 

The question now is whethei our Mmistiy shall go along 
with Fiance, or whether Prance shall be pulled up , and it 
is brought to this point by Leopold’s having sent to the 
French to thank them for then aid, but to say that he can 
do without them, and to beg they will retne, which they 
have refused to do It was known yesterday that they are 
at Mons, and strongly suspected they will not so easily be 
got out of it , but the French Government will not venture 
to quarrel with us if we take a peiemptory tone It is not, 
however, cleai that the French Government can control the 
French aimy , and I have heaid it said that, if they had not 
ordeied the tioops to march, the troops would have marched 
without oiders L is all foi curbing France, so a very 
short time must bung matters to a cusis, and it will be seen 
if the Government has authority to check the war party 
there In the meantime the Fiench have taken the Poitu- 
guese ships without any intention of giving them back , and 
this our Mmisteis know, and do not remonstiate J asked 
L if it was true, and he said, c Oh, yes,’ for that having been 
compelled to force the Tagus, they weie placed m a state of 
war, and the ships became lawful puzes If it was not for 
Eeform I doubt if this Government could stand a moment, 
but that will bung them up In the country it is too cleai 
that there axe no sjmptoms of a leaction and if a state of 
mdiffeience can be pioduced it is all that can be hoped and 



1831] 


DUKE OF RICHMOND AT GOODWOOD 


183 


more than should be expected I do not think the Govern- 
ment by any means responsible foi the embroiled state of 
Europe, but they certainly appear to have no fixed plan or 
•enlightened view of foreign policy, and if they have not 
been to blame hitherto (which in acting with all the Allies, 
and endeavouring to keep things quiet, they have not been), 
they are evidently m great danger of floundering now 

Goodwood, August 20 th — Here I have been a week to- 
day for the races, and here I should not be now — fci every- 
body else is gone — if it wexenot for the gout, which has laid 
me fast by the foot, owing to a blow While on these racing 
expeditions I never know anything of politics, and, though I 
just read the newspapers, have no anecdotes to record of 
Reform or foreign affans I nevei come heie without fresh 
admiration of the beauty and delightfulness of the place, 
combining everything that is enjoyable m life — large and 
comfortable house, spacious and beautiful paik, extensive 
views, diy soil, sea air, woods, and udes ovet downs, and all 
the facilities of occupation and amusement The Duke, who 
has so strangely become a Cabinet Minister m a Whig 
Government, and who is a veiy good soit of man and my 
excellent friend, appears here to advantage, exeicismg a 
magnificent hospitality, and as a sportsman, a farmer, a 
magistrate, and good, simple, unaffected country gentleman, 
with great personal influence This is what he is fit for, to 
be. 

With safer pride content, 

The wisest justice on the banks of Trent, 

and not to assist m settling Euiope and making new consti- 
tutions 

I find on arriving m town that there is nothing new, but 
the Bill, which drags its slow length along, is m a bad way , 
not that it will not pass the Commons, but now eveiy- 
body attacks it, and the press is all against what remains of 
it Lord Chandos’s motion and the defeat of Government 
by so large a majority have given them a gieat blow Still 
they go doggedly on, and are determined to ciam it down 
anyhow, quite indifferent how it is to work and quite igno- 
rant As to foreign affairs, the Mmisteis trust to blunder 



184 


EEIG-N 01 WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XV 


through them, hoping, like Sn Abel Handy in the play, that 
the fire ‘ will go out of itself ’ Sefton has just been hei e, who 
talks blusteringly of the Peeis that are to be made, no matter 
at what cost of character to the House of Lords, anything 
rather than be beaten , but I am not sure that he knows any- 
thing In such mattei s as these he is (however sharp) no better 
than a fool — no knowledge, no information, no reflection 01 
combination , prejudices, partialities, and sneers are what his 
political wisdom consists of , but he is Lord Grey’s awe damnee * 
Stoke , August 28 th — My gout is still hanging on me 
Very strange disorder, affecting different people so differently, 
with me veiy little pain, much swelling, heat, and inconveni- 
ence, more like bruised muscles and tendons and inflamed 
joints, it disables me, but never prevents my sleeping at night 
Henry de Eos called on me yesterday , nothing new, and he 
knows everything from L , who sits there picking up politics 
and gossip, to make money by the one anddeuve amusement 
from the othei L is odd enough, and very malm with what 
he knows He is against Reform , but not against the Govern- 
ment , for the Duke of Wellington, and not for the Opposition 
— in short, just as intei est, fancy, capuce, and particulai parti- 
alities sway him It was he who told me the fact of the French 
having carried away the Portuguese ships, and he said that I 
might tell the Duke that he might make what use he pleased 
of it , but soon after, wishing if it did come out that it should 
fall harmless, he bethought him of the following expedient — 
Seeing that Yalletort (who is a good-natured blockhead) is 
always spluttering m the House of Commons, he thought m 
his hands it would do no harm, so he told him the fact with 
some flattering observations about his activity and energy 
in the House, which Yalley swallowed and with many thanks 
proceeded to put questions to Palmerston, which sure 
enough were so confused and unintelligible that nobody 
understood him, and the matter fell very flat I don’t see 
that Government is saved by this ruse, if the case against 
them is a good one , but it is curious as indicative of the 
artifice of the peison, and of his odd sort of political disposi- 
tion As I don’t wnte histoiy I omit to note such facts as 
are recorded in the newspapers, and merely mention the odd 



1831] 


THE FRENCH IN BLLGILM 


185 


things I pick up, which aie not geneially known, and which 
may hereafter throw some light on those which aie 

The Belgian business is subsiding into quiet again The 
Dutch have gained some ciedit, and the Prince of Change 
has (what was of importance to him) removed the load of 
odium under which he had been labouring m Holland, and 
acquired great popularity Leopold has cut a ridiculous 
figure enough , not exhibiting any want of peisonal courage, 
but aftei all the flourishes at the time of his accession 
finding himself at the head of a nation of blustenng cowards 
who would do nothing but mn away The ai rival of the 
Fiench aimy soon put an end to hostilities, and now the 
greater pait of it has been recalled , but Leopold has desired 
that 10,000 men may be left foi his piotection, whether 
against the Dutch oi against the Belgians does not appeal 
This excites considerable jealousies here, foi as jet it is not 
known why he asked foi such aid, noi on what terms it is to 
be granted 

L told me an odd thing connected with these troops 
Easthope leceived a commission fiom a secietaiy of Soult to 
sell laigely m our funds, coupled with an assurance that the 
troops would not letne I don’t know the fate of the com- 
mission 

There are vanous lepoits of dissensions m the Cabinet, 
which are not true The Duke of Wellington was sent for by 
Lord Grej the othei day, to gi\e his opinion about the demo- 
lition of the Belgian forti esses , so the ex-Pume Minister 
went to visit his successoi m the apaitment which was so 
lately his own No man would mind such a thing less than 
the Duke , he is sensitive, but has no nonsense about him 
He is veiy well and, howevei disgusted with the state of 
everything at home and abioad (which after all is gieatly 
imputable to himself), m high spmts 

The King did a droll thing the other day The ceie- 
momal of the coionation was taken down to him foi appro- 
val The homage is fiist done by the spiritual Peers, with 
the Aichbishop at their head The fiist of each class (the 
Archbishop for the spiritual) says the woids, and then they 
all kiss his cheek m succession He said he would not be 



186 


EEIG-N op WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XV 


kissed by tlie bishops, and ordered that part to be struck 
out As I expected, the prelates would not stand it , the 
Aichbishop remonstrated, the King knocked under, and so 
he must undergo the salute of the spiritual as well as of the 
temporal Lords 

August 30 th — Left Stoke yesteiday morning, a laige 
party — Talleyrand, De Kos, Fitzroy Somersets, Motteux, John 
Bussell, Alava, Byng In the evening Talleyrand discoursed, 
but I did not hear much of him I was gouty and could not 
stand, and all the places near him weie taken I have 
never heard him nan ate comfortably, and he is difficult to 
understand He talked of Franklin I asked him if he was 
lemarkable m conversation , he said he was from his great 
simplicity and the evident strength of his mind He spoke of 
the coronation of the Emperor Alexander Somebody wrote 
him a letter at the time from Moscow with this expression 
‘L’Empereui marchait, precede des assassins de son giand- 
peie, entoure de ceux de son pere, et sum pai les siens 5 
He said of the Count de Samt-Germain (whom he never saw) 
that theie is an account of him m Ciaufurd’s book, nobody 
knew whence he came nor whithei he went , he appeared 
at Pans suddenly, and disappeaied m the same way, lived m 
an hotel garni , had always plenty of money, and paid for every- 
thing regularly , he talked of events and persons connected 
with histoxy, both ancient and modern, with entiie familiarity 
and a correctness which never was at fault, and always of the 
people as if he had lived with them and known them , as 
Talleyrand exemplified it, he would say, 4 Un jour que je dinais 
chez Cesar ? 1 He was supposed to be the Wandenng Jew, a 

1 [This mysterious adventurei died m the arms of Prince Charles of 
Hesse, m 1784 , and some account of him is to be found m the 1 Memoirs ’ of 
that personage, quoted m the * Edinburgh Review,’ vol cxxm p 521 The 
Count de Samt-Germain was a man of science, especially versed m chemistry 
botany, and metallurgy He is supposed to have denved his money from 
an xmention m the ait of dyeing Aceoidmg to his own account of himself 
he was a son of Pnnce Eagozky of Tiansylvania and his first wife a 
Tekely, and he was Piotestant and educated by the last of the Medicis 
He was supposed to he ninety-two oi ninety-three when he died His 
knowledge of the alcana of science and his mysterious manner of life had 
given him something of the reputation of a wizaid and a control, but he 
was an honourable and benevolent man, not to be confounded with such 
charlatans as Mesmer and Cagliostio ] 



1831] 


TALLEYRAND S CONVERSATION 


187 


story which has always appeared to me a veiy sublime fiction, 
telling of 

That settled ceaseless gloom 

The fabled Hebrew wanderer bore, 

Which will not look beyond the tomb, 

Which cannot hope for rest before 

Then he 1 elated Mallets conspiracy and the strange way in 
which he heard it Early m the morning his tailor came to 
his house and insisted on seeing him He was m bed, but on his 
valet de chambre’s telling him how piessmg the tailor was he 
oidered him to be let m The man said, ‘ Have you not heard 
the news & There is a revolution m Paris 5 It had come to 
the tailor’s knowledge by Mallet’s going to him the very first 
thing to order a new uniform * Talleyiand said the conspira- 
tors ought to have put to death Cambacei&s and the King of 
Home I asked him if they had done so whethei he thought 
it possible the thing might have succeeded He said, 6 C’est 
possible 5 To my question whether the Empeioi would not 
have blown away the whole conspnacy m a moment he le- 
plied, ‘ Ce n’est pas sui, c’est possible que cela auiait reussi ’ 
He aftei wards talked of Madame de Stael and Monti 
They met at Madame de Marescalchi’s villa neai Bologna, and 
were piofuse of compliments and admiration for each other 
Each brought a copy of their respective works beautifully 
bound to present to the othei Aftei a day passed m an inter- 
change of literary flatteries and the most ardent expressions 
of delight, they separated, but each forgot to cany away the 
present of the othei, and the books remain m Madame de 
Maiescalchi’s library to this day 

August 31 st — Dined at Osteilej yesterday , Lady Sand- 
wich, Esteihazy and the Bathursts, Brooke Greville and 
Geoi ge Yilliers Esterhazy told me he had no doubt that there 
would be a wai, that General Baudron was arrived fiom 
Biussels, and Leopold had sent word by him that the Piench 
troops were absolutely necessaiy to his safety, to piotect him 
from the turbulence of his own subjects He considered 
that the Polish business was over, at which he greatly re- 
joiced He said that nobody was piepared foi wai, and the 
great object was to gam time, but a few weeks must now 



188 


BEIGris 01 WILLIAM 1 \ 


[Chap XV 


bring matters to a crisis , tlie only difficulty appears to be wbat 
to go to wax about, and who tbe belligerents should be, foi at 
the eleventh hour, and with the probability of a general war, 
it is a toss-up whether we and the French aie to be the closest 
allies or the deadliest enemies He told me that Casnnir 
Perier would probably be unable to keep his ground, that the 
modified law about the House of Peers did not give satisfac- 
tion If he is beaten on this he goes out, and if he does, 
with him will probably vanish all hopes of peace It is pretty 
evident that France is rapidly advancing to a republic Her 
institutions have long been republican, and, though very 
compatible with a despotic empire, incompatible with a con- 
stitutional and limited monarchy This Buonaparte knew 
Another Coronation Committee yesterday, and, I am happy 
to say, the last, foi this business is the greatest of all bores 
There is a furious squabble between the Grand Chamberlain 
and the Earl Maishal (who is absent and has squabbled by 
deputy) about the box of the former m Westminster Abbey 
At the last coronation King George IY gave Lord Gwydir 
his box m addition to his own, and now Lord Cholmondeley 
claims a similar box 1 This is resisted The piesent King dis- 
poses of his own box (and will probably fill it with every soit of 
canaille ) , the Lords won’t interfere, and the Grand Chamber 
lam piotests, and says he has been shamefully used, and there 
the matter stands The Grand Chamberlain is m the wrong 
September 3rd — On Wednesday a Council was held Yery 
few of the Ministers stay for the Councils , small blame to 
them, as the Irish say, for we are kept about three times as 
long by this regulai, punctual King as by the capricious, irre- 
gular Monaich who last ruled over us This King is a queer 
fellow Our Council was principally for a new Great Seal and 
to deface the old Seal The Chancellor claims the old one as. 
his perquisite I had forgotten the hammer, so the King said, 

4 My Lord, the best thing I can do is to give you the Seal, and 
tell you to take it and do what you please with it ’ The 
Chancelloi said, c Sir, I believe there is some doubt whether 

1 [Lord Gwydu and Lord Cholmondeley filled the office of Lord High 
Chambeilam for alternative lives as the representatives of the lomt claimants 
of the office ] 



1831] 


DIVISION or THE GREAT SEAL 


189 


Lord Lyndhurst ought not to have half of it, as he was Chan- 
cellor at the tune of youi Majesty’s accession ’ ‘ Well/ said 

the King, ‘then I will "judge between you like Solomon, heie 
(taming the Seal lound and lound), now do you cry heads 01 
tails $ 9 We all laughed, and the Chancellor said, Sir, I take 
the bottom pait 9 The King opened the two compartments of 
the Seal and said, c Now, then, I employ you as ministers of 
taste You will send foi Budge, my silversmith, and desne 
him to convert the two halves each into a salver, with my arms 
on one side and jours on theothei, and Lord Lyndhuist’s the 
same, and j on will take one and give him the other, and 
both keep them as piesents fiom me 5 The Duchess of Kent 
will not attend the coronation, and theie is a leport that the 
King is unwilling to make all the Peeis that aie required, 
this is the cunent talk of the day 

September 5th — At Gorkambuij since Satuiday , the 
Hanowbjs, Bathuists, Fiankland Lewises, Lady Jeisej, 
Malion, Luslungton, Woitleys , rathei agreeable and lively , 
all anti-Befoimers, so no quaiiellmg about that, though 
Lord Hairowbj is ready to squabble with anybody eithei 
way, but furiously against the Bill 

September 8th — Dmed with the Dube of Wellington 
yesterday , thirty-one people, very handsome, and the Styuan 
Mmstiels playing and singing all dinner time, a thing I 
nevei sawbefoie I sat next to Esterhazy and talked to him 
(a reiy little) about Belgian affans He said Talleyrand 
had given positive assurances that the Eiench troops should 
be withdrawn whenever the Dutch retired, that the other 
Powers were aware of Penei’s difficulties, and were leady to 
concede much to keep him m power, but that if he had not 
sufficient influence to lepiess the violent war faction there 
was no use m endeavouring to support him Our Govern- 
ment had behaved very well, and had been very strong m 
then lemonstiances 

After dinner I had much talk with the Duke, who told me 
a good deal about the late King and the Duchess of Kent , 
talked of his extravagance and love of spending, provided 
that it was not his own money that he spent, he told an old 
stoij r he had heard of Mis Pitzher belt’s being obliged to 



190 


BEIGrN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XV 


borrow money for Ins post-hoises to take Inm to Hewmaiket, 
that not a guinea was forthcoming to make stakes for some 
match, and when on George Leigh’s 1 entieaty he allowed 
some box to be seaiched that 3,000? was found m it He 
always had money When he died they found 10,000? m 
his boxes, and money scattered about everywhere, a gieat deal 
of gold There were about 500 pocket-books, of diffeient 
dates, and m every one monej — guineas, one pound notes, one, 
two, or thiee in each Theie nevei was anything like the 
quantity of trinkets and trash that they found He had 
never given away or parted with anything Theie was a 
prodigious quantity of hair — women’s hair— of all colours and 
lengths, some locks with the powder and pomatum still 
sticking to them, heaps of women’s gloves, gages d 9 amour 
which he had got at balls, and with the perspiration still 
marked on the fingers, notes and letters m abundance, but 
not much that was of any political consequence, and the 
whole was destroyed Of his will he said that it was made m 
1823 by Lord Eldon, veiy well di awn, that he desired his execu- 
tois might take all he had to pay his debts and such legacies 
as he might bequeath in any codicils he should make He 
made no codicils and left no debts, so the King got all as 
heir-at-law Knighton had managed his affans veiy well, 
and got him out of debt A good deal of money was 
disbursed m chanty, a good dealthiough the medium of two 
or thiee old women The Duke, talking of his love of ordering 
and expense, said that when he was to nde at the last eoio- 
nation the King said, c You must have a veiy fine saddle ’ 

6 What sort of saddle does your Majesty wish me to have & ’ 
c Send Cuffe to me ’ Accoidmgly Ouffe went to him, and the 
Duke had to pay some hundreds for his saddle (While I 
am writing the King and Queen with then cortege aie passing 
down to Westminster Abbey to the coronation, a grand 
procession, a fine day, an immense crowd, and gieat accla- 
mations ) 

We then talked of the Duchess of Kent, and I asked 
him why she set herself m such opposition to the Court He 

1 [Colonel George Leigh, who managed his iace-horses , he was mar ried 
to Lord Byron’s half-sister ] 



1831] 


THE DUCHESS OF KENT 


191 


said that Sn John Comoy was her adviser, that he was suie 
of it What he then told me throws some light upon hei 
ill-humour and displays her wiong-headedness In the first 
place the late King disliked her , the Duke of Cumberland 
too was her enemy, and George IY , who was as great a 
despot as evei lived, was always talking of taking her child 
from her, which he inevitably would have done but for the 
Duke, who, wishing to prevent quarrels, did all m his power 
to deter the King, not by opposing him when he talked of 
it, which he often did, but by putting the thing off as well 
as he could However, when the Duchess of Cumber- 
land came ovei, and there was a question how the Royal 
Family would leceive her, he thought he might reconcile 
the Cumberlands to the Duchess of Kent by engaging her 
to be civil to the Duchess of Cumberland, so he desired 
Leopold to advise his sister (who was m the country) from 
him very strongly to wnte to the Duchess of Cumberland 
and expiess her regret at being absent on hei ai rival, and so 
prevented fiom calling on her The Duchess sent Leopold 
back to the Duke to ask why he gave her this advice^ 
The Duke leplied that he should not say why, that he 
knew more of what was going on than she possibly could, 
that he gave her this advice for her own benefit, and again 
repeated that she had better act on it The Duchess said 
she was leady to give him credit for the goodness of his 
counsel, though he would not say what his reasons were, and 
she did as he suggested This succeeded, and the Duke of 
Cumberland ceased to blow the coals Matters went on 
quietly till the King died As soon as he was dead the 
Duchess of Kent wiote to the Duke, and desired that she 
might be tieated as a Dowager Princess of Wales, with a 
suitable income foi hei self and her daughter, who she a_so 
desired might be treated as Heiress Apparent, and that she 
should have the sole control ovei the allowance to be made 
foi both The Duke leplied that her pioposition was alto- 
gether inadmissible, and that he could not possibly think of 
proposing anything for hei till the matters regaidmg the 
King’s Civil List were settled, but that she might lely 
upon it that no measuie which affected her m any way 



192 


REIGN OE WILLI VM IV 


[Chap XI 


should be considered without being impaited to her and the 
fullest mfoimation given her At this it appeals she took 
great offence, foi she did not speak to him foi a long time after 

When the Regency Bill was flamed the Duke desired the 
King’s leave to wait upon the Duchess of Kent and show it to 
her, to which his Majesty assented, and accordingly he wrote 
to her to saj he would call upon her the next day with the 
draft of the Bill She was at Claremont, and sent word that 
she was out of town, but desired he would send it to her m 
the countiy He said she ought to have sent Sir John Con- 
roy to him, or have desired him to go to liei at Claiemont, 
which he would have done, but he wrote her word that he 
could not explain by letter so fully what he had to say as he 
could have done m a personal intei view, but he would do so 
as well as he could In the meantime, Loid Lyndhuist 
brought on the measure m the House of Lords, and she sent 
Conioy up to hear him He returned to Claiemont just 
after the Duchess had received the Duke’s lettei Since that 
he has dined with hei 

[I must say the King is punctual , the camion aie now 
hung to announce his arrival at the Abbey, and my clock is 
at the same moment staking eleven , at eleven it was an- 
nounced that he would he there ] 

His Majesty, I heai, was m great ill-humour at the levee 
yesterday , contrary to his usual custom, he sent for nobody 
and gave no audiences, but at ten minutes after one flounced 
into the levee 100m , not one Munster was come bnt the Duke 
•of Richmond Talleyrand and Esterhazy alone of the Corps 
Diplomahque were in the next room He attacked the officer 
of the Guaids foi not having his cap on his head, and sent 
foi the officei on guard, who was not amved, at which 
he expressed gieat ire It is supposed that the peerages 
have put him out of tempei His Majesty did a very strange 
thing about them Though their patents are not made out, 
and the new Peers are no moie Peers than I am, he desned 
them to appeal as such m Westminster Abbey and do 
homage Colonel Berkeley asked me what he should do, and 
said what the King had desired of him I told him he should 
do no such thing, and he said he would go to the Chancellor 



1831] 


A DINNER AT ST JAMES S 


193 


and ask Inm I don’t know how it ended Howe told me 
yesterday morning m Westminster Abbey that Lord Cleve- 
land is to be a duke, though it is not yet acknowledged if it 
be so There has been a battle about that , they say that he 
got his boroughs to be made a marquis, and got rid of them 
to be made a duke 1 

September Vltli — The coronation went off well, and 
whereas nobody was satisfied before it everybody was after it 
No events of consequence The cholera has got to Berlin, and 
Warsaw is taken by the Eussians, who appeal to have behaved 
with moderation Since the deposition of Slaznecki, and the 
reign of clubs and mobs and the peipetiation of massacres at 
Warsaw, the public sympathy for the Poles has a good deal 
fallen off The cholera, which is travelling south, is less violent 
than it was m the north It is lemaibable that the common 
people at Berlin aieimpiessed with the same stiange belief that 
possessed those of St Petersburg that they havebeen poisoned, 
and Chad writes to-day that they believe there is no such 
disease, and that the deaths ascubed to that malady aie pio- 
duced by poison admmisteied by the doctors, who aie bribed 
foi that purpose , that the rich, finding the poor becoming too 
numeious to be conveniently governed, have adopted this 
mode of thinning the population, which was employed with 
success by the English m India , that the foreign doctors are 
the delegates of a central committee, which is formed m 
London and directs the proceedings, and similar nonsense 

The talk of the town has been about the King and a 
toast he gave at a great dinner at St James’s the other day 
He had ninety guests — all his Ministers, all the great people, 
and all the foreign Ambassadors After dinner he made a 
long rambling speech m French, and ended by giving as c a 
sentiment/ as he called it, * The land we live in 5 This was 
before the ladies left the room After they were gone he 
made another speech m Fiench, in the course of which he 
travelled over every vanety of topic that suggested itself to 
his excuisive mind, and ended with a very coarse toast and 

1 [The Eail of Darlington had been made Marquis of Cleveland in 1827, 
and was laised to the dukedom m January 1833 ] 

VOL II 0 



194 


BEIGN OP WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XV 


the words c Horn soit qui mal y pense 3 Seffcon, who told it me, 
said he never felt so ashamed , Lord Grey was ready to sink 
into the earth , everybody laughed of course, and Sefton, who 
sat nest to Talleyiand, said to him, c Eh bien, qne pensez-vous 
de cela $ ? With his unmoved, immovable face he answeied 
only, c C’est bien remarquable 3 

In the meantime Reform, which has subsided into a calm 
for some time past, is approaching its termination m the 
House of Commons, and as it gets near the period of a fresh 
campaign, and a more arduous though a shorter one, agita- 
tion is a little reviving The * Times 3 and other violent news- 
papers are moving heaven and earth to stn up the countiy 
and intimidate the Peers, many of whom aie frightened 
enough already The general opinion at present is that the 
Peers created at the coronation will not be enough to carry the 
Bill (they are a set of horrid rubbish most of them), but that 
no more will be made at present, that the Opposition, if 
united, will be strong enough to throw out the Bill, but that 
they are so divided m opinion whether to oppose the Bill on 
the second reading oi m Committee, that this dissension will 
very likely enable it to pass Up to this time there has been 
no meeting, and nothing has been agreed upon, but there 
would have been one convened by the Dube of Wellington 
but for Lady Mornmgton’s death, and this week they will 
arrange their plan of opeiations Prom what Sefton says 
(who knows and thinks only as Brougham and Grey direct 
him) I conclude that the Government are resolved the Bill 
shall pass, that if it is thrown out they will do what the 
Tories recommended, and make as many Peers as may be 
sufficient, foi he said the other day he would rathei it was 
thrown out on the second reading than pass by a small 
majority With this resolution (which after having gone 
so far is not unwise) and the feeling out of doors, pass it 
must, and so suie are Government of it that they have begun 
to divide the counties, and have set up an office with clerks 
maps, &c , m the Council Office, and there the Committee 
sit every day 

Stoke, September 18 th — I came here yesterday with the 
Chancellor, Creevey, Luttrell, my fathei and mother, Ester- 



1831] 


STATE 03? EEANCE 


195 


hazy, Neumann Brougham was tned, never spoke, and went 
to bed early This morning I got a lettei from the Lord Presi- 
dent enclosing an order fiom the King for a copy of the 
proceedmgs m Council on the mam age of the Duke of 
Sussex and Lady Augusta Murray The Chancellor told me 
that the young man Sn Augustus d’Este had behaved very 
ill having filed a bill m Chancei y, into which he had put all 
his fathei’s love lettei s, written thirty years ago, to perpetuate 
evidence , that it was all done without the Duke of Sussex’s 
consent, but that D’Este had got Lushmgton’s opinion that 
the marriage was valid on the ground that the Marriage 
Act only applied to mainages conti acted here, whereas 
this was contracted at Rome He said Lushmgton was a 
gieat authority, but that he had no doubt he was wrong 
The King is exceedingly annoyed at it 

September 19th — Came to town Talleyrand, Madame de 
Dmo, and Alava came to Stoke yesteiday Talleyrand had a 
circle, but the Chancellor talked too much, and they rather 
spoilt one anothei He said one neat thing They were 
talkmg of Madame d’Abrantes’s ‘Memoirs/ and of her mother, 
Madame Pernon My father said, C M de Marboeuf etait 
mi pen Famant de Madame Pei non, n’est-ce pas He 
said, c Oui, mais je ne sais pas dans quelles proportions ’ 

September 20 th — News anived of great riots at Pans, on 
account of the Polish business and the fall of Warsaw 
Madame de Dmo (who, by-the-bye, Talleyrand says is the 
cleverest man or woman he ever knew) said last night that 
she despaired of the state of things m Fiance, that this was 
no mere populai tumult, but part of an organised system of 
disaffection, and that the Cailists had joined the ultra- 
Republicans, that the National Guard was not to be depended 
upon, that ‘ leur esprit etait fatigue 5 Talleyrand himself 
was very low, and has got no intelligence from his Govern- 
ment This morning I met Lord Grey, and walked with 
him I told him what Madame de Dmo had said He said 
he knew it all, and how bad things weie, and that they would 
be much worse if the Reform Bill was thrown out here I 
asked him how they would be affected by that He said that 



196 


REIGN OE WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XV 


a change of Mimstiy here would have a very bad effect 
there, from which it may be mfeiied that if beaten they 
mean to resign He said tbe French Ministry had been 
very imprudent about Poland I said, c How** for what could 
they have done^ They could only get at Poland thiough 
Prussia 5 He said they might have sent a fleet to the 
Baltic with our concunence, though we could not urge 
them to do so I psked him what he thought would be the 
result of the dissolution of Pener’s Government , I said that 
there appeared to me two alternatives, a general louleversement 
or the war faction m power under the existing system He 
lepliedhe did not think there would now be a louleversement , 
but a Ministry of Lafayette, Lamarque, and all that paity 
who were impatient to plunge France into war I said I did 
not think France could look to a successful wai, for the old 
alliance would be re-formed against her He lejomed that 
Russia was powerless, crippled by this contest, and under the 
necessity of maintaining a great army m Poland , Austria 
and Prussia were both combustible, half the provinces of the 
former nearly in a state of insurrection , that the latter had 
enough to do to preserve quiet, and the French would rouse all 
the disaffected spirit which existed m both I said c then we 
were on the eve of that state of things which was predicted 
by Canning m his famous speech 5 Heie we met Ellis, and 
I left them 

I afteiwards saw George Villiers, who told me that he 
knew from a member of the Cabinet that there had been a 
division m it on the question of going out if the Reform 
Bill should be i ejected, and that it had been earned by 
a majority that they should He told me also a eunous 
thing about Stanley’s Arms Bill that it had never been im- 
parted to Lord Anglesey nor to the Cabinet here, and that 
Loid Giey had been obliged to write an apology to Loid 
Anglesey, and to tell him he (Lord Grey) had himself seen the 
Bill for the first time m the newspapers This he had from 
Loid C , who is a great fnend of Lord Anglesey’s, and who 
had seen Lord Grey’s letter befoie he left Ireland, but the 
story appears to me quite incredible, and is piobably untrue 



197 


CHAPTER XVI 

Whig and Tory Meetings on Eefoim — Resolution to carry the Bill — Holland 
— Radical Jones — Reform Bill thrown out by the Lords— Dorsetshire 
Election — Division among the Tones — Bishop Phillpotts — Prospects of 
Reform — Its Dangers — Riots at Bristol — The Cholera at Sunderland — 
\.n Attempt at a Compromise on Reform — Lord Wharncliffe negotiates 
with the Ministers — Negotiation with Mi Barnes — Proclamation against 
the Unions — Baibari&m of Sunderland — Disappointment of Lord Wharn- 
cliffe — Bristol and Lyons — Commeicial Negotiations with France — 
Poulett Thomson — Lord Wharncliffe’s Proposal to Lord Grey — Dis- 
approved by the Duke of Wellington — Model ation of Lord John Bussell 
— The Appeal of Dias v Grosvenoi — The Second Reform Bill — 
Violence of Loid Duiham — Moie Body-snatcheis — Duke of Richmond 
and Sir Henry Parnell— Pansh anger — Creation of Peeis — Division of 
Opinion — Negotiation to avoid the Creation of Peers— Lord Wharn- 
eliffe’s Interview with the King — Opposition of the Duke of Wellington 
— The Waverers resolve to separate from the Duke 

September 22nd — The rnglit before last Cioker and Ma- 
caulay made two fine speeches on Reform , the foimer spoke 
for two houis and a half, and m a way he had never done 
befoie Macaulay was very brilliant There was a meeting 
at Lord Ebnngton’s yesterday, called by him, Lyttelton 
Lawley, and of members of the House of Commons only, and 
they (without coming to any resolution) were all agreed to 
prevail on the Government not to resign m the event of 
the Refoim Bill being rejected m the House of Lords I 
have no doubt, therefoie, m spite of what Lord Grey said, 
and the othei circumstances I have mentioned above, that 
they will not resign, and I doubt whether there will be any 
occasion foi it 

There was a dinner at Apsley House yesterday, the 
Cabinet of Opposition, to discuss matters before having 



198 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVI 


a general meeting At tins dinner there were sixteen 
or seventeen present, all the leading anti-Eefoimers of the 
Peers They agreed to oppose the second reading Dudley, 
who was there, told me it was tragedy first and farce 
afterwards, for Eldon and Kenyon, who had dined with 
the Duke of Cumberland, came m after dmnei Chairs 
were placed for them on each side of the Duke, and after 
he had explained to them what they had been discussing, and 
what had been agreed upon, Kenyon made a long speech on 
the first reading of the Bill, m which it was soon apparent 
that he was very drunk, for he talked exceeding nonsense, 
wandered from one topic to another, and lepeated the same 
thmgs over and over again When he had done Eldon 
made a speech on the second leading, and appeared to be 
equally drunk, only, Lord Bathurst told me, Kenyon in his 
drunkenness talked nonsense, but Eldon sense Dudley said 
it was not that they were as drunk as lords and gentlemen 
sometimes aie,but they were drunk like porters Lyndhurst 
was not there, though invited He dined at Holland House 
It is pretty clear, howevei, that he will vote for the second 
reading, foi his wife is determined he shall I saw her 
yesterday, and she is full of pique and resentment against 
the Opposition and the Duke, half real and half pretended, 
and chattels away about Lyndhuist’s not being their cat’s 
paw, and that if they choose to abandon him, they must not 
expect him to sacrifice himself for them The pretexts 
she takes are, that they would not go to the House of Lords 
on Tuesday and suppoit him against Brougham on the 
Bankruptcj Bill, and that the Duke of Wellington wrote to 
her and desired her to influence her husband m the matter 
of Keiorm The first is a joke, the second there might be 
a little m, for vanity is always uppermost, but they have 
both some motive of interest, which they will pursue m what- 
ever way they best can The excuse they make is that they 
want to conceal their stiength from the Government, and 
accordingly the Duke of Wellington has not yet entered any 
of his proxies The tiuth is that I am by no means sure 
now that it is safe or prudent to oppose the second reading, 



1831] 


PROSPECTS OP THE REiORM BILL 


19 9 


and though. I think it very doubtful if any practicable alter- 
ation will be made m Committee, it will be better to take 
that chance, and the chance of an accommodation and com- 
promise between the two parties and the two Houses, than 
to attack it m front It is clear that Government are re- 
solved to cany the Bill, and equally clear that no means they 
can adopt would be unpopular They are averse to making 
more Peers if they can help it, and would rather go quietly 
on, without any fresh changes, and I believe they are con- 
scientiously persuaded that this Bill is the least democratical 
Bill it is possible to get the country to accept, and that if 
offeied m time this one will be accepted I had heard 
before that the country is not enamoured of this Bill, but I 
fear that it is true that they are only indifferent to the 
Conseivative clauses of it (if I may so term them), and for 
that reason it may be doubtful whether there would not be 
such a elamoui raised m the event of the i ejection of this 
Bill as would compel the Ministers to make a new one, more 
objectionable than the old If its passing clearly appears to be 
inevitable, why, the sooner it is done the better, for at least 
one immense object will be gained m putting an end to 
agitation, and restoring the country to good-humour, and 
it is desirable that the House of Lords should stand as well 
with the people as it can It is better, as Burke says, ( to do 
early, and fiom foresight, that which we may be obliged to 
do from necessity at last 5 I am not moie delighted with 
Eeform than I have ever been, but it is the part of prudence 
to take into consideration the present and the future, and 
not to harp upon the past It matters not how the country 
has been woiked up to its present state, if a calm observation 
convinces us that the spirit that has been raised cannot be 
allayed, and that is very clear to me 

September 24:th — Peel closed the debate on Thursday 
night with a very fine speech, the best (one of his opponents 
told me, and it is no use isking the opmions of ft lends if a 
candid opponent is to be found) he had ever made, not only 
on that subject, but on any othei , he cut Macaulay to 
ribands Macaulay is veiy brilliant, but his speeches are 



200 


HfcJGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVI 


harangues and never replies , whereas Peel’s long experience 
and real talent for debate give him a gieat advantage m the 
power of reply, which he veiy eminently possesses Macaulay, 
however, will probably be a very distinguished man These 
debates have elicited a vast deal of talent, and have seived 
as touchstones to try leal merit and power As a proof of 
what practice and a pretty good undei standing can do, there 
is Althorp, who now appears to be an excellent leadei, and 
contrives to speak decently upon all subjects, quite as much 
as a leadei need do , for I have always thought that it should 
not be his business to furnish rhetoric and floweis of elo- 
quence, but good-humour, judgment, firmness, discretion, 
businesslike talents, and gentlemanlike virtues 

Dined at Richmond on Friday with the Lyndhursts , the 
man talks against the Bill, the women for it They are like 
the old divisions of families m the Civil Wars 

My brother-in-law and sister aie just letumed from a tour 
of three weeks m Holland , curious spectacle, considering the 
state of the lest of Euiope, nothing but loyalty and enthu- 
siasm, adoration of the Orange family , 2,000,000 of people, 
and an aimy of 110,000 men, everybody satisfied with the 
Government, and no desire for Reform 

Pans, on the point of exploding, is again tranquil, but 
nobody can tell toi how long They bet two to one here 
that the Refoi m Bill is thrown out on the second reading , 
and what then & The meeting at Ebnngton’s was fiat, nothing 
agreed on Hume wanted to pass some violent lesolution^ 
but was ovenuled Milton made a foolish speech, with 
prospective menaces and present nothingness m it, and 
they separated without having done good oi harm 

Newma ? Jcet , October ls£ — Came here last night, to my great 
joy, to get holidaj s, and leave Refoi m and cholera and politics 
for racing and its amusements Just before I came away I met 
Lord Wharncliffe, and asked him about his interview with 
Radical Jones This blackguaid considers himself a sort of 
chief of a faction, and one of the heads of the sans-culottms 
of the present day He wrote to Lord Wharncliffe and said 
he wished to confer with him, that if he would grant him an 



1831] 


PROSPECTS OF THE REFORM BILL 


201 


intei view he might bring any person he pleased to witness 
what passed between them Loid Wharncliffe replied that 
he would call on him, and should be satisfied to have no 
witness Accordingly he did so, when the other m very civil 
teims told him that he wished to try and impress upon his 
mind (as he was one of the heads of anti-Reform m the 
House of Lords) how dangerous it would be to reject this 
Bill, that all soits of excesses would follow its rejection, that 
their persons and properties would be perilled, and resistance 
would be unavailing, for that they (the Reformers) were re- 
solved to cany then point Lord Wharncliffe asked whethei 
if this was conceded they would be satisfied Jones leplied, 
‘Ceitamly not, 5 that they must go a great deal further, 
that an hereditary peerage was not to be defended on any 
reasonable theory Still, he was not foi doing away with it, 
that he wished the changes that weie inevitable to take 
place quietly, and without violence 01 confusion After 
some more discourse m this stiam they sepaiated, but veij 
civillj, and without any intern peiance of expiession on the 
part of the Refoimer 

On Monday the battle begins m the House of Loids, and 
up to this time nobody knows how it will go, each paity being 
confident, but opinion generally in favour of the Bill being 
thiown ont There is nothing more curious m this question 
than the fact that it is almost impossible to find anybody who 
is satisfied with the pait he himself takes upon it, and that it 
is generally looked upon as a choice of evils, m which the 
only thing to do is to choose the least The Reformers say, 
You had better pass the Bill, 01 jou will have a woise The 
moderate anti-Reformeis would be glad to suffei the second 
reading to pass and altei it m Committee, but they do not 
daie do so, because the sulk J9 stupid, obstinate High Tones 
declare that they will throw the whole thing up, and not 
attempt to alter the Bill if it passes the second reading 
Every man seems tossed about by opposite consideiations 
and the necessity of accommodating his own conduct to the 
caprices, passions, and follies of others 

Riddlesworth , October 10 th — At Newmarket all last week 



202 


REIG-N OF WILLIAM IY 


[Chap XVI 


all the Peeis absent , here since Friday Yesterday morning 
the newspapers (all m black ! ) announced the defeat of the 
Beform Bill by a majonty of forty-one, at seven o’clock on 
Satuiday morning, after five nights’ debating By all 
accounts the debate was a magnificent display, and incom- 
parably superior to that m the House of Commons, but 
the reports convey no idea of it The great speakers on 
either side were — Lords Grey, Lansdowne, Goderich, 
Plunket, and the Chancellor, for the Bill , against it, 
Lords Wharneliffe (who moved the amendment), Harrowby, 
Carnarvon, Dudley, Wynford, and Lyndhurst The Duke of 
Wellington’s speech was exceedingly bad , he is in fact, and 
has proved it m repeated instances, unequal to argue a great 
constitutional question He has neither the command of 
language, the power of reasoning, noi the knowledge le- 
quisite for such an effort Lord Harrowby’s speech was 
amazingly fine, and delivered with great effect, and the last 
night the Chancellor is said to have surpassed all his formei 
exploits, Lyndhurst to have been nearly as good, and Lord 
Grey very great m reply There was no excitement m 
London the following day, and nothing particular happened 
but the Chancellor being drawn from Downing Street to 
Berkeley Squaie m his carriage by a very poor mob The 
majority was much greater than anybody expected, and it 
is to be hoped may be productive of good by showing the 
necessity of a compromise , for no Minister can make sixty 
Peers, which Lord Grey must do to carry this Bill, it 
would be to cieate another House of Lords Nobody knows 
what the Ministers would do, but it was thought they would 
not resign A meeting of members of the House of Com- 
mons was held under the auspices of Ebrington to agree 
upon a lesolution of confidence m the Government this day 
The majority and the magnificent display of eloquence and 
ability m the House of Lords must exalt the charaetei and 
dignity of that House, and I hope increase its efficacy for 
good purposes and for resistance to this Bill It may be 
hoped, too, that the apathy of the capital may have some 
1 [Not all of them , neither the 1 Times ’ nor the * Morning Herald ’] 



1831] 


DORSETSHIRE ELECTION 


203 


effect m the country, though the unions, which are so well 
disciplined and under the control of their oratois, will make 
a stir On the whole I rejoice at this result, though I had 
taken fright before, and thought it better the Bill should be 
read a second time than be thrown out by a very small 
majority 

While the debates have been going on theie have been 
two elections, one of the Lord Mayoi in the City, which the 
Refoimers have carried after a shaip contest, and the contest 
for Dorsetshire between Ponsonby and Ashley, which is not 
yet ovei Ponsonby had a week’s start of his opponent, 
notwithstanding which it is so severe that they have been for 
some days within ten or fifteen of each other, and (what is 
remarkable) the anti-Reformer is the popular candidate, and 
has got all the mob with him This certainly is indicative 
of some change , though not of a reaction , m public opinion 
There is no longei the same vehemence of desire for this Bill, 
and I doubt whether all the efforts of the press will be able 
to stimulate the people again to the same pitch of excite- 
ment 

Buckenham , October 1 1th — Came heie yesterday, nobody 
of note, not lively, letters every day with an account of what 
is passing The Radical press is moving heaven and earth to 
produce excitement, but without much effect There was 
something of a mob which marched about the parks, but no 
mischief done Londonderry and some others were hooted 
near the House of Lords Never was a party so crestfallen 
as I hear they are , they had not a notion of such a division 
Theie seems to be a very general desire to biing about a 
fair compromise, and to have a Bill mtioduced next session 
which may be so framed as to secure the concurrence of 
the majority of both Houses The finest speeches by all 
accounts were Hairowby’s, Lyndhuist’s, and Grey’s leply, 
but Hemy de Ros, who is a very good judge, wntes me 
word that Lyndhurst’s was the most to his taste 

October 12th — The Reformeis appear to have i allied then 
spirits Lord Grey went to Wmdsoi, was graciously leceived 
by the King, and obtained the dismissal of Lord Howe, which 



204 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVI 


will serve to show the King’s entire good-will to his present 
Ministers Ebnngton’s lesolution of confidence was carried 
by a great majority m the House of Commons after some 
violent speeches from Macaulay, Shell, and O’Connell, and very 
moderate ones and m a low tone on the other side Macau- 
lay’s speech was as usual very eloquent, but as mflammatory 
as possible Such men as these three can care nothing into 
what state of confusion the country is thrown, for all they 
want is a market to which they may bring their talents , 1 
but how the Miltons, Tavistocks, Althoips, and all who 
have a gieat stake m the country can lun the same course 
is more than I can conceive or comprehend Party is indeed, 
as Swift says, ‘ the madness of many,’ when earned to its 
present pitch In the meantime the Conservative paity are 
as usual committing blunders, which will be fatal to them 
Lord Harrowby was to have moved yesterday or the day 
before, m the House of Loids, a resolution pledging the 
House to take into consideration early in the next session 
the acknowledged defects m the representation, with a view 
to make such ameliorations m it as might be consistent with 
the Constitution, or something to this effect This has not 
been done because the Duke of Wellington objects He will 
not concur because he thinks the proposition should come 
from Government , as if this was a time to stand upon such 
punctilios, and that it was not of paramount importance to 
show the country that the Peers are not obstinately bent 
upon opposing all Reform I had hoped that he had profited 
by experience, and that at least his past errors m politics 
might have taught him a little modesty, and that he would 
not have thwarted measures which were proposed by the 
wisest and most disinterested of his own party I can con- 
ceive no greater misfortune at this moment than such a dis- 
union of that party, and to have its deliberations ruled by 
the obstmacy and prejudices of the Duke He is a great 
man m httle things, but a little man in great matters — I 
mean in civil affairs, in those mighty questions which 

1 This was very unjust to Macaulay, and not true as to Shell , to O’Con- 
nell alone applicable 



1831] LORD GREY AND BISHOP PHILLPOTTS 205 

embrace enormous and various interests and consideiations, 
and to comprehend which great knowledge of human nature, 
great sagacity, coolness, and impartiality are required, he is 
not fit to govern and direct His mind has not been suffi- 
ciently disciplined, nor saturated with knowledge and ma- 
tured by leflection and communication with other minds, to 
enable him to be a safe and efficient leader m such times as 
these 

[In leading over these remaiks upon the Duke of Wel- 
lington, and comparing them with the opinions I now entei- 
tam of his piesent conduct, and of the nature and quality of 
his mind, I am compelled to ask myself whether I did not 
then do him injustice On the whole I think not He is 
not, nor evei was, a little man m anything, great or small , 
but I am satisfied that he has made great political blundeis, 
though with the best and most patriotic intentions, and that 
his conduct throughout the Eefoim contest was one of the 
gieatest and most unfoitunate of them — July 1838 ] 

October 14 th — The town continues quite quiet , the 
country nearly so The press stiam every nerve to pioduce 
excitement, and the ‘ Times ’ has begun an assault on the 
bishops, whom it has marked out for vengeance and defama- 
tion for having voted against the Bill Althorp and Loi d J ohn 
Eussell have written grateful letters to Attwood as Chairman 
of the Birmingham Union, thus indirectly acknowledging 
that puissant body There was a desperate strife m the 
House of Lords between Phillpotts and Lord Grey, m which 
the former got a most tremendous dressing Times must 
be mightily changed when my sympathies go with this 
bishop, and even now, though full of disgust with the other 
faction, I have a pleasuie in seeing him trounced The 
shade of Canning may rejoice at the sight of Grey smiting 
Phillpotts Even on such a question Phillpotts was essentially 
m the right , but he lost his temper, floundered, and got 
punished It was most indecent and disgusting to hear 
Brougham fiom the Woolsack, m a strain of the bitteiest 
irony and sarcasm, but so bioad as to be without the sem- 
blance of disguise, attack the bench of bishops I am of 



206 


KEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVI 


opinion that it would have been far better never to have let 
them back into the House of Lords, but now that they aie 
there I would not thrust them out, especially at this moment 
Lord Giey m this debate gave no handle certainly, for he 
interposed m their favour, and rebuked Lord Suffield, who 
attacked them first, and told him he was out of order, and 
then Phillpotts veiy foolishly attacked him 

October 15 th — A furious attack m the House of Commons 
upon Althoip’s and John EusselPs letteis to Attwood by 
Hardmge and Vyvyan Peel not thei e, having hopped off to 
Staffordshire, to the great disgust of his party, whom he 
nevei scruples to leave m the lurch They made wi etched 
excuses for these letters, and could only have recourse to the 
pretence of indignation at being thought capable of foment- 
ing disorders, which is all very well, but they do foment 
discord and discontent by every means m their power With 
a yelling majority m the House, and a desperate press out 
of it, they go on m their reckless course without feai or 
shame Lord Barrowby made a speech m the House of 
Loids, and declared his conviction that the time was come 
for effet ting a Reform, and that he would support one to a 
certain extent, which he specified In the House he was 
coolly received, and the 6 Times 5 hardly deigned to notice 
what he said Pailiament is to be up on Thuisday next, 
and will piobably not meet till January, when of course 
the first thing done will be to bung m the Bill again What, 
then, is gained 9 For as Ministers take every opportunity of 
declaring that they will accept nothing less efficient (as 
they call it) than the present Bill, no compromise can be 
looked foi Lord Harrowby is the only man who has said 
what he will do, and probably he goes further than the bulk 
of his party would approve of, and yet he is far behind the 
Ministerial plan So that there seems httle prospect of 
getting off for less than the old Bill, for the Opposition will 
hardly venture to stop the next m limine as they did this 
I do not see why they should hope to amend the next Bill m 
Committee any more than the last, and the division which 
they dreaded the other day is not less likely, and would not 



1831] 


DANGERS OE REFORM 


207 


be less fatal upon another occasion If, then, it is to pass at 
last, it comes back to what I thought before, that it might as 
well have passed at first as at last, and the excitement con- 
sequent on its 1 ejection have been spared, as well as the 
odium which has accrued to the Peeis, which will not be 
forgotten oi laid aside 

The Dorsetshire election promises to end m favour of 
Ashley, and there will be a contest for Cambridgeshire, which 
may also end m favour of the anti-Eeform candidate These 
victories I reallj believe to be unfoitunate, for they are 
taken (I am arguing as if they were won, though, with legal d 
to the first, it is the same thing by contrast with the last 
election) by the Tories and anti-Refoim champions as 
undoubted proofs of the reaction of public opinion, and they 
are thereby encouraged to pei severe m opposition under the 
false notion that this supposed reaction will every day gam 
ground I wish it were so with all my soul, but believe it 
is no such thing, and that although theie may be fewer 
friends to the Bill than there were, particularly among the 
agriculturists, Reform is not a whit less popular with the mass 
of the people m the manufacturing districts, throughout the 
unions, and geneially amongst all classes and in all parts of 
the country When I see men, and those m very great 
numbers, .of the highest bnth, of immense fortunes, of 
undoubted integrity and acknowledged talents, zealously and 
conscientiously supporting this measure, I own I am lost m 
astonishment and even doubt , for I can’t help asking 
myself whether it is possible that such men would be the 
advocates of measures fraught with all the peril we ascribe to 
these, whethei we are not m xeality mistaken, and laboui mg 
under groundless alarm generated by habitual prejudices 
and eironeous calculations But often as this doubt comes 
acioss my mind, it is always dispelled by a leference to and 
comparison of the arguments on both sides, and by the 
lessons which all that I have ever lead and all the conclu- 
sions I have been able to draw fiom the study of histoiy 
have impressed on my mind I believe these measures full 
of danger, but that the manner in which they have been intro- 



208 


REIGN OR WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVI 


duced, discussed, defended, and supported is moie dangeious 
still The total unsettlement of men’s minds, the bringing 
into contempt all the institutions which have been hitherto 
venerated, the aggrandisement of the power of the people, 
the embodying and recognition of popular authority, the use 
and abuse of the King’s name, the truckling to the pi ess, are 
things so subversive of government, so prejudicial to order 
and tranquillity, so en corn aging to sedition and disaffection, 
that I do not see the possibility of the country settling down 
into that calm and undisturbed state m which it was before 
this question was mooted, and without which theie can be no 
happiness 01 security to the community A thousand mush- 
100 m oiators and politicians have sprung up all over the 
countiy, each big with his own ephemeral importance, and 
every one of whom fancies himself fit to govern the nation 
Amongst them are some men of active and powerful minds, 
and nothing is less probable than that these spmts of mis- 
chief and nnsiule will be content to subside into then original 
nothingness, and retire after the victoiy has been gained 
into the obscunty fiom which they emerged 

Newmailet , October 23 rd — Nothing but racing all this 
week, Parliament has been pioiogued, and all is quiet The 
world seems tiled, and requires lest How soon it will 
all begin again God knows, but it will not be suffered to 
sleep long 

London , November 11th — Nothing written for a long 
time , I went after the second Octobei meeting to Euston, 
and fiom thence to Hoi sham, returned to Newmarket, was 
going to Pelbngg, but came to town on Tuesday last (the 
8th) on account of the cholera, which has broken out at Sun- 
derland The country was beginning to slumber after the 
fatigues of Reform, when it was rattled up by the business of 
Bustol, 1 which for biutal ferocity and wanton, unprovoked 
violence may vie with some of the worst scenes of the 

1 [Riots biohe out with gieat violence at Bristol on the 29th of October, 
the pretext hemg the entry of Sir Charles Wetherellmto that city (of which 
he was Recorder), who was notorious for his violent opposition to the 
Reform BilL Much property was destroyed, and many lives lost ] 



1831] 


RIOTS AT BRISTOL 


209 


“French Revolution, and may act as a damper to otii national 
pride The spirit which produced these atrocities was gene- 
rated by Reform, but no pietext was afforded for their actual 
commission , it was a prematuie outbreaking of the thirst for 
plunder, and longing after havoc and destruction, which is 
the essence of Reform, m the mind of the mob The details 
aie ample, and to be met with everywhere, nothing could 
exceed the feioeity of the populace, the imbecility of the 
magistracy or the good conduct of the troops More punish- 
ment was inflicted by them than has been generally known, 
and some hunch eds weie killed 01 seveiely wounded by the 
sabre One body of dragoons pursued a rabble of colliers 
into the country, and covered the fields and loads with the 
bodies of wounded wi etches, making a severe example of 
them In London theie would probably have been a great 
uproai and not, but foitunately Melbourne, who was fright- 
ened to death at the Bnstol affair, gave Lord Hill and 
Fitzroy Somerset cowte blanche , and they made such a pi o vi- 
sion of militaiy force m addition to the civil power that the 
malcontents weie paialysed The Bristol business has done 
some good, inasmuch as it has opened people’s eyes (at least 
so it is said), but if we are to go on as we do with a mob- 
ridden Government and a foolish King, who renders himself 
subservient to all the wickedness and folly of his Ministers, 
wheie is the advantage of having people’s eyes open, when 
seeing they will not perceive, and hearing they will not 
understand ^ Nothing was wanting to complete our situation 
but the addition of physical evil to oui moral plague, and 
that is come m the shape of the cholera, which bioke out at 
Sunderland a few days ago To meet the exigency Govern- 
ment has foimed anothei Boaid of Bfealth, but without dis- 
solving the fiist, though the second is intended to swallow up 
the first and leave it a meie nullity Loid Lansdowne, who 
is President of the Council, an office which for once promises 
not to be a sinecure, has taken the opportunity to go to 
Bowood, and having come up (sent foi express) on account of 
the choleia the day it was officially declared leally to be that 
disease, he has trotted back to his house in the country 
VOL II p 



210 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVI 


November 14 th — Foi the last two or thiee days the reports 
from Sundeiland about the cholera have been of a doubtful 
character The disease mates so little progiess that the 
doctors begin again to doubt whether it is the Indian 
cholera, and the merchants, shipowners, and inhabitants, 
who suffer fiom the restraints imposed upon an infected 
place, are loudly complaining of the measures which have 
been adopted, and strenuously insisting that then town is m 
a more healthy state than usual, and that the disease is no 
more than what it always is visited with eveiy year at this 
season In the meantime all preparations are going on m 
London, just as if the disorder was actually on its way to the 
metropolis We have a Board at the Council Office, between 
which and the Board at the College some civilities have 
passed, and the latter is now ready to yield up its functions 
to the former, which, however, will not be regularly consti- 
tuted without much difficulty and many jealousies, all owing 
to official carelessness and mismanagement The Board has 
been diligently employed in drawing up suggestions and in- 
structions to local boards and parochial authorities, and great 
activity has prevailed here in establishing committees for the 
purpose of visiting the different distucts of the metropolis, and 
making such arrangements as may be necessary in the event 
of sickness breaking out There is no lack of money 01 
labour for this end, and one great good will be accomphshed 
let what will happen, for much of the filth and misery of the 
town will be brought to light, and the condition of the poorer 
and moie wretched of the inhabitants can hardly fail to be 
amelioiated The reports from Sunderland exhibit a state 
of human misery, and necessarily of moral degradation, such 
as I hardly ever heard of, and it is no wondei, when a great 
part of the community is plunged into such a condition 
(and we may fairly suppose that there is a gradually 
mounting scale, with every degiee of wretchedness, up to the 
wealth and splendoui which glitter on the surface of society), 
that there should be so many who are ripe for any desperate 
scheme of revolution At Sunderland they say there aie 
houses with 150 inmates, who are huddled five and six m 



1831 ] 


OVERTURES FOR A COMPROMISE 


211 


a bed Tliey are m the lowest state of poveity The sick m 
these receptacles are attended by an apothecary’s boy, who 
bungs them (or I, suppose tosses them) medicines without 
distinction 01 enquiry 

I saw Lord Wharacliffe last night, just returned from 
Yoikshne , he gives a bad account of the state of the public 
mind , he thinks that there is a strong revolutionary spirit 
abioad , told me that the Duke of Wellington had written to 
the King a memorial upon the danger of the associations 
that were on foot 

Roehamirton, November 19 th — On Tuesday last 1 went 
with the Duke of Richmond to pass a day at Shnley Lodge, 
a house that has been lent him by Mr Maberl) , and there 
we had a great deal of conversation about Refoim and 
general politics, m the course of which I was struck by 
his apparent candoui and moderation, and when I told him 
that nothing would do but a compromise between the parties 
he acceded to that opinion, and said that he should like 
to go to Lord Wharacliffe, and talk the matter over with 
him This was on Wednesday Yesterday morning I 
called on Lord Wharacliffe, and told him what Richmond 
had said He was sitting before a heap of papers, and when 
I told him this he laughed and said that Richmond was 
behindhand, that matters had gone a great deal further than 
this, and then pioceeded to give me the following account of 
what had passed — A shoit time ago Palmerston spoke to his 
son, John Woitley, and expressed a desire that some com- 
promise could be effected between the Government and the 
Opposition leadeis, which John imparted to Lord Han o why 
and his fatliei The oveituie was so well received by them 
that Stanlej went to San don, Loid Harrowby’s place m 
Staffordshire, m his way to Ireland, with Lord Giey’s 
consent, to talk it over with Lord Sandon After this Lord 
Wharacliffe went to Sandon, and the two fathers and 
two sons discussed the matter, and came to a soit of 
geneial xesolution as to the basis on which they would treat, 
which they drew up, and which Wharacliffe read to me It 
was modeiate, tempeiate, embraced ample concessions, and 



212 


KEIGrN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap X\I 


asserted the necessity of eacli paity refraining from de- 
manding of tlie other what either was so pledged to as to be 
■unable to concede without dishonour On Wharnehffe’s 
return to town he again saw Palmerston, and communicated 
to him Harrowby’s concurrence in an equitable adjustment 
of the Reform question, and then suggested that if Govern- 
ment really desired this, it would be better that he (Wharn- 
cliffe) should see Lord Giey himself on the subject Palmers- 

ton told Lord Grey, who assented, and gave Wharncliffe a 
lendezvous at East Sheen on Wednesday last There they 
had a long conversation, which by his account was conducted 
m a veiyfan and amicable spurt on both sides, and they 
seem to have come to a good undei standing as to the 
principle on which they should treat On parting Grey 
shook hands with him twice, and told him he had not felt so 
much lelieved foi a long time The next day Lord Giey 
made a minute of then conversation, which he submitted to 
the Cabinet, they approved of it, and he sent it to Wharn- 
cliffe to peruse, who returned it to Loid Giey In this 
state the mattei stood yesterday morning, apparently with 
every prospect of being arranged Wharncliffe had already 
spoken to Dudley, Lyndhurst, and De Eos, the only Peers of 
his party he had seen, and to the Aichbishop of Canterbury, 
who were all delighted at what had passed He had written 
to the Duke of Wellington and Peel, and he is busying 
himself m consulting and communicating with all the Peers 
and influential Commoners of the party whom he can find in 
town The terms aie not settled, but the general basis 
agreed upon seems to be this the concession of Schedule A, 
of representatives to the great towns, and a great extension 
of the county representation on one side , the abandonment, 
or nearly so, of Schedule B, such an arrangement with 
regard to the 10Z qualification as shall have the piactical 
effect of a higher rate, and an understanding that the 
manufacturing interest is not to have a preponderating 
influence inthe county lepresentation, a great deal to be 
left open to discussion, especially on all the subordinate 
points 



1831] 


MGOTimoN vam the tta\erlrs 


213 


Such, is the history of this curious transaction, which 
affords a triumphant justification of the course which 
the Opposition adopted , indeed, Palmerston admitted to 
Wharncliffe that their tactics had been entirely judicious 
It is likewise a great homage lendered to cliaiaeter, for 
Wharncliffe has neither wealth, influence, noi supenoi 
abilities, nor even popularity with his own party He is a 
spirited, sensible, zealous, honourable, consistent country 
gentleman , then knowledge of his model ation and integrity 
induced Mimsteis to commit themselves to him, and he will 
thus be m all piobability enabled to xeiidei an essential 
service to his countiy, and be a pnncipal instrument m the 
settlement of a question the continued agitation of which 
would have been perilous m the extreme Besides the pros- 
pect of a less objectionable Bill, an immense object is gained 
m the complete separation of the Ministry fiom the subveisive 
party, for their old allies the Badicals will never forgive 
them foi this compromise with the anti-Reformers, and they 
have now no alternative but to unite with those who call 
themselves the Conservative pai ty against the rebels, repub- 
licans, associators, and all the disaffected in the countiy 
After all their declarations and their unbending insolence, to 
have brought down their pride to these terms, and to the 
humiliation of making overtures to a party whose voice was 
only the othei day designated by John Russell as c the 
whisper of a faction/ shows plamly how deeply alarmed they 
are at the general state of the country, and how the confla- 
gration of Bristol has suddenly illuminated then mmds That 

incident, the language of the associations, the domiciliary 
visits to Lord Grey at midnight of Place and his rabble, and 
the licentiousness of the press, have opened their eyes, and 
convinced them that if existing institutions are to be preserved 
at all there is no time to be lost m making such an arrange- 
ment a° may enable all who have anything to lose to 
coalesce for their mutual safety and piotection Whatever 
may be the amount of their concessions, the Radicals will 
never pardon Lord Grey for negotiating with the Tories at 
all, and nothing will prevent his being henceforwaid the 



214 


BBIGrN of WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVI 


object of tlieir suspicion and aversion, and marked out for 
their vengeance By what process Althoip and John Russell 
were induced to concur, and how they are to set about swal- 
lowing their own words, I do not guess 

As a proof of the disposition which exists, and the good 
understanding between Whamcliffe and the Government, he 
told me that some time ago Ward and Palmer went to him, 
and said that m the City the majority of men of weight and 
property were favourable to Reform, but not to the late Bill, 
and that they were desirous of having a declaration drawn 
up for signature expressive of their adherence to Reform, but 
of then hope that the next measure might be such as would 
give satisfaction to all parties Whamcliffe drew this up 
(theie was likewise an acknowledgment of the right of the 
House of Lords to exercise their privileges as they had done) 
and gave it to them It is gone to be signed, havmg been 
previously submitted to Giey and Althoip, who approved 
of it 

November 21 st — Came to town from Roehampton yester- 
day morning, saw Henry de Ros, who had seen Baines 1 the 
evening before, and opened to him the pending negotiation 
His rage and fury exceeded all bounds He swore Brougham 
and Grey (particularly the formei) were the greatest of 
villains After a long discussion he agreed to try and per- 
suade his colleagues to adopt a moderate tone, and not to 
begin at once to jeter feu et flamme Hemy’s object was to 
persuade him, if possible, that the interest of the paper will 
be m the long run bettei consulted by leaning towaids the 
side of order and quiet than by continuing to exasperate 
and inflame He seemed to a certain degree moved by this 
argument, though he is evidently a desperate Radical Henry 
went to Melbourne afterwards, who is most anxious for the 
happy consummation of this affair, but expressed some alarm 
lest they should be unable to agree upon the details There 
is an article m the c Times ? this morning of half-menacing 
import, sulkily and gloomily written, but not ferocious, and 


1 [Then editor of the 1 Times * newspaper ] 



1831] PROCLAMATION AGAINST THE UNIONS 215 

leaving it open to them to take what line they think fit In 
the afternoon I met Melbourne, who told me they were going 
to pat foith a proclamation against c Attwood and the Bir- 
mingham fellows/ which was giateful to my eais 

Novembe, 22 nd — The King came to town jesterday for a 
Council, at which the meeting of Paihament on the 6th of 
Decembei was settled The pioclamation against the unions 
(which was not readj, and the King signed a blank) and some 
orders about cholera were despatched Lord Grey told me 
that the union had already detei mined to dissolve itself 
My satisfaction was yesteiday considerably damped by 
what I heaid of the pending negotiation concerning Kefoim 
Agar Ellis at Koehampton talked with gieat doubt of its 
being successful, which I attubuted to hisignoiance of what 
had passed, but I fear it is fiom his knowledge that the 
Government mean, m fact, to give up nothing of importance 
Geoige Bentmck came to me m the morning, and told me he 
had discoveied fiom the Duke of Ricnmond that the conces- 
sions weie not only to be all one way, but that the alteied 
Bill would be, m fact, moie objectionable than the last, inas- 
much as it is moie demociatie in its tendency, so much so 
that Richmond is exceedingly dissatisfied himself, for he has 
always been the advocate of the anstocratic interest in the 
Cabinet, and has battled to make the Bill less adverse to ik 
Now he says he can contend no longer, fin he is met by the 
unanswerable aigument that then opponents are ready to 
concede moie I own I was alaimed, and my mind misgave 
me when I heard of the extreme satisfaction of Althorp 
and Co , and I always dreaded that Whainchffe, however 
honest and well-meaning, had not ealibie enough to conduct 
such a negotiation, and might be misled by his vanity He 
bustles about the town, chatting away to all the people he meets, 
and I fear is both ignorant himself of what he is about and 
involuntarily deceiving others too , he is m a fool’s paiadise 
I spoke to Hemy de Ros about this last night, who seemed 
by no means awaie of it, and it is difficult to believe that 
Lyndhuist and Hariowby should not be peifectly alive to all 
the consequences of Whaincliffe’s pioceedmgs, or that they 



KEIGrV OE WILLIAM IV 


216 


[Chap XVI 


would sanction them if they liad really tlie tendency that 
George Bentmck gives me to understand 

The cholera, which is going on (but without greatly 
extending itself) at Sunderland, has excited an unusual alarm, 
but it is now beginning to subside People seeing that it 
does not appear elsewhere take courage, but the pieparations 
are not relaxed, and they are constantly enforced by the 
Central Board of Health (as it is called), which is established 
at the Council Office, and labours very assiduously m the 
cause Undoubtedly a gieat deal of good will be done in 
the way of punfication As to the disoider, if it had not 
the name of cholera nobody would be alarmed, for many an 
epidemic has prevailed at different times far more fatal than 
this On Friday last we despatched Dr Bany down to 
Sunderland with very ample poweis, and to proem e informa- 
tion, which it is very difficult to get Nothing can be more 
disgraceful than the state of that town, exhibiting a lament- 
able proof of thepiactical inutility of that diffusion of know- 
ledge and education which we boast of, and which we fancy 
renders us so morally and intellectually superior to the rest 
of the world When Dr Eussell was m Russia he was dis- 
gusted with the violence and prejudices he found there on 
the part of both medical men and the people, and he says he 
finds just as much here The conduct of the people of 
Sunderland on this occasion is more suitable to the barbarism 
of the interior of Africa than to a town m a civilised country 
The medical men and the higher classes are split into parties, 
quarrelling about the nature of the disease, and perveitmg 
and concealing facts which militate against their lespective 
theories The people are taught to believe that theie is 
really no cholera at all, and that those who say so intend 
to plunder and muidei them The consequence is pro- 
digious irritation and excitement, an invincible repugnance 
on the part of the lowei orders to avail themselves of any of 
the preparations which are made for curing them, and a 
proneness to beheve any reports, however monstious and 
exaggerated In a very curious letter which was received 
yesterday from Dr Daur he says (aftei complaining of the 



1831] 


DISAPPOINTMENT 


217 


medical men, who would send Inm no leturns of the cases of 
sickness) it was believed that bodies had been dissected 
before the life was out of them, and one woman was said to 
have been cut up while she was begging to be spaied The 
consequence of this is that we have put forward a stiong 
order to compel medical men to give information, and another 
for the compulsory removal of nuisances It is, however, 
rathei amusing that everybody who has got m their vicinity 
anything disagreeable, 01 that they would like to be rid of, 
thinks that now is then time, and the table of the Board of 
Health is covered with applications of this nature, fiom every 
variety of person and of place 

November 2 ‘3rd — Dr Barry’s fiist letter fiom Sundeiland 
came yesterday, m which he declaies the identity of the 
disease with the cholera he had seen m Russia He descubes 
some cases he had visited, exhibiting scenes of misery and 
poverty far exceeding what one could have believed it possible 
to find m this country , but we who float on the surface of 
society know but little of the privations and sufferings which 
pervade the mass I wrote to the Bishop of Durham, to the 
chief magistrates, and sent down 200Z to Colonel Cieagh 
{which Althorp immediately advanced) to relieve the im- 
mediate and pressing cases of distress 

Saw George Bentmck m the afternoon, who confirmed 
my appiehension that Wharncliffe had been cajoled into a 
negotiation which Government intended should end by 
getting all they want Richmond, Grey, and Palmeiston 
were m a minority of three m the Cabinet foi putting off 
the meeting of Parliament One of the most Radical of the 
Cabinet is Goderich Such a thing it is to be of feeble 
intellect and character, and yet he is a smait speaker, and 
an agreeable man The moderate party aie Richmond, who 
cannot have much weight, Stanley, who is m Ireland, Lans- 
downe, who is always 4 gone to Bowood,’ Palmerston, and 
Melbourne Yet I am led to think that if Wharncliffe had 
insisted on better conditions, and held out, he would have 
got them, and that the Cabinet were really disposed to 
make all the concessions they could without compromising 



218 


EEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVI 


themselves The meeting m the City yesteiday was a total 
failure Henry Drummond, who is mad, but veiy clever, and 
a Reformer, though for saving the rotten boroughs, spoke 
against the declaration, some others followed him, and after 
a couple of hours wasted m vain endeavours to procure 
unanimity the meeting broke up, and nothing was done I 
saw Whamcliffe last night, who was exceedingly disap- 
pointed 

November 28 th — The negotiation with Whamcliffe goes 
on languidly, he wiote to Lord Gi ey the other day, and 
suggested some heads as the basis of an accommodation, 
consisting of some extension of Schedule B, excluding town 
voters from county voting, and one or two other points, 
to which Lord Giey replied that some of the things he 
mentioned might be feasible, but that theie would be great 
difficulty about otheis , that he feared nothing might come of 
their communications, as he would not hear of any other 
Peers who were disposed to go along with him It is not a 
bad thing that they should each be impressed with a salutary 
apprehension, the one that he will have the same difficulties 
to encounter m the House of Lords, the other that nobody 
will follow him, for it will render an arrangement more pro- 
bable than if they both thought they had only to agree 
together, and that the rest must follow as a mattei of course 
The Duke of Wellington has written again to Whamcliffe, 
declining altogethei to be a paity to any negotiation De 
Ros told me that he nevei saw such a lettei as Peel’s — so 
stiff, diy, and xeserved, just like the man m whom great 
talents are so counteracted, and almost made mischievous, by 
the effects of his cold, selfish, calculating charactei In the 
meantime the state of the country is certainly better , the 
proclamation putting down the unions has been generally 
obeyed, the press has suspended its fury, and the approach 
of the meeting of Parliament seems to have ca lm ed the 
countiy to a great degiee The event most to be desired 
is that the Government may carry their Bill quietly through 
the House of Commons, amendments be carried m the Com- 
mittee of the House of Lords, and upon these there may be 



1831] 


POUIETT THOMSON 


219 


a compromise, though, after all it is impossible not to have 
a secret misgiving that the alterations which appeal de~ 
suable may prove to be mischievous, foi it is the great evil 
of the measure that being certainly new no human being 
can guess how it will work, 01 how its different paxts will 
act upon one another, and what lesult they will pioduce 
There seems to be a constant soit of electrical reciprocity 
of effort between us and Fiance just now The 6 thiee days * 
produced much of our political excitement, and our Bristol 
business has been acted with great similanty of cncumstance 
at Lyons, and is still going on Talleyiand pioduced the 
c Moniteui 5 last night with the account, lamented that the 
Due d’Oi leans had been sent with Maishal Soult to Lyons* 
which he sud was unnecessaiy and absuid, that Soult was 
the bc»t man for the puipose of pi ttmg it down It was 
begun oy the woikpeople, who veie veiy numerous, not 
political in its objects, but the cues denoted a mixture of 
eveiytkmg, as they shouted c Henri Y , Napoleon II , La 
Repubhque and Bristol 5 He was at Lady Holland’s, looking 
very cadaverous, and not very talkative, talked of Madame 
du Barn, that she had been very handsome, and had some 
remains of beauty up to the period of her death , of Luckner, 
who was guillotined, and as the car passed on the people 
cried (as they used), 6 A la guillotine 1 a la guillotine 
Luckner turned round and said, e On y va, canaille ’ 

We have just sent a commission to Pans to treat with 
the French Government about a commeicial tieaty on 
the principles of free tiade Poulett Thomson, who has 
been at Pans some time, has originated it, and Althorp 
selected George Vilheis for the puipose, but has added to him 
as a colleague Dr Bowring, who has m fact been selected by 
Thomson, a theonst and a jobbei, deeply implicated in the 
Greek Fire, 5 and a Benthamite He was the subject of a 
cutting satire of Moore’s, beginning, 

The ghost of Miltiades came by night, 

And stood by the bed of the Benthamite , 

but he has been at Pans some time, undeistandmg the 



220 


ULIGN Or WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVI 


subject, and has wound himself into some intimacy with 
the French King and his Ministers It is, however, Poulett 
Thomson who has persuaded Althorp to appoint him, m 
order to have a cieatuie of his own there 

I have never been able to understand the enormous 
unpopularity of this man, who appears civil, well-bred, in- 
telligent, and agieeable (only rather a coxcomb), and has 
made a certain figuie m the House of Commons, but it has 
been explained to me by a peison who knows him well 
He was ongmally a merchant, and had a quantitv of 
counting-house knowledge He became member of a club 
of political economists, and a scholar of McCulloch’s In 
this club theie were some obscuie but very able men, and by 
them he got crammed with the punciples of commeice and 
political economy, and from his meicantile connections he 
got facts He possessed great industry and sufficient ability 
to work up the matenals he thus acquired into a very 
plausible exhibition of knowledge upon these subjects , and 
having opportunities of pieparmg himself for eveiy particular 
question, and the advantage of addressing an audience the 
gieatei pait of which is piofoundly ignorant, he passed for 
a young gentleman of extraordmaiy ability and profound 
knowledge, and amongst the greatest of his admirers was 
Althoip, who, when the Whigs came m, promoted him to his 
piesent situation Since he lias been theie he has not had 
the same opportunities of learning his lesson from otheis 
behind the cuitam, and the envy which always attends success 
has delighted to pull down his reputation, so that he now 
appears something like the jackdaw stupped of the peacock’s 
feathers 

November 30 th — Went to breakfast at the Tower, which 
I had never seen Dined with Lady Holland, first time for 
seven years, finished the quairel, and the last of that hatch , 
they should not last for evei In the morning Wharncliffe 
came to me from Loid Grey’s, with whom he had had a final 
interview He showed me the paper he gave Grey contain- 
ing his proposals, which were nearly to this effect conceding 
what the Government required, with these exceptions and 



1831] 


WHARNCLIFFES PROPOSAL 


221 


count ei -concessions — an alteration m Schedule B with a 
view to preseive m man} cases the two members;, that 
voters for the great manufacturing towns should have votes 
for the counties , that London distucts should not have so 
many representatives , that when the franchise was given 
to great manufactuimg towns thei ? county should not have 
more lepresentatives , that corporate lights should be saved, 
though with an infusion of 10Z voters wheie required , that 
Cheltenham and Brighton (partieulaily) should have no 
members These were the principal heads, pioposed m a 
paper of model ate length and civil expression Giey said 
the tenns were inadmissible, that some paits of his pioposal 
might be feasible, but the points on which Wharncliffe most 
insisted (London, and town and county voting) he could 
not agree to So with many expiessions of civility and 
mutual esteem they paited He is disappointed, but not de- 
jected, and I tried to persuade him that an anangement on 
this basis is not less piobaole than it was 

The fact is it would ha e been nearly impossible foi 
Government to mtioduce a Bill so diffeient from the fiist as 
these changes would have made it, as the lesult of a negotia- 
tion They would have been exposed to great obloquy, and 
have had innumerable difficulties to encounter, but if the Bill 
goes into a Committee of the Lords, and the other clauses 
pass without opposition, the Government may not think 
themselves obliged to contest these alterations I think the 
Government would accept them, and piobably they feel that 
in. no other way could they do so It seems to me that the 
success of these amendments depends now very much upon 
the Opposition themselves, upon their fiimness, their union, 
and above all their reasonableness Saw Talleyiand last 
night, who said they had better news fiom Lyons, that there 
was nothrng polrtical m it News came yesterday morning 
that the cholera had broken out at Marseilles 

December 3rd — Wharncliffe showed me his conespond- 
ence with the Duke of Wellington on this negotiation 
They differed gieatly, but amicably enough, though I take 
it he was not very well pleased with Wharncliffe 5 s last letter, 



222 


REIG-N OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVI 


m which he distinctly told the Duke that his speech on the 
Address, and declaiation against any Reform, was what over- 
threw his Government This he never will admit, and, pass- 
ing ovei the proximate cause, always lefers his fall to (what 
was certainly the 1 emote cause) the Catholic question — that 
is, to the breaking up of the Tory paity which followed it, 
and the union of the old Tories with the Whigs and Radicals 
on purpose to turn him out In this conespondence 
Wharncliffe has much the best of it, and I was surprised to 
find with what tenacity the Duke clings to his cherished 
prejudices, and how he shuts his eyes to the signs of the 
times and the real state of the country With the point at 
issue he nevei would grapple Wharncliffe argued for con- 
cession, because they have not the means of resistance, and 
that they are m fact at the mercy of their opponents The 
Duke admitted the force against them, but thought it would 
be possible to govern the country without Refoim c if the 
King was not against them 5 — an impoitant increment of 
his conditions , there is no doubt that ‘ the King’s name is 
a tower of strength, which they upon the adverse faction 
want 5 — and he continued thiough all his letters arguing the 
question on its abstract merits, and repeating the topic that 
had been over and over again urged, but without reference to 
the actual state of things and the means of resistance It 
seems, however, pretty clear that he will oppose this Bill just 
as he did the last, and he will probably have a great many 
followers , but the party is broken up, for Wharncliffe and 
Harrowby will vote foi the second reading , the bishops will 
generally go with them, and probably a sufficient number of 
Peeis If Lord Grey can see a reasonable chance of carrying 
the Bill without making Peers, there can be veiy little doubt 
he will put off that resource till the last moment 

December 4th — Dmed with Talleyrand yesterday He 
complained to me of Durham’s leturn, and of c sa funeste in- 
fluence sur Lord Giey, 5 that because he had been at 
Biussels and at Pans he fancied nobody but himself knew 
anything of foreign affans He praised Palmeiston highly 
In the evening to Lady Hanowby, who told me John 



1831] AN APPEAL FE0M LOED CHANCELLOE BEOUaHAM 223 


Russell had been with her, all moderation and candour, and 
evidently for the purpose of keeping alive the amicable re- 
lations which had been begun by Whaincliffe’s negotiation 
When Lady Hairowby said it was ovei he replied, c Tor the 
present/ said how glad he should be of a compromise, hinted 
that Sandon might be instrumental, that he might move an 
amendment m the House of Commons , abused Macaulay’s 
violent speech — in short, was all mild and doucereux — all 
which proves that they do wish to compromise if they could 
manage it com eniently Lord John Russell told her that there 
was no going on with Durham, that he never left Lord Grey, 
tormented his heart out, and made him so ill and irritable 
that he could not sleep Durham wanted to be Mmister for 
Foreign Affairs 

December 7 th — Pailiament opened yesterday, not a bad 
speech, though wordy and ill-written There was an ovei- 
sight m the Address, which was corrected m both Houses by 
Peel and Lord Harrowby, but not taken as an amendment 
Lord Grey begged it might be inserted m Lord Camperdown’s 
address, which was done It was about the King of 
Holland and the treaty The Address says that they rejoice 
at the treaty , whereas there is none at present Loid 
Lyttelton made a veiy foolish speech, and was very well cut 
up by Lord Harrowby, and Peel spoke well m the othei 
House 

December 8th — At Court yesteiday to swear m Erskme, 1 
Biougham’s new Chief Judge m Bankiuptcy and Pi ivy 
Councillor The Chancellor is m a gieat lage with me Theie 
is an appeal to the Privy Council from a judgment of his 
(in which he was wrong), the first appeal of the kind for above 
a hundred years 2 I told him it was read} to be heaid, and 
begged to know if he had any wish as to who should be 
summoned to heai it He said very tartly, 6 Of course I shall 

1 [Eight Hon Thomas Erskme, a son of Lord Chaneelloi Eiskme, Chief 
Judge m Bankruptcy, and afterwards a Justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas ] 

3 [It was an Appeal m Lunacy No other appeals save m Lunacy he 
from the Couit of Chancery to the King in Council, and these are verviare 
Drax v Grosvenor is repoi ted in Knapp’s ‘ Pnvy Council Eeports ’] 



224 


EEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVI 


have somebody to hear it with me ’ I said, 6 Do you mean to 
hear it yourself, then ? ’ ‘ And pray why not 9 Don’t I hear 
appeals from myself every day m the House of Lords didn’t 
you see that I could not hear a case the other day because 
Loid Lyndhurst was not there & I have a right to hear it 
I sit theie as a Privy Councilloi ’ c Oh,’ I said, c you have 
certainly a right if you choose it ’ 6 You may rely upon it I 

shall do nothing unusual m the Privy Council,’ and then he 
flounced off m high dudgeon I told Lord Lansdowne after- 
waids, who said he should not allow it to be heard by him , 
and should make a point of summoning all the great law 
authorities of the Privy Council This was the case of 
Drax v Grosvenoi, which excited great interest, m which 
Brougham tried to play all sorts of tncks to prevent his 
judgment being reversed, which tricks I managed to de- 
feat, and the judgment was reversed, as is descnbed further 
on I never had the advantage of seeing the Chancellor 
before m his sulks, though he is by no means unfiequently 
m them, very particularly so this time last yeai, when he 
was revolving m his mind whether he should take the Great 
Seal, and when he thought he was ill-used, so Auckland 
told me 

The cholera is on the decline at Sunderland, but m the 
meantime our trade will have been put under such restric- 
tions that the greatest embarrassments are inevitable In- 
telligence is already come that the Manchester people have 
curtailed their orders, and many workmen will be out of 
work Yesterday a deputation from Coventry came to 
Auckland, and desired a categorical answer as to whether 
Government meant to resume the prohibitory system, because 
if they would not the glove trade at Coventry would dis- 
charge their woikmen 

December 11th — Yesterday Harrowby had an interview 
with Lord Giey, the result of which I do not know Walked 
with Stuart (de Eothesay) m the morning, who had seen the 
Duke of Wellington the day before I said I was afiaid he 
was veiy obstinate He said, ‘ No, he thought not, but that 
the Duke fancied Wkamchffe had gone too far ’ 



1831] 


TIIL SECOND ELI OEM LILL 


22 5 


To-mouow the Reform Bill comes on Some say that it 
will be as hotly disputed as evei,and that Peel’s speeches in- 
dicate a bitterness undimimshed, but this w ill not happen It 
is clear that the geneial tone and tempei of paities is softened, 
and though a great deal of management and disci etion is 
necessary to accomplish any thing like a decent compromise, 
the majority of both parties are earnestly desirous of bring- 
ing the business to an end by any means What has 
all eady taken place between the Government and Wharn- 
cliffe and Hariowby has ceitamly smoothed the way, and 
removed much of that feeling of aspenty which before ex- 
isted The piess, too, is less \ lolent, the ‘Morning Herald’ 
openly preaching a coinpionnse, and the ‘ Tunes 5 taking that 
sort of sweep which, if it does not indicate a change, shows 
a disposition to take such a position as may enable it to adopt 
anj couise 

In the evening — Called on Loid Bathuist m the mail- 
ing , met him going out, and stopped to talk to him He 
knew of the meeting m Downing Stieet, that Loids Hai- 
lowby , Whamcliffe, and Chandos weie to meet the Chancelloi 
and Loids Althorp and Grey, that Chandos had gone to 
Brighton, ostensibly to talk to the King about the West 
Indies, but had taken the opportunity to throw m something 
on the topic of Refoim , that the King desired him to speak 
to Palmerston, and allowed him to say that he did so by his 
oiders (The King, it seems, knows nothing of what is going 
on, foi he reads no newspapers and the Household tell him 
nothing) Accoidmgly Chandos did speak to Palmeiston, 
and the result was a note to him, begging these thiee would 
meet the thiee Mmisteis above mentioned Lady Hanowby 
told me that they went Biougham did not amve till the 
conference was neaily ovei Tlieie was in abundant m- 
tei change of civilities, hut nothing concluded, the Minister & 
declining eveiy pioposition that Loid Hanowby made to 
them, though Lord Grey owned that they did not ask foi 
anything which involved an abandonment of the principle of 
the Bill They are, then, not a bit neaiei an accommodation 
than they weie before 
yol ii q 



2 26 


BEIGN OF WILLIAM IT 


[Chap XVI 


George Bentmck told me this evening of a scene which had 
heen related to him by the Duke of Richmond, that lately took 
place at a Cabinet dinner, it was very soon aftei Dui ham’s 
return fiom abroad He was furious at the negotiations and 
question of compiomise Loid Giey is atoms the object of 
his rage and impel tinence, because he is the only peison 
whom he dares attack Aftei dmnei he made a violent sortie 
on Loid Grey (it was at Althorp’s), said he would be eternally 
disgiaced if he suffered any alteiations to be made m this 
Bill, that he was a betrayer of the caase, and, amongst 
other things, lepioached him with having kept him m town 
on account of this Bill m the summei, ‘and thereby having 
been the cause of the death of his son 5 Richmond said m 
his life he never witnessed so painful a scene, or one which 
excited such disgust and indignation m every member of the 
Cabinet Lord Grey was ready to burst into tears, said he 
would much rather woik m the coal-mines than be subject 
to such attacks, on which the othei muttered, ‘and you 
might do woise,’ oi some such woids After this Durham 
got up and left the room Loid Giey veiy soon retned too, 
vhen the othei Mimsteis discussed this extraoidmary scene, 
and considered what steps they ought to take They thought 
at first that they should lequue Durham to make a public 
apology (i e befoie all of them) to Loid Giey foi his imperti- 
nence, which they deemed due to them as he was thew head, 
and to AUIwip as having occurred m his house, but as 
they thought it was quite eeitam that Durham would resign 
the next morning, and that Loid Grey might be pained at 
another scene, they foibore to exact this Howevei, Duiham 
did not lesign, he absented himself for some days from the 
Cabinet, at last letumed as if nothing had happened, and 
there he goes on as usual But they are so thoioughly dis- 
gusted, and lesolved to oppose him, that his influence is 
greatl) impaired Still, his powei of mischief and annoy- 
ance is eonsideiable Loid Giey succumbs to him, and they 
say m spite of his behavioui is veij much attached to him, 
though so incessantly woiried that his health visibly suffers 
by his presence There is nothing in which he does not 



18311 


CONFESSION OF 4. BODY-SNATCHEK 


22 ? 


meddle The Refoini Bill he had a pimcipal hand in con- 
cocting, and he fancies himself the only man competent to 
manage om foreign relations Melbourne, who was piesent 
at this scene, said, 6 If I had been Loid Giey, I would have 
knocked him down 3 

December 13 th — Loid John Rus&ell biought on Ins Bill last 
night m a \eiy feeble speech A gieat change is appaient 
since the last Bill , the House was less full, and a softened 
and subdued state of tempei and feeling ivas evinced Peel 
made an able and a bittei speech, though peihaps not a veiy 
judicious one Theie aie vanous alteiations m the Bill, 
enough to piove that it was at least wise to tlnow out the 
last Althoip, who answered Peel, acknowledged that if the 
old Bill had been opposed m its eailiest stage it never could 
have been biought forward again, oi made an avowal to 
that effect In fact, Peel is now awaie (as ever } body else is) 
of the enoimous fault that was committed m not tin owing it 
out at once, before the pi ess had time to opeiate, and rous& 
the country to the pitch of madness it did On what trifles 
turn the destinies of nations f William Bankes told me last 
night that Peel owned this to him , said that he had earnestly 
desired to do so, but had been turned from his purpose by 
Granville Someiset f And why & Because he (in the expect- 
ation of a dissolution) must have voted against him, he said, 
in order to save his popularity m his own county 

Met Melbourne at Lord Holland’s , tkej weie talking of 
a lepoited confession to a great extent of murdeis, which is 
said to have been begun and not finished, by the Burkeis, oi 
by one of them Melbourne said it was tiue, that he began the 
confession about the muidei of a black man to a Dissenting 
clerg) man, but was mteirupted by the oidmaij Two of a 
tiade could not agiee, and the man of the Established 
Church prefeiied that the criminal should die unconfessed, 
and the public unmfoimed, latliei than the Dissenter should 
extiact the tiuth Since wilting this I see Hunt put a 
question to George Lamb on this point, and he lephed that 
he knew nothing of any other confession, which is not true 
I have heaid, but on no authority, that some suigeons are 



BFIGN 01 WILLIAM IV 


228 


[Chap XVI 


so disagreeably implicated that they choose to conceal these 
horrors 

Decembe > 14sth — People generally aie mightily satisfied 
at the tone of the discussion the other night, and, what is of 
vast importance, the pi ess has adopted a moderate and con- 
ciliatoiy tone, even the £ Times, 5 which is now all for com- 
promise It is cleai as daylight that the Government will 
consent to anything which leaves untouched the great 
pnnciples of the Bill, and the country desires to see the 
question settled, and, if possible, rest fiom this eternal 
excitement 

Decembet 20th — The second reading of the Reform Bill 
was earned at one o’clock on Saturday night by a majority 
of two to one, and ended veiy triumphantly for Mimsteis, 
who aie piopoitionately elated, and then opponents equally- 
depressed Croker had made a very clever speech on Friday, 
with quotations fiom Hume, and much reasoning upon them 
Hobhouse detected several inaccuracies, and gave his dis- 
coveiy to Stanley who worked it up m a crushing attack 
upon Crokei It is by lai the best speech Stanley evei 
made, and so good as to raise him immeasurably m the 
House Lord Grey said it placed him at the very top of 
the House of Commons, without a uval, which perhaps is 
jumping to lathei too hasty a conclusion He shone the more 
from Peel’s making a very pool exhibition He had been so 
nettled by Macaulay’s saicasms the night before on his tei- 
■giversation, that he went into the whole history of the Catholic 
question and his conduct on that occasion, which, besides 
savouiing of that egotism with which he is so much and 
justly lepioached, was uncalled for and out of place The 
lest of his speech was not so good as usual, and he did not 
attempt to answei Stanley 



18321 


PAN SHAN GEB 


229 


1832 

Panshanger , January ls£ — Distress seems to increase 
heieabouts, and dime with it Methodism and samtship 
increase too The people of this house are examples of the 
leligion of the fashionable woild, and the chant) of natural 
benevolence, which the world has not spoiled Lady Cowpei 
and hex family go to church, but scandalise the congregation 
by always arriving half an hour too late The hour matters 
not, if it began at nine, or ten, or twelve, oi one o’clock, it 
would be the same thing , they aie never read), and always 
late, but they go Lord Cowpei never goes at all , but he em- 
ploys multitudes of labouieis, is leady to sanction any and 
every measuie which can contribute to the comfoit and happi- 
ness of the peasantiy Lady Cowpei and her daughters inspect 
peisonally the cottages and condition of the pooi They 
visit, enqune, and give, they distubute flannel, medicines, 
money, and they talk to and aie kind to them, so that the 
lesult is a peipetual stieam flowing from a leal fountain of 
benevolence, which wateis all the countiy round and gladdens 
the hearts of the peasantiy, and attaches them to those fiom 
whom it emanates 

Panshanger , January 6th — Talleyrand, Dino, Palmers- 
ton, Esteihaz), came yesteiday and went away to-day — 
that is, the two first and the Seftons did There has been 
another contest m the Cabinet about the Peeis, which has 
ended m a soit of compromise, and five aie to be made 
directl) — two new ones, and thiee eldest sons called up Old 
Talleyiand came half-dead from the conferences, which 
have been incessant these few days, owing to the Empeior of 
Russia’s lefusal to latify the tieat) and the diffeiences about 
the Belgian foi tresses One confeience lasted eleven horns 
and a quaitex, and finished at foui o’clock m the morning 

Gorhambmy , Jammy 7th — Came here to-da) Beikeley 
Paget and Lushmgton , nobody else Had a conversation 
with Lady C before I came away, between Palmerston, 
Frederick Lamb, and Melbourne she knows eveiy thing, and 
is a furious anti-Reformei The upshot of the niattei is this 



230 


KEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVI 


the question about the Peers is still under discussion. 
Lord Griey and the ultra party want to make a dozen now 9 
the otheis warn only to yield five or six Loid Grey wrote 
to Palmeiston saying the King had received his proposition 
(about the Peeis) veiy well, but desired to have his reasons 
m wntmg, and to-day at twelve there was to be another 
Cabinet on the subject, m older piobably that the ‘reasons* 
might go down by the post The moderate party in the 
Cabinet consists of Lansdowne, Richmond, Palmeiston, 
Melbourne, and Stanley Palmeiston and Melbourne, par- 
ticularly the lattei, are now heartily ashamed of the part 
they have taken about Reform They detest and abhoi the 
whole thing, and they find themselves unable to cope with 
the violent party, and consequently implicated m a continued 
series of measures which they disappiove, and they do not 
know what to do, whether to stay m and fight this unequal 
battle or lesign I told her that nothing could justify then 
conduct, and then excuses were good for nothing , but that 
there was no use m resigning now They might still do 
some good m the Cabinet , the} could do none out of it In 
fact, Durham and the most violent members of the Cabinet 
would gladly dm e Palmeiston and Melbourne to lesign if 
they could keep Stanley, who is alone of importance of that 
squad, but he is of such weight, fiom his position m the House 
of Commons that if he can be pievailed upon to be staunch, 
and to hold out with the modeiates against the ultias, the 
foimei will probably prevail Duiham wants to be Minister 
for Foreign Affairs, and would plague Lord Giey till he gave 
him the seals, unless his othei colleagues put a veto upon the 
appointment But the anxiety of the Refoi mei s to make Peei s 
has not reference to the Reform Bill alone , they undoubtedly 
look further, and, knowing then own weakness m the House 
of Lords, they want to secure a permanent force, whjch may 
make them stiongei than their antagonists m that House 
Otherwise the} would not be so aveise to all questions of 
conciliation, express then disbelief m conversions, and 
trumpet foith then conviction that every individual of the 
late majority will \ ote just the same way agam The earnest 



1832] 


EFFORTS OF THE MODERATE PARTY 


231 


desire of the model ate paity m the Cabinet is that those 
who will vote for the second leading shall make haste to 
declare then intention* and I have written to LadyHairowby 
to endeavour to get Loid Hanowby to take some such step 
I had alieady wntten to De Eos* uigmg him to speak to 
Wharncliffe* and get him. to take an oppoitunity of giving 
the King to understand that the necessity foi a cieation of 
Peeis is by no means so uigent as his Ministers would have 
him believe 

Pamhangei , January 13 th — Returned heie yesteidaj * 
found Melbourne* Lamb, the Lievens* the Haddmgtons* Lut- 
tiell* the Ashlers, John Ashlej, and Irby While I was at 
Gorhambury I detei mined to wiite to Wharncliffe and uige 
him to speak to the King, and accoidmgly I did so I re- 
ceived a lettei fiom him saying that De Ros had already 
spoken to lnm, that he had had a conversation with Sn Her- 
bert Tajloi* which he had desired him to repeat to the King 
and to Loid Giey, that he had intended to leave the mattei 
theie* but m consequence of my lettei he should ask for an 
audience This morning I have heaid again fiom him He 
saw the King, and was with him an houi , put his Majesty in 
possession of his sentiments* and told him there would be no 
necessity foi ci eating Peeis if the Government would be 
conciliatory and moderate m the Committee of the House 
of Commons , he piomised to tell me the particulars of this 
interview when we meet 

Last night Fiedenck Lamb told me that Loid Giey had 
sent woid to Melbourne of what Wharncliffe had said to Sir 
Heibert Tayloi, and Loid Giey assumed the tenoui of Wham- 
differs language to have been merely an advice to the King not 
to make Peers, whereas all I suggested to him was to explain 
to the King that the creation was not necessaiy fox the leasons 
which have been assigned to his Majesty by his Mmisteis* 
viz , the intention of all who voted against the second reading 
last year to vote against it this In the meantime the dispute 
has been going on m the Cabinet, time has been gained, and 
seveial incidents have made a soit of cumulative impression 
There is a petition to the King* got up by Lord Veiulamand 



232 


BEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVI 


Lord Salisbury, winch is in fact a moderate Reform manifesto 
It has been numerously signed, and Verulam is going to 
Brighton to present it I have been labouring to persuade him 
to make up his mind to vote for the second leading, and to tell 
the King that such is his intention, which he has promised 
me he will When I had obtained this promise from him I 
wrote word to Lady Cowpei, telling her at the same time that 
Lord Harns (I had heard) would vote for the second leading, 
and this letter she imparted to Melbourne, who stated the 
fact m the Cabinet, wheie it made a considerable impression 
All such circumstances serve to supply aims to the moderate 
party 

This morning Melbourne went up to anothei Cabinet, 
aimed with anothei fact with which I supplied him Loid 
Craven declaied at his own table that if the Government 
made Peeis he would not vote with them , and if he was sent 
for he should repl} that as they could create Peers so easily 
they might do without him All such cueumstances as these, 
I find, are considered of gieat importance, and are made 
available foi the purpose of fighting the battle m the Cabinet 
As to Lord Grey, it is exceedingly difficult to understand his 
real sentiments, and to reconcile his present conduct with 
thegeneial tenoui of his former piofessions, that he was 
averse to the adoption of so violent a measure I have no 
doubt — his pude and anstocratie principles would naturally 
make him so — but he is easily governed, constantly yielding 
to violence and intimidation, and it is not unlikely that the 
pertinacity of those about him, the interests of his party, and 
the prolongation of his powei may induce him to sacrifice 
his natuial feelings and opinions It is verv probable that, 
although he may have allowed himself to be at the head of 
those who are for the mention, he maj have such misgivings 
and scruples as may prevent his carrying that point with 
the high hand and in the summary way which he might do 

January 16th — This morning Fiedenck Lamb showed me 
a letter he had got from Melbourne to this effect 6 that they 
had resolved to make no Peers at all at present, that to 
make a few would be legirded as a menace, and be as bad as 



1832] TOARNCLIFEES INTERVIEW WITH THE KING- 233 

if they made a great many , but that as many as would be 
necessary to cany the Bill would be made, if it was even- 
tually found that it must be so , 5 he added it only remained 
foi people to come forward and declaie their intention of 
suppoitmg the second leading 5 This is certainly a great 
victor}, and I do believe mainly attributable to our exertions, 
to the spmt we have infused into Melbourne himself, and 
the use we have made of Whamcliffe and Veiulain, and 
the different little circumstances we have brought to bear 
upon the discussion What now lemams is the most 
difficult, but I shall do all I can to engage Peers to take a 
moderate determination and to declaie it Lamb told me 
that the King has an aversion to making a few Peers, 
that he has said he would lather make twenty-five than 
five, that whatevei he must make he should like to make 
at once, and not to have to return to it Anyhow, time is 
gained, and a victoiy foi the moment 

London , January 20th — Came up on Monday last I 
have been changing my house, and so occupied that I have 
not had time to write Whamcliffe came to town on Wed- 
nesday, and came straight to my office to give me an account 
of his mteiview with the King, m which it appears as if he 
had said much about what he ought, and no moi e He told his 
Majesty that the reports which had been circulated as to the 
disposition and intentions of lnmself and his fi lends, and the 
argument foi the necessity of making Peeis, winch he under- 
stood to have been founded on these reports, had compelled 
him to ask for this audience, that he wished to explain 
to his Majesty that he (Lord Whamcliffe) had no intention 
of opposing the second reading of the Reform Bill as he 
had done before, that he had reason to beheie that many 
others would adopt the same course, and if Ministers showed 
a moderate and conciliating disposition m the House of 
Commons, he was persuaded they would have no difficulty 
m carrying the second leading m the House of Loids He 
then implored the King well to considei the consequences of 
such a coup d’etat as this creation of Peeis would be , to look 
at what had happened m Fi ance, and to bear m mmd that 



234 


REIGN OE WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVI 


if tins was done foi one purpose, and by one Government, 
the necessity would infallibly anse of repeating it again 
by otheis, or for othei objects He was with the King an 
hour dilating upon this theme The King was extremely 
kind, heaid him with gieat patience, and paid him many 
compliments, and when he took leave told him that he was 
extremely glad to have had this conveisation with him Sir 
Heibeit Taylor gave Lord Wharnpliffe to undeistand that he 
had made an impiession, only impressions on the mind of 
the King are impiessions on sand However, from Tayloi’s 
cautious hints to linn to pei severe, it is likely that he did do 
good He is himself peisuaded that his audience principally 
produced the delay m the creation of Peers 

In the meantime he was not idle at Brighton Lord Ailes- 
bmy, who saw the King, consulted Whainchffe, and agreed 
at last to tell the King that his sentiments were the same as 
those which Lord Wharncliffe had expressed to him, and 
Lord Kimioull and Loid Gage have promised him then 
pioxies 

Yesterday morning he came to me again, very de- 
sponding He had found Harrowby m a state of despair, 
uncertain what he should do, and looking upon the game as 
lost, and he had been with the Duke of Wellington, who was 
impracticably obstinate, declamig that nothing should pre- 
vent his opposing a Bill which he believed m his conscience 
to be pregnant with certain rum to the country , that he did 
not care to be a gieat man (he meant by this expression a 
man of great wealth and station), and that he could con- 
tentedly sink into any station that cneu instances might let 
him down to, but he never would consent to be a party 
directly 01 mdnectly to such a measuie as this, and, feeling 
as he did, he was resolved to do his utmost to throw it out, 
without regai d to consequences Whainelifie said he was 
quite in despau, for that he knew the Duke’s great influence, 
and that if he and Harrowby endeavouied to foim a party 
against his views, they had no chance of making one suffi- 
ciently strong to cope with hnn He spoke with great and 
rather unusual modesty of himself, and of his inadequacy for 



1832] 


THE WAVERERS AND WELLINGTON 


235 


this purpose , that Han ow by might do more, and would have 
greater influence, but that he was so undecided and so with- 
out heart and spirit that he would not bestii himself 
Howevei, he acknowledged that nothing else was left to be 
done 

In the evening went to Lady Hairowby’s, wheie I found 
inm and Lord Haddington We stayed theie till neai two, 
after which Wharncliffe and I walked up and down Berkeley 
Square He was m much bettez spurts, having had a long 
conversation with these two Lords, both of whom he said 
were now resolved to sail along with him, and he contem- 
plates a legular and declaied sepaiation fioin the Duke upon 
tins question In the morning he had seen Lyndhuist, who 
appealed veiy undecided, and (Wharncliffe was apprehensive) 
rather leaning towaids the Duke, but I endeavouied to per- 
suade him that Lyndhuist was quite suie to adopt upon con- 
sideration the line which appeared most conducive to his 
own interest and importance, that he had always a hankering 
after being well with Loid G-iey and the Whigs, and I well 
remembeied when the ]ate Government was bioken up he 
had expressed himself m very unmeasui ed teims about the 
Duke's blundeis, and the impossibility of his evei again being 
Prime Minister , that with him consistency, character, and 
high feelings of honoui and patnotism weie secondary consi- 
derations , that he relied upon his gieat talents and his 
capacity to rendei himself necessaiy to an Administration , 
that it was not probable he would like to throw himself (even 
to please the Duke) into an opposition to the earnest desire 
which the great mass of the community felt to have the 
question settled , and that both for him and themselves much 
of the difficulty of separating themselves fiom the Duke 
might be avoided by the manner m which it was done I 
entreated him to use towaids the Duke eveiy soit of frankness 
and candour, and to express regiet at the necessity of taking 
a different line, together with an acknowledgment of the 
punty of the Duke’s motives , and if this is done, and if other 
people are made to understand that they can separate fiom 
the Duke on this occasion without offending 01 quanelling 



236 


KFIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVI 


with him, or thi owing off the allegiance to him as their 
political leadei, many will be inclined to do so , besides, it is 
of vital importance, if they do get the Bill into Committee, 
to secure the concurrence of the Duke and his adheients m 
dealing with the details of it, which can only be effected by 
keeping him m good huinoui, On the whole the thing looks 
as well as such a thing can look 



237 


CHAPTER XVII 

Measures foi cany mg the Second Reading of the Reform Bill m the House 
of Lords — The Paity of the Waveiers — The RussoDutck Loan — Resist- 
ance of the Tory Peers — Lord Melbourne’s \ lews on the Government — 
Macaulay at Holland House — Reluctance of the Government to cieate 
Peers— Duke of Wellington intractable — Peel’s Despondency — Lord 
Grey on the Measuies of Conciliation — Loid WharnclifFe sees the King 
— Pfospect^ of the Waveieis — Conversations with Lord Melbourne and 
Lord Palmerston — Duke of Richmond on the Creation of Peers — Inter- 
view of Loid Grey with the Waverers — Minute diawn up — Bethnil 
Green — The Archbishop of Canterbury vacillates— \iolence of Evtieme 
Parties — Princess Lieven’s Journal — Lord Holland for making Peers — 
lush National Education — Seiziue of Ancona — Reform Bill passes the 
House of Commons — Lord Dudley’s Madness — Debate m the Loids 

January 2Uh — Yesterday morning Frederick Lamb came 
to me and told me that the question of the Peers was again m 
agitation, that the King had agieed to make as many as they 
pleased, and had understood Wharncliffe’s conversation with 
his Majesty not to have contained any distinct assurance that 
he would vote for the second leading of the Bill Our party 
m the Cabinet still fight the battle, However, and Stanley (on 
whom all depends) is said to be firm, but circumstances may 
compel them to give way, and Lord Grey (who is suspected 
to have m his heart many misgivings as to this measure), 
when left to Durham and Co , yields eveiythmg Undei 
these circumstances I went to WharnclifFe last night to per- 
suade him to declaie his intentions without loss of time He 
owned that he had not pledged himself to the King, and he 
was frightened to death at the idea of taking this step, lest 
it should give umbrage to the Tones, and he should find him- 
self without any support at all We went, however, togethei 



238 


BEIG-N OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVII 


to Grosvenor Square, and had a long conference with 
Hariowby, whom I found equally undecided 

In the meantime the Tones are full of activity and expect- 
ation, and Loid Aberdeen is gomg to bung on a motion 
about Belgium on Thursday, on which they expect to beat the 
Government, not compiehendmgthat a gieatei evil could not 
oceui, 01 a bettei excuse be afforded them for an immediate 
creation , still they have got it into then heads that if they 
can beat the Government before the Refoim Bill comes on the) 
will force them to resign I found Hai rowby and Wharncliffe 
equally undecided as to the course they should adopt, the 
formei clinging to the hope that the Peeiage question was at 
last suspended, that Lord Giey was compunctious, the King 
reluctant, and so forth — Wharncliffe afraid of being aban- 
doned by those who are now disposed to consult and act with 
him, and indisposed to commit himself inetrievably m the 
House of Loids After a long discussion I succeeded m per- 
suading them that the danger is imminent, that there is no 
other chance of avoiding it, and they agieed to hoist their 
standard, get what followeis they can, and declare m the House 
foi the second leading without loss of time Harrowby said 
of himself that he was the woist person m the world to con- 
ciliate and be civil, which is tiue enough, but he has a high 
leputation, and his opinion is of immense r alue Until they 
deelaie themselves not a step will be made, and if they 
cannot gam adheients, why the matter is it m end, 
while if their example be followed, theie is still a chance of 
averting the climax of all evils, the swamping the House 
of Lords and the permanent establishment of the powei 
of the piesent Government Wharncliffe is to go to the 
Duke of Wellington to-day, to entreat him not to let his 
party divide on Aberdeen’s motion on Thuisday, and Har- 
xowby will go to the Aichbishop to invite his adhesion to 
then paity I am veiy doubtful what success to augur fiom 
this, but it is the only chance, and though the bulk of the 
Toiy Peeis are prejudiced, obstinate, and stupid to the last 
degree, there aie scattered amongst them men of moie 
rational views and more model ate dispositions Sandon 



1832] 


PLANS OF CONCILIATION 


239 


came m while we weie theie, and expressed piecisely the 
same opinion that I had been endeavounng to enforce upon 
them He said that m the House of Commons, whence he 
was just come, the Government had refused to give way upon 
a very reasonable objection, without assigning am leason 
(the numbeis m Schedule B), that this evinced an uncon- 
cihatoiy spirit, which was veiy distressing to those who 
wished foi a compromise, that Hobhouse came to him aftei 
the debate, and said how anxious he was they should come 
to some undei standing, and act m a gieatei spirit of con- 
ciliation, and talked of a meeting of the model ate on either 
side, that his constituents weie eager foi a settlement, and by 
no means averse to concession, but that while Peel, Ciokei, 
and others persisted in the tone they had adopted, and 
m the soit of opposition they were pui suing, it was quite 
impossible foi the Government to give waj upon anything, 
or evince any disposition to make concessions Sandon said 
he had no doubt whatevei that if Peel had a ssuraed a different 
tone at the beginning of the session the Government would 
have been moie moderate, and mutual concessions might 
have been feasible even m the House of Commons Hob- 
house, however, said that the alteiations whatevei thej 
might be (and he owned that he should like some), would 
come with a bettei giace m the House of Loids, and this is 
what I have all along thought O’Connell arrived yesterday 
took his seat, and announced his intention of suppoitmg 
Government at any late All the lush members do the 
same, and this great body that eveiyone expected would 
display hostility to the Bill, have foimed themselves into a 
phalanx, and will carry it through any difficulties bj their 
compactness and the legulanty of then attendance 

Janumy 25 th — We met at Loid Hairowby’s last night 
— Whamcliffe, Hanowbj, Haddington, and Sandon — and I 
found then minds weie quite made up Whamcliffe is to 
present a petition from Hull, and to take that oppoitunit^ 
of making his declaration, and the other two aie to support 
him Whamcliffe saw the Bishop of London m the morning, 
who is decided the same way, and he asked Loid Devon, 



240 


EEIGN Or WILLIAM IV 


[Chup XVII 


who knows the House of Loids very well, if he thought, m 
the event of then raising the standaid of model ate Eeform, 
that they would have adherents, to which he replied he was 
convinced they would Lord Harrowby saw the Archbishop, 
who would not pledge himself, but appeared well disposed , 
and altogether they think they can count upon nine bishops 
Wharncliffe spoke to the Duke of Wellington about Lord 
Aberdeen’s motion, and represented all the impolicy of it at 
this moment, and the connection it might have with the Peer- 
age question , to which he only replied by enlarging on ‘ the 
importance of the Belgic question, 5 either unable or unwilling 
to embrace this measuie m its complex relations, and never 
peieeivmg that the countiy oaies not a straw about Belgium 
or anything but Eeform, though they may begin to care 
about such things when this question is settled Haddington 
also went to Aberdeen, who would hear nothing , but he 
and the Duke severally promised to speak to one another 
The question last night was whether WharnclifFe should say 
his say directly, 01 wait (as he wishes to do) foi a few days 
The decision of this he refeired to me, and I have refened 
it to Melbourne, to whom I have communicated what has 
passed 

News came } esterday that the cholera had got within 
thiee miles of Edmbuigh, and to show the fallacy of ail} 
theoiy about it, and the inutility of the prescribed precau- 
tions, at one place (Newpoit, I think) one person m five of 
the whole population was attacked, though there was no 
lack of diet, warmth, and clothing foi the pool This 
disease escapes fiom all speculation, so paitial and eccentric 
is its charactei 

January 29 th — Theie weie two divisions on Thursday 
night last — m the House of Lords on the Belgian question, 
and m the House of Commons on the Eussian Loan Har- 
rowby, Wharncliffe, and Haddington stayed away, Lynd- 
hurst voted Only two bishops, Durham and Ehllaloe 
Ministers had a majority of thirty-seven, for Abeideen and 
the Duke persisted m bringing on the question and dividing 
upon it The former spoke nearly three hours, and far 



1832] 


DISCREDIT OF MINISTERS 


241 


bettex than evei lie had donebefoie, the Duke was piosy 
In the other House the Government had not a shadow of a 
case, then law officers, Home and Denman, displayed an 
ignoiance and stupidity which were quite ludicrous, and 
nothing saved them fiom defeat but a good speech at the 
end fiom Palmerston, and then xemonstiances to their friends 
that unless they earned it they must lesign Not a soul 
defends them, and the} are paiticulaily blamed foi their 
folly in not coming to Parliament at once, by which they 
might have avoided the scrape 1 The\ had on]} a majority 
of twenty-four They were equally disgusted with both 
these divisions, both plainly showing that the} have little 
power (independent!} of the Eeform question) m eithei 
House To be sure the case m the House of Commons was 
a wi etched one, but m the House of Loids theie was nothing 
to ju&tif} a vote of censuie on Government, to which Aber- 
deen’s motion was tantamount But while they had a 
majont} which was respectable enough to make it impossible 
to piopose making Peeis on that account , it was so small 
that they see cleaily wuat they ha\e to expect heieaftei 
fiom such a House of Lords, and accordingly their adherents 
have thrown off the mask Sefton called on me the day 
after, and said it was ridiculous to go on m this way, that 
the Tories had had possession of the Government so many 
years, and the powei of making so man} Peeis, that no 
Whig or other Mmistiy could stand without a fiesh creation 
to redress the balance 

Aftei having, as I supposed, settled eveiythmg with 
Whamcliffe about his declaration, I got a letter from him 
yesterday (fiom Bughton), sa}ing he thought it would be 
premature, and wished to put it off till the first reading 
of the Bill in the House of Loids I took his lettei to 
Melbourne, and told him I was all against the delay He 

1 [Foi a moie particulai account of the question of the Eusso-DutcL 
Loan, see inf) a, p 244 It has since been universally pdmitted that the 
conduct of the Government was wise and honourable, and tb at the separa- 
tion of Holland and Belgium did not exoneiate Gieat Britain from a finan- 
cial engagement to foreign Powers ] 

VOL II » 



242 


KLIG-N 01 WILLIAM IV 


[Chat XVII 


said it was no doubt desnable they should get as many 
adheients as they can, and if the delay would enable tliem 
to do so it might be bettei, but they must not imagine 
Government was satisfied with the division m the House of 
Loids However, the question of Peers seems not to be undei 
discussion at this moment, though it is perpetually revived 
In the evening I went to Hanowby’s and showed him 
Whameliffe’s lettei He concurred m the expediency of 
delay, but without convincing me He showed me a letter, 
and a veiy good one, he has written to Lord Talbot, ex- 
plaining Ins views, and inviting his concuirenee, and of this 
he has sent copies to othei Peers, whom he thinks it possible 
he may influence The question of time and manner is to 
be leserved for future discussion 

Felrucuy 2nd — Met Predenck Lamb at dmnei to talk 
over the state of affans befoie he goes to Vienna What he 
wishes for is the expulsion of this Government, and the for- 
mation of a model ate one taken from all paities Received 
another letter fiom Whaincliffe yesterday, m which he stated 
that he had communicated to the Duke of Wellington his 
Intention of suppoitmg the second leading, and asked if the 
Duke would support his amendments m Committee In the 
meantime I wrote to Han owby, begging he would communi- 
cate with Loid Carnarvon and the Duke of Buckingham 
They keep doubting and feanng about who will or will not join 
them, but do not stn a step George Bentmek told me that 
Lord Holland said to the Duke of Richmond the othei day 
‘that he had heaid a declaiation was m agitation, that 
nothing could be moie unfortunate at this moment, as it 
would make it veiy difficult to cieate fifty Peeis 5 In the 
meantime a difficult) is likely to anse fiom another souice, 
and the Government to derive strength from then very weak- 
ness Robeit Clive (who is a moderate Tory) called on me 
the other day, and when ('aftei expiessmg his anxiety that 
the question should be settled) I asked him whether such a 
declaiation would meet with much success, said he thought 
that it would have done so a fortnight ago, but that the ex- 
treme discredit into which Mimsteis were fallen would now 
operate as a reason against supporting them m any stage of 



1832] 


SIB HEiNRY P1RNELL 


243 


the business, and offered so good a chance of expelling them 
altogethei that people would be anxious to tfy it Still it 
must be so obvious that it would be next to impossible to 
make a Government now, that it is to be hoped all but the 
most violent will feel it Heines indeed told somebody that 
he had no doubt the Tories could make a Government, and 
that on a dissolution they would get a Pailiament that would 
support them Parnell 1 has been turned out foi not voting oi 
the Russian Loan affair, and Hobhouse appointed m his place 
Tennyson resigned from ill health Parnell was properly 
enough turned out, and he is a good liddance, but it is not 
the same thing as turning people out on Refoini He wiote 
an excellent book on finance, but he was a very bad Secretary 
at War, a lash economical mnovatoi, and a bad man of busi- 
ness m its details *Aftei waiting till the last moment foi 
the amval of the Russian latification, the French and 
English signed the Belgian tieaty alone, and the otheis a e 
to sign after as their poweis aruve 

February 4 th — Called on Lord Hanowby in the morning , 
found him m veiy bad spirits, as well he might, foi to all 
the invitations he had written to Peers he had leceived 
either lefusals or no reply, so that he augurs ill of then 
attempt Carnarvon and Talbot refused, these besotted, 
piedestmated Tories will follow the Duke, the Duke will 
oppose all Refoim because he said he would Those who aie 
inclined will not avow then conveision to modeiate principles, 
and so they will go on, waiting and staling at one anothei, 
till one fine daj the Peers will come out m the c Gazette 5 
The thing looks ill Dined with Lord Holland Melbourne, 
who was there, asked me if I had heaid fiom Whamchffe, 
but I did not tell him of Loid Hanowby’s refusals 

1 [Sn Htmy Paincll had been appointed Secietary at TTa on the foi- 
niation of Lord Grev’s Minis ti^ He had exasperated Ins colleagues by 
entering upon an unauthonsed negotiation with the Fiench Post Office, with- 
out the knowledge of the Duke of Richmond then Postmaster-Geneial, 
and b} encoungmg Joseph Hume to bung on a motion against the Post 
Office Hume brought this lettei to the Duke of Pachmond, w ho was indig- 
nant and laid the whole mattei before Lord Grey, who behaved veiv well 
about it Parnell nairowly escaped dismissal at that time, and on his next 
sign of disaffection to the Government he wjs turned out of office ] 



244 


FEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVII 


Ealck dined theie, and in eonveisation about the Russian 
Loan lie told' us tlie oiigmal history of it The Emperoi of 
Russia had bon owed ninety millions of florins, and when his 
concunence and suppoit weie desired to the new kingdom of 
the Netherlands he pioposed m return that the King of Hol- 
land should take this debt off his hands The King said he 
would gladly meet his wishes, but could not begin by making 
himself unpopulai with his new subjects and saddling them 
with this debt Whereupon England interposed and an ar- 
langement was made [m 1815] by which Russia, England, 
and the King of the Nethei lands divided the debt into three 
equal sliaies, each taking one With reference to the aigu- 
ment that the countries being divided we ought no longei to 
pay oui shai e, Falck said the King of the Netherlands had not 
lefused to pay oil those giounds, that he had only (with refer- 
ence to his heavy expenses) expiessed his present inability 
and asked for time, which the Emperor of Russia had agieed 
to What he meant was that the kingdoms were not as yet 
de jure sepaiated, and that the cams had not yet ai lived 
This, howevei, is nothing to the purpose, foi the King and the 
Empeioi undeistand one anothei vei^ well, and it is not likely 
that the King should do an\ thing to supplj us with a motive 
or a pretext foi refusing our quota to his impel lal ally 
Brougham’s speech on the Russian Loan e\ erybody agrees to 
have been supei -excellent — e a continued syllogism fiom the 
beginning to the end 3 Lord Holland said, and the Duke of 
Wellington (I am told) deelaied, it was the best speech he 
had evei heard 

Fehuary 5th — Met Melbourne jesterday evening, and 
turned back and walked with him , talked over the state of 
affans He said Government weie veiy much annoyed at 
then division m the House of Commons, though Brougham 
had m some measure lepaned that disaster m the House of 
Lords , that it became moie difficult to resist ma kin g Peers 
as Government exhibited gieatei weakness I told him the 
Tories weie so unmanageable because they wished to drive 
out the Government, and thought they could Dined at the 
Sheriffs 3 dinner — not unpleasant — and went m the evening 



1832] 


MAC ILIA Y AT HOLLAND HOUbL 


245 


to Lady Hanowby , Loid Hanowby gone to Ins biotbers’ 
Melbourne bad told me tbat be bad spoken to Haddington, 
and I found Haddington bad given a lepoit of wbat be said 
such as I am suie Melbourne did not mean to con\ey , tbe 
upsbot of which was tbat there was only one man m tbe 
Cabinet who wished to make Peeis, that there was no im- 
mediate dangei, and tbat it would do moie bairn than 
good if they declared themselves without a good numbei of 
adbeients Called this morning on Lady C , who said tbat 
Melbourne was m fact verj much annoyed at bis position, 
wan ted camctei e, was wretched at having been led so fai, 
and tossed baekwaids and forwaids between opposite senti- 
ments and feelings, tbat be thought the Government veiy 
weak, and that they would not stand, and in fact tbat he did 
not desne they should lemam m, but the contiaiy And 
this is Fiedeiick’s opinion too, who has gieat influence ovei 
him, while at the same time he is mthei jealous of Fnde- 
nck 

Fehuaiy 6th — Dined yesteida^ with Loid Holland , came 
very late, and found a \acant place between Sn Geoige 
Robm«on and a common-looLing man m black As soon as 
I had time to look at my neighbour, I began to speculate (as 
one usually does) as to who he might be, and as he did not 
foi some tune open his lips except to eat, I settled that he 
was some obscuie man of letters oi of medicine, peihaps a 
cholera doctoi In a short time the conversation turned 
upon early and late education, and Loid Holland said ho 
had always remarked that self-educated men were peculiarly 
conceited and airogant, and apt to look down upon the 
generality of mankind, fiom their being ignoiant of how much 
othei people knew , not having been at public schools, they aie 
unrnfoi med of the corn se of general education My neighbom 
obsei\ed that he thought the most lemaikable example of 
self-education was that of Alfien, who had leached the ige 
of thirty without having aequned uny r accomplishment save 
that of dm mg, and who was so ignoiant of Ins own language 
that he had to learn it like a child, beginning with element- 
ary books Lord Holland quoted Julius Osesar and Sealiger 



246 


KEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVII 


as examples of late education, said that the lattei had been 
wounded, and that he had been married and commenced 
learning Gieek the same day, when my neighbour remaiked 
‘that he supposed his learning Greek was not an instantaneous 
act like hib mairiage ’ This rernaik, and the manner of it, 
gave me the notion thai he was a dull fellow, foi it came 
out m a way which boideied on the ridiculous, so as to excite 
someihmg like a sneer I was a little sui prised to hear him 
continue the thread of conversation (from Scaliger’s wound) 
and talk of Loyola having been wounded at Pampeluna I 
wondered how he happened to know anything about Loyola’s 
wound Having thus settled mj opinion, I went on eating 
my dmnei, when Auckland, who was sitting opposite to me, 
addressed my neighbour, c Mr Macaulav, will you drink a 
glass of wine & 9 I thought I should have dropped off my chair 
It was Macaulay, the man I had been so long most curious 
to see and to hear, whose genius, eloquence, astonishing know- 
ledge, and diveisified talents have excited my wonder and 
admiration for such a length of time, and heie I had been 
sitting next to him, hearing him talk, and setting him down 
for a dull fellow I felt as if he could have read mj thoughts, 
and the perspnation buist fiom every poie of my face, and 
3 et it was impossible not to be amused at the idea It was 
not till Macaulay stood up that I was aware of all the 
vulganty and ungamlmess of his appearance , not a raj of 
intellect beams fiom his countenance, a lump of moie or- 
dinary clay nevei enclosed a poweiful mind and lively ima- 
gination He had a cold and sore thioat, the lattei of which 
occasioned a constant conti action of the muscles of the 
thorax, making him appear as if m momentary danger of a 
fit His mannei struck me as not pleasing, but it was not 
assuming, unembarrassed, yet not easy, unpolished, yet not 
coarse , there was no kind of usurpation of the conversation, 
no tenacity as to opinion or facts, no assumption of superior- 
ity, but the variety and extent of his information were soon 
appaient, for whatever subject was touched upon he evinced 
the utmost familiarity with it , quotation, illustration, anec- 
dote, seemed xeady m his hands for even topic Pnmogeni- 



1832J 


RELUCTANCE TO MAKE PEERS 


247 


tmem tins countiy, m others, and pai tieularly m ancient 
Rome, was the principal topic, I think, but Macaulay was 
not ceitam what was the law of Rome, except that when a 
man died intestate his estate was divided between his ehil- 
dien After dmnei Talleyiand, and Madame de Dmo came 
m He was mtioduced to Talleyiand, who told him that he 
meant to go to the House of Commons on Tuesday, and that 
he hoped he would speak, c quhl avait entendu tous les 
grands orateuis, et ll desnait a piesent entendie Monsieur 
Macaulay * 

February 7 th — Called on Melbourne He said he had 
not meant Haddington to undeistand that it was desnable 
the declaiation should be delayed , on the contrary, that it 
was desirable Mimsteis should be mfoimedas speedily as pos- 
sible of the intentions of oui fi lends and of the foice they 
can command, but that if only a few declaied themselves, 
they would ceitamly he liable to the suspicion that they 
could not get adheients , he added that eveiy man m the 
Government (except one) was awaie of the despeiate natuie 
of the step they wexe about to take (that man of cornse 
being Dm ham) I told him that his communication to 
Haddington had to a ceitam degiee had the effect of 
paralysing my exeitions, and he owned it was impiudent 
I was, howevei, extremely sui prised to hear what he said 
about the Cabinet, and I asked him if it really was so, and 
that all the membeis of it weie bond fide alaimed at, and 
aveise to the ineasuie , that I had always believed that, with 
the exception of those who weie intimate with him, they all 
wanted the pretext m older to ostablisn then power He 
said no, they ieal]y all were conscious of the -violence of the 
measuie, and desnous of avoiding it that lord Giey had 
been so from the beginning, hut that Duiham was always at 
him, and made him fall into his violent designs , that it was 
€ aieign of tenoi, 5 but that Durham could do with him what 
he pleased What a picture of secxet degradation and imbe- 
cility mthe toweling and apparently haughty Loid Grey 1 I 
told Melbourne that it was impoitan* to gam time, that there 
was an appearance of a thaw among the 199, but that most 



248 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVII 


of them weie m the country, commumcahons by letter 
were difficult and unsatisfactory , that many ueie averse to 
"breaking up the party or leaving the Duke — in short, from 
one cause or another doubtful and wavering , that it was not 
to be expected they should at a moment’s warning take this 
new line, m opposition to the opinions and conduct of their 
old leaden, and that when Lord Harrowby was exeitmg 
himself mdefatigably to bring them to leason, and to render 
a measure unnecessary which m the opinion of the Cabinet 
itself was fraught with evil, it was fan and just to give him 
time to operate He said this was very tiue, but that time 
was likewise required to execute the measure of a cieation of 
Peers, that people must be invited, the patents made out, &c 
We then parted Downstaus was Rothschild the Jew 
waiting for him, and the valet de chambre sweeping away a 
bonnet and a shawl 

On my way fiom Melbourne called on Loid Hanowbj, 
and read a vanety of letteis — answers from different Peers to 
his letteis, Wharncliffe’s correspondence with the Duke of 
Wellington, and Peel’s answer to Lord Harrowby Wharn- 
cliffe wrote a long and very conciliatoiy letter to the Duke, 
nearly to the effect of Loid Hanowb} ? s circulai, and contain- 
ing the same arguments, to which the Duke replied by along 
letter, wi itten evidently m a very ill humour, and such a 
galimatias as I never read, angry, ill expressed, and confused, 
and from which it was difficult to extract anything intelligible 
but this, ‘that he was awaie of the consequences of the 
course he should adopt himself, and wished the House of 
Lords to adopt, viz , the same as last yeai , but that be those 
consequences what they might, the responsibility would not 
he on his shouldeis, but on those of the Government , he 
acknowledged that a cieation of Peers would swamp the 
House of Lords, and, by so doing, destroy the Constitution, 
but the Government would be responsible, not he, for the lum 
that would ensue, that he was aware some Reform was 
necessary (m so far departing from his former declaration of 
the 30th of November), but he would neither propose anything 
himself, nor take this measure, nor try and amend it 5 In 
short, he will do nothing but talk nonsense, despair, and be 



1832 ] 


PEEL’S DESPONDENCY 


249 


obstinate, and then he is hampered bj declarations (fiom 
which he now sees himself that he must dissent), and obliged 
from causes connected with the Catholic question and the Test 
and Corporation Acts to attend more to the consistency of 
his own chaiactei than to the exigencies of the country, but 
with much more personal authority than anybody, and still 
blindly obeyed and followed by men many of whom take 
very rational and dispassionate views of the subject, but who 
still are resolved to sacufice their own sense to his folly He 
really has accomplished being a prophet m his own country, 
not from the sagacity of his piedictions, but from the blind 
worship of his devotees 

Peeks letter, though an lvmg at the same conclusion, was 
m a very different style It certainly was an able produc- 
tion, well expressed and plausibly aigued, with temper and 
moderation He owned that much was to be said on the 
side of the question which he does not espouse, but the 
reasons by which he says he is mainly governed aie these 
that it is of vital impoitance to pieserve the consistency of 
the party to which we are to look for futuie safety, and that 
when this excitement has passed away the conduct of the 
anti-Reformers will have justice done to it But tlieie is a 
contradiction which pervades his argument, for he treats the 
subject as if all hope had vanished of saving the country, 
‘desperat de republics!/ and he does not promise himself pre- 
sent advantage from the firmness and consistency of the 
Tories, but taking it m connection with the folly and wicked- 
ness of the other party (who he is persuaded bitterly legiet 
their own precipitate violence and folly), he expects it to 
prove serviceable as an example and beacon to future genera- 
tions All the evils that have been predicted may flow 
from this measure when earned into complete operation, but 
it is neither statesmanlike noi manly to throw up the game 
m despair, and suirender every point, and waive every com- 
pensation, m ordei to preserve the consistency of himself and 
his own party, not that then consistency is to produce any 
advantage, but that hereaftei it 

May pomt a moral or adorn a tale 



250 


EM GN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVII 


So senseless is this, that it is clear to me that it is not his 
real feeling, and that he promises himself some personal ad- 
vantage fioni the adoption of such a course Peel £ loves 9 
himself, £ not wisely hut too well 5 

Fefaumy 9th — Yesterday I met Loid Giey and rode with 
him I told him that the Tories weie pleased at his speech 
about the Irish Tithes He said £ he did not know why, for 
he had not said what he did with a view to please them 5 I 
said because they looked upon it as an intimation that the old 
Piotestant ascendency was to be restored He rejected very 
indignantly that idea, and said he had nevei contemplated 
any ascendency but that of the law and the Government I 
said I knew that, but that the} had been so long used to 
considei themselves as the sole repiesenfcatives of the law 
and the Government, that they took the asseition he had 
made as a notification that then authont} was again to be 
exercised as m bygone times He then asked me if I knew 
what Loid Harrowby had done, said he had spoken to him, 
that he was placed in a difficult position and did not know 
what to do I said that Hanowbj was exeitmg himself, that 
tune was requned to bring people lound, that I had reason 
to believe Hanowby had made a gieat impression, but that 
most of the Peeis of that pait) weie out of town, and it was 
impossible to expect them on the receipt of a lettei of in- 
vitation and advice to reply by return of post that they would 
abandon then leadeis and their party, and change their 
whole opinions and couise of action, that I expected the 
Aichbishop and Bishop of London would go with him, 
and that they would carry the bench He said the 
Bishop of London he had aheady talked to, that the 
Aichbishop was such a poor, miseiable creatuie that 
there was no dependence to be placed on him, that he would 
be fughtened and vote any way his fear dnected Then he 
asked, how many had they sure & I said, c At this moment 
not above eight Lords and eight bishops 5 He said that was 
not enough I said I knew that, but he must have patience, and 
should rememhei that when the Duke of Wellington brought 
the Catholic Bill into the House of Commons he hadamajonty 



1832] CONVEimTION WITH LOED OBEY 251 

on papei against him m the House of Lords of twenty -five, 
and he earned the Bill by a hundred He said he should like 
to talk to Hauowby again, which I pressed hnn to do, and 
he said he would I find Lord John Eussell sent foi Sandon, 
and told him that he and the otheis were leally anxious to 
avoid making Peers, and entreated him to get something done 
by his fathei and his associates as soon as possible, that 
there was no time to be lost, that he should not deny that he 
wished Peeis to be made, not now, but after the [Reform Bill 
had passed 1 called on Loid Hanowby m the afternoon, 
and found him half dead with a headache and dieadfulh 
nntable Letteis had come (which he had not seen) fiom 
Loid Bagot lefusmg, Lord Caiteret ditto, and \ei) imper- 
tinently and Loid Calthoipe adhexmg I told him what had 
passed between Loid Giey and me He said then insolence 
had been hitheito so gieat m refusing to listen to an) tenns 
(at the meeting of the six), and m lefusmg evei) concession 
in the House of Commons and not toleiatmg the slightest 
alteiation, that he despaned of doing anything with them, 
that Loid Gie) had told him he could not agiee to make a 
sham resistance m Committee, but that he on the other hand 
would not agiee to go into Committee, except on an express 
understanding that they should not avail themselves of the 
piobable disunion of the Tones to cany all the details of 
then Bill The difficulties aie immense, but if Giey and 
Hairowby get togethei, it is possible something maybe done, 
piovided the) will appioach each other m a spirit of com- 
piomise It is certainly easiei now, and veiy difieient fiom 
the House of Commons, where I have always thought the) 
could make no concession In the House of Lords they maj 
without difficulty I diead the obstmite of both paitie« 

Feh urn y 11th — Whaincliffe came to town on Thursday 
and called on me At Bnghton he had seen Sir Andrew 
Bamaid, and showed him the conespondence with the 
Duke of Wellington, telling him at the same time he might 
mention it to Tayloi if he liked, and if Tayloi had any 
wish to see it he should Accoidmgl) Tayloi sent him 
woid he should be glad to have an mtei \ lew with him The) 



252 


BEION OJb WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVII 


met at Lord Wharncliffe’s house and had a long conversation, 
m the course of which Tayloi gave him to understand that 
it was quite true that the King had consented to everything 
about the creation of Peers, but mulia getnens , and that he 
was much alarmed, and could not endure the thought of this 
measure The end was that a memorandum was drawn up 
of the conveisation, and of Whaincliffe’s sentiments and 
intentions, which weie much the same as those he had put 
foith at the time of the old negotiations This was taken 
away by Tayloi and shown to the King, and copies of it 
weie foi warded to Giey, Brougham, and Melbourne The 
next day Whai ncliffe dined with the Kmg, and after dinner 
his Majesty took him aside and said, c I have seen your 
paper, and I agree with eveiy woid you saj , we aie indeed 
m a scrape, and we must get out of it as we can I only 
wish everybody was as leasonable and as moderate as you, 
and then we might do so peihaps without difficulty * That 
the King is alarmed is pretty cleai, but it is more probable 
that his alaim may influence his Mimsteis than himself, and 
it looks veij much as if it had done so Sir H Tayloi like- 
wise told Whameliffe that the Duke of Wellington had written 
a letter which had been laid befoie the King, and had gi\en 
him gieat offence, and that it eeitamlj was such a letter as 
was unbecoming m any subject to wnte This letter is 
supposed to have been addressed to Stiangford, it got into 
Londondeiry’s hands, and he laid it before the King (upon 
the occasion of his going with some address to Bnghton), 
who desued it might be left with him till the next day The 
reason why thej think it was Strangford is that the word 
i Viscount 5 was apparent at the bottom, but the name was 
erased In the meantime Harrowby has had some con- 
versation with Lord Lansdowne, who piessed the necessity of 
making a demonstration of their strength, and added that 
if the Archbishop could be induced to declare himself that 
would be sufficient Loid Hanowby is accordingly woikmg 
incessantly npon the Archbishop on the one hand, while he 
exhorts to patience and leliance on the other Yesteiday 
he took a high tone with Lord Lansdowne, told him that 



18321 


WELLINGTON IN D WHAENCLLETE 


253 


lie had, as lie fiimly believed, as many as twenty-five Loids, 
lay and spnitual, with him, wlucli would make a diffeience 
of fifty, but that as to a public n revocable pledge, it was not 
to be had, and that Lord Giey must place confidence m his 
belief and reliance upon Ins exertions, 01, if not, he must 
take his own course Upon Loid Giey’s meeting with him, 
and the Aichbishop’s being bi ought to the post, the matter 
now hinges 

In the meantime I have disco\eied the cause of the 
Duke of Wellington’s peevish leply to Whaincliffe, and 
the reason why Lord Hanowby’s lettei to Lord Bagot was 
unansweied for ten dajs, and then couched m teims so dif- 
ferent from what might have been expected Lord Howe 
was at Bliffield at the tune, and they, between them, sent 
Hanowbjr’s lettei up to the Duke of Wellington, who of 
couise wiote his sentiments m leply Boi this they waited, 
and on this Loid Bagot acted My biothei told me yestei- 
day that the Duke had seen the lettei, and that Loul Hoiot 
had been the person who sent it him This explains it all 
Wharnchffe’s lettei was but anothei version of Loid 
Hanowby’s, and he had theiefoie m fact seen it befoie, 
but seen it addiessed to those whom he considered bound 
to him and his views, and I have no doubt he was both 
angry and jealous at Loid Harrowby’s intei feience Nothing 
could be more uncandidand unjustifiable than Loid Bagot’s 
conduct, for he nevei asked Lord Hanowby’s leave to com- 
municate the letter, noi told him that he had done so , on 
the contraiy, he gave him to undei stand that the delay (foi 
which he made manj apologies) was owing to his reflection 
and his consulting his biothei the bishop The Duke, no 
doubt, gave him his own sentiments , yet, m his lettei to 
Whaincliffe, he says c he has not endeavoured to influence 
anybody, noi shall he , 5 and at the same time eludes the 
essential question ‘wheihei he will suppoit m Committee’ 
So much for Toiy candoui As to the Duke, he is evidently 
piqued and piovoked to the quick, his love of powei and 
authonty are as gieat as evei, and he can’t enduie to see 
anybody withdrawn fiom his influence , piovoked with himself 



254 


RU ON OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVII 


and with, everybody else, Ins mind is clouded by passion and 
prejudice, and the consequences are the ill humour he dis- 
plays and the abominable nonsense he writes, and yet the 
gieat mass of these Tones follow the Duke, go wheie he will, 
let the consequences be what the} maj , and without requiring 
even a reason , sic vult sic j ubet is enough for them One 
thing that gives me hopes is the change m the language of 
the friends of Government out of doors — Dover, foi instance, 
who has been one of the noisiest of the bawlers foi Peers 
I walked with him from the House of Lords the night before 
last, and he talked only of the break-up of the 199, and of 
the activity of Hairowby and Whamchffe and its probable 
effects 

February 14 th — On Saturday evening I found Melbourne 
at the Home Office m his lazy, listening, silent humour, dis- 
posed to heai eveiy thing and to say very little , told me that 
Dover and Sefton weie continually at the Chancellor to make 
Peers, and that they both, particularly the latter, had great 
influence with him Brougham led by Dovei and Sefton t f 
I tried to impiess upon him the necessity of giving Harrowby 
ci edit, and not exacting what was not to be had, viz , the 
pledges of the anti-Befoimers to vote for the second leading 
He owned that m their case he would not pledge himself 
either I put before him as strongly as I could all the vanous 
arguments foi resisting this desperate measure of making 
Peers (to which he was well inclined to assent), and pressed 
upon him the importance of not exasperating the Tories and 
the Conservative party to the last degree, and placing such 
an impassable ban ler between public men on both sides as 
should make it impossible for them to reunite for their com- 
mon intei est and secunt} hereafter 

In the evening I got a message from Palmerston to beg 
I would call on him, which I did at the Foreign Office yes- 
terday He is infinitely more aleit than Melbourne, and 
more satisfactory to talk to, because he enters with moie 
waimth and moie detail into the subject He began by 
referring to the list of Peers likely to vote foi the second 
reading, which I showed to him At the same time I told 



1832] CONVERSATION WITH LORD PALMERSTON 255 

him that though he might make use of the information 
generally as fax as expressing his own belief that Lord 
Harrowby would have a sufficient following, he must not 
produce the list or quote the names, for, m fact, not one of 
them had given any authority to be so counted , that he must 
be awaie there weie persons who would be glad to mar our 
projects, and they could not moi e effectually do so than by 
conveying to these Peers the use that had been made of their 
names To all this he agreed entirely He then talked of 
the expediency of a declaiation from Loid Hanowby, and 
how desirable it was that it should be made soon, and be sup- 
posed by as many as could be induced to come foi ward , that 
Lord Grey had said to him very latel} that he really believed 
he should be obliged to cieate Peeis I said that my pei- 
suasion was that it would be quite unnecessary to do so to 
carry the second leading, that nothing was lequired but 
confidence m Loid Harrowby, and that his chaiacter and 
his conduct on this occasion entitled him to expect it from 
them , that if they were smceie m then desire to avoid this 
measure they would tiust to his exertions , that I knew very 
well the effoits that were made to foice this measuie on 
Loid Grey, that it was m fuitherance of this that Dun- 
combe’s 1 ridiculous affair m the House of Commons had 
been got up, which had been such a complete failure , but 
that I could not believe Loid Grey would suffei himself to 
be bullied into it by such despicable means, and by the 
clamoui of such men as Buncombe and O’Connell, urged on 
by friends of his own He said this was very tiue, but the 
fact was they could not usk the rejection of the Bill again , 
that he knew fiom a variety of communications that in ex- 
plosion would inevitably follow its being thrown out on the 
second reading, that he had had letteis fiom Scotland and 

1 Duncombe brought foiwaid a petition fiom six men at Barnet com- 
plaining that they had been entrapped into signing Loid \ eiulam s and Loid 
Salisbury’s addiess +o tbe King The object ww to pioduce a discussion 
about the Peeis It totally failed, but it was got up with an openness that 
was indecent by Durham and that crew, who were all (Durham, Sefton, Mul- 
grave, Dover; undei the gallery to heai it The thing was ridiculed bv Peel, 
fell flat upon the House, and excited disgust and contempt out of it 



256 


REIG-N OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVII 


other places, and liad no doubt that such, would be the case I 
said that he would find it very difficult to persuade oui friends 
of this, and it appeared to me as clear as possible that the 
feeling for the Bill and the excitement had subsided , that 
they might be to a ceitam degree renewed by its rejection, 
but no man could doubt that modifications m it, which would 
have been impossible a few months ago, would now be 
easy, that if it was not for that unfortunate declaration 
of Loid Grey, by which he might 1 consider himself bound, he 
might safely consent to such changes as would make the 
adjustment of the question no Idifficult matter, that with 
regard to the rejection of the! Bill, whatevei excitement 
it might produce, it was evident the Government had an 
immediate remedy , they had only to prorogue Pailiament 
foi a week and make their Peers, and they would then have 
an excellent pietext — indeed, so good a one that it was in- 
conceivable to me that they should hesitate for a moment m 
adopting that course This he did not deny I then told 
him of the several conversations between Lord Harrowby 
and Loids Grej and Lansdowne, and mine with Lord 
Grey, that Lord Harrowby protested against Lord Grey’s 
availing himself of any disunion among the Opposition (pro- 
duced by his support of the second reading) to cany those 
points, to resist which would be the sole object of Loid 
Harrowby m seceding from his party, and that Loid Giey 
had said he could not make a sham resistance Palmerston 
said, 6 We have bi ought m a Bill which we have made as 
good as we can , it is foi you to propose any alterations you 
wish to make m it, and if you can beat us, well and good 
There aie indeed ceitam things which, if earned against us, 
would be so fatal to the principle of the Bill that Lord 
Grey would not consider it worth carrying if so amended, 
but on other details he is ready to submit, if they should be 
earned against him 5 I said that would not do, that I must 
refei him to the eaily negotiations and the disposition which 
was then expressed to act upon a pnnciple of mutual conces- 
sion, that when Lord Harrowby and his & lends were pre- 
pared to concede to its fullest extent the principle of dis- 



1832] CONVERSATION WITH LORD PALMERSTON 257 

franehisement (though the) might piopose alterations m a 
few particulars), they had a light to expect that the Govern- 
ment should sui render without fighting some of those 
equivalents 01 compensations which the) should look foi in 
the alteiations 01 additions they might piopose He said 
that ‘while Loid Hairowby was afiaid that Ministers might 
avail themselves of his weakness to cany their details, they 
were afraid lest Loid Hairowby and his fnends should unite 
with the ultra-Tones to beat them m Committee on some of 
the essential clauses of the Bill 5 I replied, then it was fear 
for fear, and undei the cncumstances the best thing was an 
understanding that each pait) should act towaids the other 
m a spirit of good faith, and without taking any accidental 
advantage that might acciue either waj We then discussed 
the possibility of an agieement upon the details, and he 
enquned what they would lequue I told him that they 
would lequue an alteiation of Schedule B to exclude the 
town voters fiom count) lepresentation, perhaps to vaiy the 
franchise, and some othei things, with legard to which I 
could not speak positivel) at the moment He said he thought 
some alteration might be made m Schedule B, particularly 
m giving all the towns double members, by cutting off the 
lower ones that had one , that it was intended no man should 
have a vote for town and county on the same qualification,, 
and he believed theie were veiy few who would possess the 
double right That I said would make it more easy to give 
up, and it was a thing the others laid gieat stress upon He 
seemed to think it might be done As to the 101 , he said he- 
had at first been disposed to consider it too low, but he had 
changed his mmd, and now doubted if it would not turn out to* 
be too high We then talked of the metropolitan members, 
to which I said undoubtedly they wished to strike them off, 
but they knew very well the Government desired it equally 
We agreed that I should get from Lord Hairowby specifically 
what he would requne, and he would give me m ietum what 
concessions the Government vrould piobably be disposed to 
make, that these should be communicated merely as the 
private opinions of indi\ iduals, and not as fonnal proposals, 
VOL ii s 



REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


258 


[Chap XVII 


and we should tij and blend them togethei into some feasible 
compiomise 

I afteiwaids saw the Duke of Richmond, who said that 
Dovei and Sefton had both attacked him for being against 
making Peeis, and he should like to know how they knew 
it I told him, fiom the Ohaneelloi, to be sure, and added 
how they were always working at him and the influence 
they had with him He said the Chancellor’s being for 
making Peers was not enough to cairy the question , that if 
it was done it must be bj a minute of the Cabinet, with the 
names of the dissentients appended to it , and then the King 
must detennine , that if the dissentients seceded upon it it 
would be impossible He recollected, when theie was a 
question of making Peers on the Catholic question by the 
Dhke of Wellington, that he and some others had resolved, 
should it have been done, to avail themselves of the power of 
the House to come down day after day and move adjourn- 
ments betoie any of the new Peeis could take their seats, 
that the same course might be adopted now, though it would 
produce a revolution I told him that I had little doubt 
there were men who would not sciuple to adopt any course, 
however violent, that the power of Pailiament would admit 
of, that theie were seveial who were of opinion that the 
creation of Peeis would at once lay the Constitution piostiate 
and bring about a revolution , that they considered it would 
be not a remote and unceitam, but a sme and pioximate 
event, and if by aeceleiatmg it they could crush their oppo- 
nents they would do so without hesitation 

In the meantime the cholera has made its appearance m 
London, at Rotheihithe, Limehouse, and m a ship off Gieen- 
wich — m all seven eases These are amongst the lowest and 
most wieiehed classes, chiefly Irish, and a more lamentable 
exhibition of human misery than that given by the medical 
men who called at the Council Office yesterday I nevei heard 
They aie in the most abject state of poverty, without beds to 
ne upon The men live by casual labom, aie employed by 
the hour, and often get no moie than foui or five hours’ 
employment xn the course of the week They are huddled 



1832] INTERVIEW OV LORD H ARROWS! AND LORD GREY 259 


and ciowded together b\ tannlies m the same 100 m, not as 
permanent lodgers, but piocuung a tempoiaiy shelter, in 
shoit, m the most abject state of physical pnvation and 
moial degradation that can be imagined On Satuidaj we 
had an account of one ox moie cases We sent instantly 
down to inspect the district and oiganise a Board of Health 
A meeting was convened, and pi onuses given that all things 
needful should be done, but as they met at a public-house they 
all got drunk and did nothing We have sent down members 
of the Board of Health to make piepaiations and organise 
boards, but, if the disease lealiy spxeads, no human powei 
can anest its progress through such an Augean stable 

Fehvmy 14 th — Dmed with Lord Hairowbj, and com- 
municated convex sation with Palmeiston and Melbourne 
He has not been able to decide the Archbishop, who is on and 
off, and can’t make up his mind Lord Hairowby is going 
to Loid Grey to talk with him The Tories obstinate as 
mules The Duke of Buccleueli, who had got Hairowby’s 
letter, and copied it himself that he might know it by heart, 
has made up his mind to vote the other way, as he did before , 
Lord Wallace (aftei a long eonespondence) the same Theie 
can be little doubt that they animate one anothei, and their 
crj is c to stick to the Dube of Wellington 5 The cholera is 
established, and yesterday formal communications were made 
to the Lord Mayor and to the Secietary of State for Foreign 
Affans that London was no longer healthy 

Febmayy 17 th — Whameliffe came to town the night 
before last, it having been settled that Hanowb) was to go to 
LoidGiej ^esterdaj morning Aftei consultation we agreed 
he had bettei go alone, that it would be less formal, and that 
Loid Giey w ould be more disposed to open himself The same 
evening, at Madame de Lieven’s ball, Melbourne and Pal- 
merston both told me that Grey was m an excellent dispo- 
sition Howevei, jesteida} morning Hanovby had such a 
headache that he was not fit to go alone, so the two went 
Nothing could be moie polite than Giej, and on the whole 
the interview was satisfactoij Nothing was agreed upon, 
all left dans h zague , but a disposition to mutual confidence 



260 


RLIGN OF "WILLI 4M IV 


[Chip XVII 


was evinced, and T should think it pietty safe that no Peers 
will be made Loid Giey told them that if they could 
relieve him from the necessity of ci eating Peeis he should 
be sincerely obliged to them, showed them a lettei from the 
King containing the most unlimited power for the purpose, 
and said that, armed with that authority, it the Bill could be 
passed m no other way, it must be so A minute was diawn 
up to this effect, of which Whamcliffe showed me a copy 
last night 

‘ Loids Harrowby and Wharncliffe cannot give any 
names, 01 pledge themselves to any paiticular persons or 
numbers who will support their views, but they have no 
doubt m then own minds that there will be, m the event of 
no creation of Peei s , n sufficient number to carry the second 
leading of the Bill In voting themselves foi the second 
reading their intention is to propose such alterations m Com- 
mittee as, m their opinion, can alone lendei it a measure 
fit to be passed into law and m the event of their being 
unable to effect the changes they deem indispensable, they 
lcseive to themselves the powei of opposing the Bill m its 
subsequent stages Loid Grey considers the great principles 
of the Bill of such vital importance that he could not agiee 
to any alteiation m them, but admits that a modification of 
its details need not be fatal to it, leservmg to himself, if any 
of its vital principles should be touched, the power of taking 
such ulterior measures as he may find necessary to ensuie 
its success Lords Hairowby and Whamcliffe are piepared 
to make a declaration of then sentiments and intentions m 
the House of Lords at a pioper time, that time to be a subject 
of consideiation, and m the event of then having leason to 
believe that their present expectations aie not likely to be 
fulfilled, they will feel bound to give Lord Grey mfoimation 
theieof, m older that he may take such measuies as he may 
think right 5 1 

At present the principal difficulty piomises to be the 10Z 
clause Loid Giey seemed to think this could not be alteied 
Wharncliffe asked if it might not be modified, and so settled 
1 This is the subs+'mee, not a textual copy 



1832] 


DISTRESS IN LD1HN L BULL'S 


261 


as to secuie it» being a lonci jicle 10 1 clause, fiom which Loid 
Grey did not dissent, but answeied lather vaguely 

In the meantime I think some pi ogress is made m the 
work of con vei sion Harris has gone back, and Wilton, 
whom I always doubted I doubt anybody within the im- 
mediate spheie of the Duke, but Wynfoid is well-disposed, 
and the Aiehbishop has neaily given m His sunender w ould 
clinch the mattei I am inclined to think we shall get through 
the second leading Lord Giey was attacked by Madame de 
Lieven the othei day, who told him he was n atui ally all 
that is light-minded and good, but was supposed to be in- 
fluenced against his own oetter judgment by those about hnn 
She also said something to the Duke of Wellington about 
Lord Hanowby, to which he leplied that Lord Hanowby 
‘ etait une mau\aise tete f 5 Yeiy amusing fiom him, but he 
is piovoked to death that ‘nijbody should venture to desert 
fiom him 

The choleia has \ loduccd moie aleitness than alann heie, 
m fact, at piesent it is a mere tufle — m tlnee days twentj- 
eight persons Nothing like the disoideis which lage 
unheeded e\eiy year and eveiy day among the lower ordeis 
It is its name, its suddenness, and its fughtful symptoms 
that teinfy The investigations, however, into the condition 
of the different panshes have brought to light dieadful cases 
of poverty and miseiy A man came ^ esterday from Bethnal 
Green with an account of that district They are all 
weaveis, forming a sort of sepaiate community , there they 
are born, theie they live and laboui, and theie they die 
They neither migrate noi change their occupation , they 
can do nothing else They have mci eased m a ratio at 
variance with any principles of population, having neaily 
tripled m twenty years, from 22,000 to 62,000 The'v aie 
for the most part out of employment, and can get none 1,100 
are crammed into the poor-house, five oi si\ m a bed, 
6,000 receive parochial i elief The parish is m debt, every 
day adds to the number of paupers and diminishes that of 
latepayeis These are pnncipally small shopkeepers, who 
are beggared by the rates The district is in a complete 



262 


EEIG-N 03? WILLI 1M IV 


[Chap XVII 


state of insolvency and hopeless poverty, yet they multiply, 
and while the people look squalid and dejected, as if borne 
down by their wietchedness and destitution, the children 
thrive and are healthy Government is ready to interpose 
with assistance, but what can Government do & We asked 
the man who came what could be done foi them He said 
‘ employment/ and employment is impossible 

February 20 th — Loid Giey was very much pleased with 
the result of his interview, and expresses unbounded reli- 
ance on Loid Harrowby’s honour The ultias, of course, 
will give lnm no credit, and don’t believe he can command 
votes enough, f 1 ? affaire maiche, mais lentement/ and the 
seceders (oi those we hope will be so) will not declare them- 
selves positively Theie is no prevailing upon them The 
Aichbishop is with us one day, and then doubts, though I 
think we shall have him at last A good deal of conversa- 
tion passed between Giey and Hanowby, which the latter 
eonsideis confidential and won’t repeat It was about the 
details , the substance of the minute he feels at liberty to 
communicate By way of an episode news came last night 
of an insurrection of the slaves in Jamaica, m which fifty- 
two plantations had been destioyed It was speedily sup- 
pressed by Willoughby Cotton, and the ringleaders were 
executed bj maitial law 

February 28? d — At Court yesteiday, long conversation 
with Melbourne, and m the evening with Chailes Wood and 
Richmond, who is moie alarmed about the Peers Mel- 
bourne had got an idea that Loid Hanowby 5 s letter, which 
had been lepoited if not shown to the Government, had 
done a great deal of harm, inasmuch as it set forth so 
strongly the same arguments to the Tones to show them 
the danger of letting Peers be made that Durham and Co 
make use of as an argument foi the same I promised to 
show it him, and replied that they could not expect Lord 
Hanowby to do anything but employ the aiguments that 
are most likely to take effect with these people, but they are 
not put in an offensive manner Melbourne said that the 
Kmg is moie reconciled to the measure, 1 e that they have 



1832] 


LORD HARROWJBY’S LEI TER 


268 


got the foolish old man in town and can talk him ovei more 
readily A discission last night about the piopnety of 
making a declaiation to-day in the House of Lords, when 
the Duke of Eutland piesents a petition against Refoim 
The Archbishop will not decide , there is no moving him 
Cunous that a Dr Howley, the other day Canon of Christ 
Church, a very oidinary man, should have in his hands the 
vntual decision of one of the most momentous matters that 
evei occupied public attention There is no doubt that his 
decision would decide the business so far TJp to this time 
certainly Hairowby and Wharncliffe have no ceitamty of a 
sufheient number foi the second leading, but I think they 
will ha\e enough at last 

Fehvary 24 th — Harrowby and Wharncliffe agreed, if the 
Duke of Eutland on piesentmg his petition gave them a 
good oppoitunity, they would speak It was a veiy good 
one, foi the petition turned out to be one for a mode- 
late Refoim, moie m their sense than m the Duke’s own, 
but the moment it wis lead Kenyon jumped up Hairowby 
thought he was going to speak upon it, wheieas he presented 
another, and I believe he was put up by the Duke to stop 
any discussion 

In the evening went to Lord Holland’s, when he and she 
asked me about the lettei Somebody had given abstracts 
of it, with the object of proving to Loid Giey that Harrowbj 
had been uncandid, oi something hire it, and had held out 
to the Tones that if they would adopt his line they would 
turn out the Government Holland and the lest fancied the 
lettei had been written since the interview, but I told them it 
was thee weeks before , and I endeavoured to explain that the 
abstracts must be taken in connection not only with the lest 
of the text, but; with the argument Holland said Lord Grey 
meant to ask Hanowby foi the lettei From thence I went 
to Hanowby, and told him this He said he would not show 
it, that Grey had no right to ask foi a private lettei wniten 
by him weeks before to one of his fuends, and it was beneath 
him to answer foi and explain anything he had thought fit 
to say But he has done what will piobably answei as well. 



264 


HEIGHT 01 WILLI 431 IV 


[Cm p WII 


for lie has given Ebrmgton a copy of it for the expiess purpose 
of going to Lord Giey and explaining anything that appeals 
ambiguous to him As the business develops itself, and 
the time appioaches, communication becomes nioie open 
and frequent , the Tories talk with great confidence of their 
majority, and the ultra- Whigs are quite leady to believe 
them , the two extreme ends are furious Oui list up to this 
day piesents a result of foity-thiee votes to thnty-seven 
doubtful, out of which it is hard if a majority cannot be got 
I have no doubt now that they will take a very eaily oppoi- 
tumty of making a declaration Peel, m the othei House, 
is doing what he can to inflame and divide, and lepress any 
spmt of conciliation Nothing is suie m his policy but that 
it revolves round himself as the centre, and is influenced by 
some view which he takes of his own futuie advantage, pio- 
bably the rail} mg of the Conservative party (as they call 
themselves, though they are thi owing away everything into 
confusion and sinking e\ery thing by then obstinacy) and his 
being at the head of it He made a most funous and mis- 
chievous speech 

Fehucuy 29 th — Ebrmgton took Hairowby’s letter to 
Lord Grey, who was satisfied but not pleased , the date and 
the circumstances (which were explained) removed all bad 
impressions fiom his mind Since this a garbled version (oi 
rather extracts) has appeared m the ‘ Times/ which endea- 
vours to make a great stir about it Harrowby was very 
much annoyed, and thought of sendmg the letter itsek to 
the 6 Times ’ to be published at once, but Haddington and 
I both uiged him not, and last night he put a contradiction 
m the ‘ Globe 5 I have little doubt that this as well as the 
former extracts came from the shop of Durham and Co , and 
so Melbourne told me he thought likewise There was a gieat 
breeze at the last Cabinet dmner between Durham and Eich- 
mond again on the old subject — the Peeis I believe they will 
now take their chance Our list presents forty-seven sure 
votes besides the doubtful, but not many pledges As to me, 
I am really puzzled what to wish for — that is, for the success 
u£ which party, being equally disgusted with the folly of both 



1832] 


MOLENCE 01 EXTKEME PAM 11^ 


265 


My old aveision for the High Tones leturns when 1 see then 
conduct on this occasion The obstinacy of the Duke, the 
selfishness of Peel, the pert vulgarity of Crokei, and the in- 
capacity of the lest are set in constant juxtaposition with 
the goodness of the cause they aie now defending, but which 
they will mar by their way of defending it A man is 
wanting, a fiesh man, with vigour enough to govern, and 
who will lally round him the tempeiate and the moderate of 
different parties — men unfetteied by prejudices, connections, 
and above all bj pledges, expressed oi implied, and who can 
and will addiess themselves to the present state and real 
wants of the countiy, neither teinfied into concession by the 
bullying of the pi ess and the rant of public meetings and 
associations, nor fondly lingeimg ovei bygone systems of 
government and law That the scattered materials exist is 
probable, but the heated passion of the times has piodueed 
so much lepulsion among these various atoms that it is 
difficult to foiesee when a cooler temperatuie may permit 
their cohesion into any efficient mass 

March 6th — The ultra- Whigs and ultia-Tones are both 
outrageous Day aftei day the Times 9 puts forth paia- 
giaphs, evidently manufactured m the Durham shop, about 
Hanowby’s letter, and yesterday there was one which ex- 
hibited their mortification and rage so cleaily as to be quite 
amusing, praising the Duke and the Tones, and abusing 
Harrowby and Whamcliffe and the moderates In the 
meantime, while Lord Grey is negotiating with Hanowby foi 
the expiess purpose of avoiding the necessity of making Peers, 
Durham, his colleague and son-in-law, m conjunction with 
Dover, is (or has been) going about with a paper for signa- 
tuie by Peers, being a requisition to Loid Grey to make new 
Peers, inviting eveiybody he could find to sign this by way 
of assisting that course of bullying and violence he has long 
pursued, but happily m vain Loid Giey is, I believe, leally 
disgusted with all these pioceedmgs , he submits and does 
nothing Richmond quanels with Durham, Melbourne 
damns lnm, and the rest hate him But there he is, 
frowning, sulking, bullying, and meddling, and doing all the 



266 


KEIG-N OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVII 


harm lie can Never ceitamly was there such, a Government 
as this, so constituted, so headed — a chief with an imposing 
extend, a commanding eloquence, and a character 1 below 
contempt, seduced and governed by anybody who will 
mimstei to his vanity and presume upon his facility 

There has been nothing remarkable m either House of 
Parliament but an attack made by Londonderry on Plunket, 
who gave him so terrific a dressing that it required to be as 
pachydermatous as he is to stand it He is, however, a glut- 
ton, for he took it all, and seemed to like it I dined with 
Madame de Lieven a day or two ago, and was talking to her 
about politics and political events, and particularly about the 
memoirs, or journal, 01 whatever it be, that she has written 
She said she had done so very uregulaily, but that what she 
legietted was not having kept more exact lecords of the 
events and transactions of the Belgian question (which is 
not yet settled), that it was m its cncumstances the most 
curious that could be, and exhibited more leniarkable mani- 
festations of character and * du cceui hum am, 5 as well as of 
politics generally, than any couise of events she knew I 
asked her why she did not give them now She said it was 
impossible, that the ‘ nuances 5 were so delicate and so nume- 
rous, the details so nice and so vaiying, that unless caught 
at the moment they escaped, and it was impossible to collect 
them again 

March 9th — Went to Loid Holland 3 s the other night, and 
had a violent battle with him on politics Nobody so violent 
as he, and curious as exhibiting the opinions of the ultias of 
the party About making Peers — wanted to know what 
Hairowby’s real object was I told him none but to prevent 
what he thought an enormous evil What did it sigmfy (he 
said) whether Peers weie made now or later? that the pre- 
sent House of Lords never could go on with a Reformed Par- 
liament, it being opposed to all the wants and wishes of the 
people, hating the abolition of tithes, the press, and the 

1 Bv character I mean what the French call cm actere , not that he is 
wanting m honour and honesty, noi m ability, but m ie3olution and strength 
of mind 



1832] 


IRISH NATIONAL EDUCATION 


267 


French. Revolution, and that in ordex to make it haiinomse 
with the Refoimed Pailiament it must be amended by an 
infusion of a moie Liberal cast This was the spirit of his 
harangue, which might have been easily answered, for it all 
goes upon the piesumption that his paity is that which har- 
monises with the populai feeling , and what he means by 
improving the chaiactei of the House is to add some fifty or 
sixty men who may be willing to accept peerages upon the 
condition of becoming a body-guard to this Government 

The 6 Times 5 yesterday and the day befoie attacked Lord 
Giey with a vuulence and indecency about the Peers that is 
too much even foi those who take the same line, and he now 
sees where his subserviency to the press has conducted him 
In the House of Commons, the night before last, Mmisteis 
would have been beaten on the sugar duties if Baling Wall, 
who had got ten people to dinner, had chosen to go down m 
time 

The principal subject of discussion this last week has 
been the Education Boaid m Ii eland, the object of which is 
to combine the education of Catholics and Piotestants by an 
anangement with regard to the leligious part of their 
mstiuction that may be compatible with the doctrines and 
practice of both This anangement consists m there 
being only certain selections fiom the Bible, which aie 
admitted generally, while particular days and houis are set 
apart foi the sepaiate religious exercises of each class 
This will not do foi the zealous Protestants, who bellow for 
the whole Bible as Reformers do for the whole Bill 
While the whole system is crumbling to dust undei their 
feet, while the Church is prostrate, property of all kind 
threatened, and robbeij, murdei, stai ration, and agitation 
noting over the land, these wise legislators are debating 
whether the brats at school shall read the whole Bible oi 
only parts of it They do nothing but lave of the barbarism, 
and ignorance of the Catholics , they know that education 
alone can better their moial condition, and that then religious 
tenets piohibit the admission of any system of education (m 
which Piotestants and Catholics can be joined) except such 



268 


REIGrN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVII 


an one as tins, and jet they would rathei knock the system 
on the head, and pi event all the good that may flow fiom it, 
than consent to a departuie from the good old rules of Orange 
ascendency and Popish subserviency and degradation, know- 
ing too, above all, that those who are to read and be taught 
are equally indifferent to the whole Bible or to paits of it, 
that they compiehend it not, have no clear and definite ideas 
on the subject but as matter of debate, vehicle of dispute and 
dissension, and almost of leligious hatred and disunion, and 
that when once they have escaped from the trammels of their 
school, not one m a hundred will trouble his head about 
the Bible at all, and not one m a thousand attend to its 
moral precepts „ 

March 10 th — Yesterday morning Wharnckffe came to me 
to give me an account of the conversation the other day be- 
tween him and Hairowby on one side and Loids Grey and 
Lansdowne on the other Harrowby was headachy and out 
of sorts However, it went off very satisfactorily, the list 
was laid befoie Giej, who was satisfied, and no Peers aie to 
be made before the second leading , but he said that if the 
Bill should be earned by so small a majority as to prove that 
the details could not be earned m Committee, he must re- 
seive the power of making Peeis then At this Hairowby 
wmced, but Whamcliffe said he thought it fail , and m fact 
it is onlj m conformity with the piotocol that was diawn up 
at the last conveisation They enteied into the details, and 
Lord Giey said the stir that had been made about the metro- 
politan members might raise difficulties, and then asked would 
they agree to this, to give members to Marylebone and 
throw over the rest To this Harrowby would not agree, 
greatly to Whamcliffe’s annoyance, who would have agreed, 
and I think he would have been m the light It would have 
been as well to have nailed Grey to this, and if Harrowby 
had not had a headache I think he would have done so With 
regard to the 10? clause, Wharncliffe thinks they will not 
object to a modification Giey spoke of the press, and with 
just wiath and indignation of the attacks on himself On 
the whole this was good The captuie of Vandamme was 



1832] 


IRISH TITHES 


269 


the consequence of a bellyache, and the metiopolitan lepre- 
sentation depended on a headache If the truth could be 
ascertained, peihaps many of the greatest events m history 
turned upon aches of one sort 01 another Montaigne might 
have written an essay on it 

March 12th — Durham made another exhibition of temper 
at the Cabinet dinner last Wednesday While Lord Grey 
was saying something he rudely interrupted him, as his cus- 
tom is Lord Grey said, ‘But, my deal Lambton, only hear 
what I was going to say/ when the other jumped up and 
said, ‘ Oh, if I am not to be allowed to speak I may as well 
go away/ lang the bell, ordered his can rage, and marched 
off Wharncliffe came to me yesterday morning to propose 
wntmg a pamphlet m answei to the ‘ Quarterly Review/ which 
has got an article against his party I suggested instead 
that an attempt should be made by Sandon (who has been 
m some communication with the editor about this matter) 
to induce the ‘Morning Heiald’ to suppoit us, and make 
that papei the vehicle of our articles This he agreed to, 
and was to propose it to Sandon last night We have no 
advocate m the pi ess, the Whig and Toiy papers aie equally 
violent against us Yesterday I saw a letter which has 
been circulated among the Tories, wntten by young Loid 
Redesdale to Loid Bathurst, a sort of counter -aigument to 
Lord Harrowby’s letter, although not an answei, as it was 
wntten before he had seen that document, there is vei} 
little m it 

March 16th — Lord Gney made an excellent speech m the 
House of Loids m leply to Abeideen’s questions about 
Ancona, and Peel made another m the House of Commons 
on Irish Tithes, smashing Shell, taking high giound and 
a strong position, but doing nothing towards settling the 
question He forgets that the system is bad, resting on 
a false foundation, and that it has worked ill and been 
bolstered up by him and his party till now it can no longer 
be supported, and it threatens to carry away with it that 
which is good m itself We owe these things to those who 
wilfully mtioduced a moial confusion of ideas into then 



270 


EBIffN OF 'WILLIAM IV 


[Chw XVII 


political machinery, and, by desk 0 } mg tlie essential distinc- 
tion between light and wrong, have depnved the things 
which aie right of the best pait of then seeunty I have 
never been able to understand why oai sjstem should be 
made to leston artificial pi ops when it did not lequire them, 
nor the meanmg of that stiange paiadox which a certain 
school of statesmen have always inculcated, that institutions 
of admitted excellence requued to be conjoined with others 
which weie founded m ciinie and enor, and which could only 
be suppoited by powei This has biought about Refoim , it 
would be easy to piove it The Ancona affan will blow ovei 
Geoige Yilheis writes me woid that it was a little escapade 
of Pener’s, done m a huiry, a mistake, and yet he is a very 
able man Talleyrand told me ‘ e’est une betise 5 Nothing 
goes on well , the woild is out of joint 

Fanny Kemble’s new tiagedy came out last night with 
complete success, written when she was seventeen — an odd 
play foi a girl to write The heiome is tempted like 
Isabella m ‘ Measuie foi Measure,’ but with a different lesult, 
which result is supposed to take place between the acts 
March 26th — Ten days since I have wntten auj thing heie, 
but en revanche I have written a pamphlet An aiticle ap- 
peared m the ‘Quaiteily,’ attacking Hairowby and his friends 
Whamcliffe was so desirous it should be answered that I 
undertook the job, and it comes out to-day m a * Letter to 
Lockhart, m reply,’ &c I don’t believe any bod} read the 
last I wrote, but as I have published this at Kidgway’s, per- 
haps it may have a more extensive sale The events have 
been the final passing of the Bill, after three nights’ debate, 
by a majority of 116, ended by a very fine speech from Peel, 
who has eminently distinguished himself through this fight 
Stanley closed the debate at five o’clock m the morning, with 
what they say was a good and dexterous speech, but which 
contained a very unnecessary dissertation about the Peers 
This, togethei with some words fiom Richmond and the 
cheerfulness of Holland, makes my mind misgive me that we 
shall still have them created foi the Committee The conduct 
of the ultia-Tones has been so bad and so silly that I can- 
not wish to bring them in, though I have a great desile to turn 



1832] REFORM BILL IN J?HL HOUSE OF LORDS 271 

the otheis out As to a moderate party, it is a mere dream, 
for where is the moderation ^ This day Loid John Russell 
brings the Bill up to the House of Loids, and much indeed 
depends upon what passes theie Hairowby and Wharncliffe 
will mate then speeches, and we shall, I conclude, have the 
Duke and Lord Grey I expect, and I beg his paidon if I am 
wiong, that the Duke will make as mischievous a speech as 
he can, and try to provoke declaiations and pledges against 
the Bill The Mimsteis aie exceedingly anxious that Har- 
rowby should confine himself to generalities, which I hope 
too, for I am certain no good can, and much harm may, be 
done by going into details Giey, Holland, and Richmond all 
three spoke to me about it last night, and I am going to see 
what can be done with them I should not fear Hanowby 
but that he is petulant and soui , Wharncliffe is vain, and 
has been excited m all this business, though with very good 
and very disinterested motives, but he cannot beai patiently 
the abuse and the ridicule with which both the extreme ends 
endeavoui to covei him, and he is uneasy under it , and what 
I dread is that m making attempts to set himself right, and to 
cleai his character with a party who will never forgive him foi 
what he has done, and to whom whatever he says will be woids 
cast to the winds, he will flounder, and say something which 
will elicit from Lord Grey some declaiation that may make 
matters worse than evei What I hope and tiust is that the 
Government and our people will confine themselves to civil 
generalities, and pledge themselves de part et cPautre to no- 
thing, and that they will not be provoked by taunts from any 
quarter to depart from that piudent couise 

There was another bieeze m the House of Lords about 
Irish Education, the whole bench of bishops m a flame, 
and except Maltby, who spoke fot, all declared against the 
plan — Phillpotts m a furious speech What celestial influences 
have been at work I know not, but certain it is that the 
world seems going mad, individually and collectively The 
town has been more occupied this week with Dudley’s extia- 
vagancies than the affans of Euiope He, m fact, is mad, 
but is to be cupped and staived and disciplined sound again 
It has been fine talk for the town The public curiosity and 



272 


KEIG-N OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVII 


love of news is as voracious and universal as the appetite of a 
shark, and, like it, loves best what is giossest and most dis- 
gusting , anything lelatmg to personal distiess, to crime, to 
passion, is greedily devoured by this monstei, as Cowley calls it 

I see 

The monstei London laugh at me , 

I would at thee, too, foolish City, 

But thy estate I pity 

. Should all the wicked men from out thee go, 

And all the fools that crowd thee so, 

Thou, who dost thy thousands boast, 

Would he a wilderness almost — Ode to Solitude 

But of all the examples of cant, hypocusy, paity violence, I 
have never seen any to be compared to the lush Education 
business , andtheie was Rosslyn, an old Whig, voting against, 
Carnaivon stayed away, every Toiy without exception going 
against the measure As to madness, Dudley has gone mad 
m his own house, Perceval in the House of Commons, and 
John Montague in the Paik, the two latter preaching, both 
Irvmgites and believers m c the tongues 5 Dudley’s madness 
took an odd turn he would make up all his quarrels with 
Lady Holland, to whom he has not spoken for sixteen years, 
and he called on hei, andtheie weie tears and embraces, and 
God knows what Sydney Smith told her that she was bound 
m honom to set the qnanel up again when he comes to his 
senses, and put things into the status quo ante pacem It 
would be hard upon him to find, on getting out of a stiait- 
waistcoat, that he had been lobbed of all his hatreds and hos- 
tilities, and seduced into the house of his oldest foe 

March 27 th — I did the Duke of Wellington an injustice 
He spoke, but without any violence, m a fair and gentleman- 
like manner, a speech creditable to himself, useful and becom- 
ing If there was any disposition on the pait of his followers to 
light a flame, he at once lepressed it The whole thing went 
off well, House very full, Hairowby began, and made an ex- 
cellent speech, with the exception of one mistake He dwelt 
too much on the diffeienee between this Bill and the last, 
as if the diffeienee of his own conduct lesulted fiom that 
cause, and this I could see they were taking up m their 



1832] 


DLBVTE IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS 


273 


minds, and though lie coirected the impiession afteiwaids, 
it will be constantly bronght np against him, I have no 
doubt Aftei him Carnal von, who alone was violent, but short, 
then Whameliffe (I am not sure which was fiist of these two), 
very short and rathei embaiiassed, espiessmg his concur- 
rence with Loid Hanowby, then the Bishop of London, 
short also, but strong m his language, much in oie than Loid 
Hanowby, then Lord Giey, tempeiate and very general, 
harping a little too much on that confounded word efficiency, 
den j mg that what he said last j^ear boie the interpretation 
that had been put upon it, and announcing that he would 
give his best consideration to any amendments, a veiy good 
speech, then ^ the Duke, in a very handsome speech, 
acknowledging that he was not against all Reform, though 
he was against this Bill, because he did not think if it passed 
it would be possible to cairy on the government of the 
countiy, but piomismg that if the Bill went into Committee 
he would give his constant attendance, and do all m his 
power to make it as safe a measuie as possible So finished 
this important e\enmg, much to the satisfaction of the mode- 
late, and to the disgust of the violent party I asked Lord 
Holland if he was satisfied (in the House after the debate), 
and he said, ‘ Yes, yes, very well, but the Bishop’s the man , ’ 
and m the evening at Loid Giey’s I found they were all full 
of the Bishop Lord Giey said to me, ‘Well, you will allow 
that I behaved veiy welP ’ I said, ‘ Yes, veij r , but the whole 
thing was satisfactoiy, I think ’ ‘ Yes,’ he said, ‘on the whole, 
but they weie a little too strong, too violent against the 
Bill,’ because Hanowby had declared that he felt the same 
objection to the measuie he had felt befoie Sefton was 
outrageous, talked a vast deal of amusing nonsense, ‘ that he 
had never heaid such twaddle,’ ‘ but that the success was com- 
plete, and he looked on Harrowby and Wharnchffe as the two 
most enviable men m the kingdom 9 I have no doubt that 
all the ultras will be deeply moitified at the model ation of 
Lord Giey and of the Duke of Wellington, and at the success 
so fm of ‘the Waveieis ’ 

\OL n T 



274 


KEIGK OP WILLIAM IV 


[CiiAr Will 


CHAPTER XVIII 

Debate m the House of Lords — Loid Hariowby’s Position — Hopes of a Com- 
promise — Lord Melbourne's View — Disturbances caused by the Choleia 
— The Disfranchisement Clause— The Number *5b' — Peeis contem- 
plated — The King’s Hesitation — *lhe Hunchback' — Cutical Position of 
the Wavereis — Bill earned by Nine m the Loids — fhe Cholera m Pans 
Model ate Speech of Loid Grey — End of the Secession — Conciliatory 
Overtures — Negotiations earned on at Newmaiket— Hostile Division m 
the Lords — Lord WharnclifFes Account of his Failuie — Lord Gie} le- 
signs—The Duke of Wellington attempts to foim a Mmistiy — Peel 
declines — Hostilih of the Couit to the V lugs — V Change of Scene— The 
Duke fails — Histor} of the Crisis— Loid Grey returns to Office — The 
King's Excitement — The King wntes to the Opposition Peeis— Defe it 
and Disgrace of the Tones — Convention of the Duke of Wellington — 
Louis XV IH — Madame du Ca) h— W eaknesa of the King — Mortality 
among Great Men — Petition against Loid W Bentmck’s Piolnbition of 
Suttee heaid bv the Pnvy Council— O’Connell and the Cholera— lush 
lithe Bill — Irish Difficulties — Mr St mley— Concluding Debates of the 
Pailiament— Quanel between Lioughmi and Sugden — Holland and 
Belgium— Biougham s Bcvenge and Vpolooy—Dim ei at Holland Hou^e 
— Anecdotes of Johnson — Death of Mi Greville's Pathei — Madame de 
Flahaut’s Account of the Princess Chailotte — Prince Augustus of 
Prussia— Captain Hess— Hostilities in Holland and in Poitugal— The 
Duchesse de Bern — Conversation with Lord Melbourne on the State of 
the G-overnment 

1 March 28 th — There appeal to have been as many differ- 
ences of opinion as of people on the discussion m the House of 
Lords when the Bill was brought up, and it seems pai adoxical, 
but is true, that though it was on the whole satisfactory, no- 
body was satisfied Lord Grey complained to me that Lord 
Harrowby was too stiff. Lord Hanowby complained that 
Lord Grey was always beating about the bush of compromise, 
but never would commit himself fairly to concession Mel- 
bourne complained last night that what was done was done m 



1S32J 


LOKD HAEROWBY’S PATEIOIIC CONDUCT 


275 


such, an ungiacious mannei, so niggardly, that he hated the 
man (Hanowby) who did it The ultra-Tones aio outra- 
geous ‘that he gave up eveiythmg without leasonoi cause/ 
the ultra- Whigs equally funous c that he had shown how 
little way he was disposed to go m Committee , his object was 
to turn out the Government , 5 and what is comical, neither 
party will believe that Hanowby leally is so obnoxious to 
the other as he is said to be Each is convinced that he is 
acting m the mteiests of the other What a position, what 
injustice, blindness, folly, obstinacy, bi ought together and 
exhibited 1 If e\ei theie was a man whose conduct was 
exempt fiom the oidmaiy motives of ambition, and who 
made peisonal sacnfices m what he is doing, it is Lord 
Harrowby, and yet theie is no reproach that is not cast upon 
him, no teim of abuse that is not applied to him, no motive 
that is not ascnbed to lmn No wondei a man who has seen 
much of them is sick of politics and public life Nothing 
now is thought of but the lists, and of couise eveiybody has 
got one The Tones still pietend to a majonty of seven, 
the Government and Hariow by think they ha\e one of from 
ten to twenty, and I suspect hfteen will be found about the 
maik The unfortunate thing is that neither of oui cocks is 
good for fighting, not fiom want of corn ago, but Hairowby 
is peevish, ungiacious and unpopular, and Wharncliffe 
carries no gieat weight To be suie neither of them pre- 
tends to make a party, but then their opponents insist upon 
it that they do, and men shunk from enlisting (01 being 
supposed to enlist) undei Wharncliffe’s bannei However, 
notwithstanding the violence of the noisy fools of the party, 
and of the women, there is a moie rational disposition on 
the part of practical men, foi Wharncliffe spoke to Ellen- 
boiough yesterday, and told him that though he knew he 
and Hanowby weie legaided as tiaitois by all of them, he 
did hope that when the Bill came into Committee they would 
agiee to consult together, and tiy and come to some under- 
standing as to the best mode of dealing with the question, 
that it was absuid to be standing aloof at such a moment , 
to which Ellenboaough lephed that he peifectly agreed with 



276 


EEIG-N OB WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVIII 


him, was anxious to do so, and intended to advise Ins fi lends 
to take that course 

April 1st — Wharnchffe got Lord Giey to put off the 
second reading for a few days on account of the Quartei 
Sessions, which diew down apiecious attack fiom London- 
deriy, and was m fact very foolish and unnecessary, as it 
looks like a conceit between them, of which it is very desir- 
able to avoid any appearance, as m fact none exists The 
violence of the Tories continues unabated, and theie is no 
effort they do not make to secuie a majority, and they ex- 
pect either to succeed or to bring it to a near thing In the 
meantime the tone of the other party is changed Dovei, 
who makes lists, manages proxies, and does all the little 
jobbing, whipping-m, busy work of the party, makes out; a 
clear majority, and told me he now thought the Bill would 
get through without Peers The Government, however, are 
all agreed to make the Peeis if it turns out to be necessary, 
and especially if the Bill should be thiown out, it seems cleai 
that they would by no means go out, but make the Peeis 
and bring it m again , so I gathei from Richmond, and he 
who was the most violently opposed of the whole Cabinet to 
Peer-making, is now leady to make any number if necessaiy 
There is, howevei, I hope, a disposition to concession, which, 
if matters aie toleiably well managed, may lead to an 
anangement Still Whamcliffe, who must have a great deal 
to do m Committee, is neithei prudent nor popular The 
Tones are obstinate, sulky, and indisposed to agiee to any- 
thing reasonable It is the unity of object and the compact- 
ness of the party which give the Government strength 
Charles Wood told me the other day that they were well 
disposed to a compromise on two special points, one the ex- 
clusion of tov n voters fiom the light of voting for counties, 
the other the metropolitan members On the first he pro- 
posed that no man voting for a town m light of a 10 1 house 
should have a vote for the county in light of any fieehold m 
that town That would be half-way between Wharncliffe’s 
plan and the present The second, that Maiylebone should 
return two members, and Middlesex two moie — veiy like 



1832] CONVERSATION WITH LORE MELBOURNE 277 

Giey’b pioposition wliicli Hanowby rejected — but I suggested 
keeping tbe whole and vaiymg the qualification, to which he 
thought no objection would he 

At the Duchesse de Dmo 5 s ball the night befoie last I had 
a veiy anxious conveisation with Melbourne about it all 
He said that ‘he leally believed there was no strong feeling 
m the countiy for the measuie * We talked of the violence 
of the Tones, and their notion that thej could get lid of the 
whole thing I said the notion was absurd now, but that I 
fully agreed with him about the general feehng 4 Why, then,’ 
said he, 4 might it not be thrown out 9 5 — a consummation I 
leally believe he would rejoice at, if it could be done I said 
because there was a great party wmch would not let it, which 
would agitate again, and that the country wished ardently to 
have it settled , that if it could be disposed of for good and 
all, it would be a good thing indeed^ but that this was now 
become lnqiossible I asked him if his colleagues were im- 
pressed as he was with this tiuth, and he said, 4 No 5 I told 
luni he ought to do eveiythmg possible to enfoice it, md 
to make them moderate, and induce them to concede, to 
which he replied, 4 What difficulty can they have m swallow- 
ing the lest aftei they have given up the rotten boroughs? 
That is, m fact, the essential part of the Bill, and the tiuth is 
I do not see how the Government is to he earned on without 
them Some means may be found , a remedy may possibly 
piesent itself, and it may woik m piactice bettei than we 
now know of, but I am not aware of any, and I do not see 
how any Government can be carried on when these are swept 
away 5 This was, if not his exact words, the exact sense, 
and a pietty avowal foi a man to make at the eleventh houi 
who has been a paity concerned m this Bill dui mg the other 
ten I told him I agreed m every lespect, but that it was 
too late to discuss this now, and that the rotten boroughs 
were past saving, that as to the minor points, the Waverers 
thought them of impoitance, looked upon them as securities, 
compensations, and moieover as what would save their own 
honoui, and that the less then leal importance was the moie 
easily might they be conceded We had a great deal moie 



278 


BEIGN 01 WILIIAM IV 


[Chap X\III 


talk, but tlien it is all talk, and a quoi bon with a man who 
holds these opinions and acts as he does ^ Let it end as it 
may, the history of the Bill, and the means by which it has 
been conceived, bi ought foi waid, suppoited, and opposed, w ill 
be most eunous and mstiuclive The division m the Lords 
must be veiy close indeed 

Orloff, who was looked foi like the Messiah, at last made 
his appearance a few days ago, a gieat burly Russian, but no 
ratification yet 1 

I have lefi amed for a long time fioin writing down any- 
thing about the choleia, because the subject is intolerably 
disgusting to me, and I have been boied past enduiance by 
the peipetual questions of every fool about it It is not, 
however, devoid of interest In the fiist place, what has 
happened heie pioves that c tlie people 5 of this enlightened, 
leading, thinking, refoinnng nation aie not a whit less bar- 
baious than the seifs m Russia, foi precisely the same pie- 
judices have been shown heie that weie found at St Peteis- 
buig and at Reilm The disease has undoubtedly appeared 
(hitherto) m this country m a milder shape than elsewhere, 
but the alarm at its name was so gieat that the Goi eminent 
could do no otherwise than take such precautions and means 
of safety as appealed best to avert the danger oi nntigilo it* 
consequences Here it came, and the immediate effect was 
a great inconvenience to tiade and commerce, owing to 
restrictions, both those imposed by foieigneis generally on 
this countiy and those we imposed ourselves between the 
healthy and unhealthy places This begot complaints and 
disputes, and professional prejudices and jealousies uiged a 
host of combatants into the field, to fight about the existence 
or non-existence of choleia, its contagiousness, and any col- 
lateral -question The disposition of the public was (and is) 
to believe that the whole thing was a humbug, and accord- 
mgly plenty of people were found to wnte m that sense, and 
the press lent itself to propagate the same idea The disease, 
howevei, kept cieepmg on, the Boaids of Health which were 
eveij where established immediately became odious, and the 
1 [Of the Belgnn Iienty ] 



1832 ] THE CHOLERA. IN ENGLAND 279 

vestries and panshes stoutly xesisted all pecuniary demands 
foi tlie puipose of canjmg into effect tlie xecommendations 
of tlie Central Boaid or tlie oideis of the Pi ivy Council In 
this town the mob has taken the part of the anti-choleiites, 
and the most disgi aceful scenes have occuned The othei 
day a Mr Pope, head of the hospital m Marylebone (Cholera 
Hospital) came to the Council Office to complain that a 
patient who was being lemoved with his own consent had 
been taken out of his chan by the mob and carried back, 
the chan bioken, and the beareis and surgeon hardly 
escaping with then lives Punous contests have taken place 
about the bunals, it having been recommended tnat bodies 
should be burned dnectly aftei death, and the most violent 
piejudice opposing itself to this lecommendation, m short, 
theie is no end to the scenes of upioar, violence, and brutal 
ignoiance that have gone on, and this on the pait of the 
lower ordeis, for whose especial benefit all the piecautions 
aie taken, and fox whose lelief laige sums have been raised 
and all the lesouices of chanty called into activity m eveiy 
pait of the town The awful thing is the vast extent of 
miseiy and distiess which pievails, and the evidence of the 
lotten foundation on which the whole fabric of this goigeous 
society lests, for I call that lotten which exhibits thousands 
upon thousands of human beings xeduced to the lowest stage 
of moral and physical degradation, with no more of the ne- 
cessaries of life than seive to keep body and soul togethei, 
whole classes of aitisans without the means of subsistence 
However complicated and 1 emote the causes of this state of 
things, the manifestations piesent themselves m a frightful 
presence and reality, and those whose ingenuity, and experi- 
ence, and philosophical views may enable them accurately to 
point out the causes and the gradual mci ease of this distress 
aie totally unable to suggest a lemedy 01 to foresee an end 
to it Can such a state of thmgs permanently go on^ can 
any refoim amelioiate it? Is it possible for any country to 
be considered m a healthy condition when there is no such 
thing as a general diffusion of the comfoits of life (varying of 
couise with eveiy vanety of circumstance which can affect 



280 


BE ION OF WILLIAM IV 


[Ciivp XVIII 


the piospenty of individuals 01 of classes), but when the ex- 
tremes prevail of the most unbounded luxuiy and enjoyment 
and the most dieadful pnvation and suffeimg 9 To imagine 
a state of society m which eveiybody should be well off, or 
even tolerably well off, would be a meie vision, as long as 
theie is a prepondeiance of vice and folly m the w r oild 
There will always be effects commensuiate with then causes, 
but it has not always been, and it certainly need not be, that 
the majonty of the population should be m gieat difficulty, 
stiugglmg to keep themselves afloat, and, what is worse* m 
unceitamty and in doubt whethei they can earn subsistence 
foi themselves and their families Such is the case at pre- 
sent, and I believe a general unceitamty pervades eveiy class 
of society, fiom the highest to the lowest, nobody looks upon 
any institution as secure, or any interest as safe, and it is only 
because those universal feelings of alaim which aie equally 
diffused throughout the mass but slightly affect each indi- 
vidual atom of it that we see the woild go on as usual, eating, 
di inking, laughing, and dancing, and not insensible to the 
danger, though appaiently indifferent about it 

April Uh — Charles Wood 1 came to me jesteiday, and 
bi ought a papei showing the various effects of a different 
qualification fioin 10? to 40? foi the metropolitan districts, 
to talk over the list, but puncipally to get me to speak to 
Harrowby about a foieseen difficulty The fiist clause m 
the Bill enacts that fifty-six boroughs be disfranchised This 
gave great offence m the House of Commons, was feebly 
defended, but carried by the majority, which was always 
leady and icquned no leason, it was an egregious piece 
of folly and anogance theie, heie it piesents a real embai- 
lassment I told him I knew Hairowby had an invincible 
lepugnance to it, and that the effect would be very bad if 
they split upon the fiist point He said he should not de- 
fend it, that all xeason was against it, but that there it was, 
and how was it to be got rid of ^ I suggested that it should 
be passed over, and that they should go at once to the boroughs 

1 [Mr Charles Wood, afterwards Viscount Halifax, hut at this time 
private Secretary to Earl Grej, whose daughter he marued ] 



1832] 


A DIITICULT1 AT SCHEDULE A 


281 


miahm He said if that clause was omitted a suspicion 
would immedia f el) anse that theie was an intention of 
altenng Schedule A, and nothing would avert that but 
getting thiough a gieat part of it befoie Easter, and that this 
might be difficult, as the longest time they* could expect to sit 
would be thiee day& m Passion Week He talked a gieat 
deal about the countiy expecting this, and that they would 
not be satisfied if it was not done, and all the usual jargon 
of the Reformeis, which it was not worth while to dispute, 
and it ended by my piomismg to talk to Lord Harrowby 
about it This I did last night, and he instantly flew into 
a rage He said ‘he would not be diagged through the 
mne by those scoundrels It was an insolence that was 
not to be borne , let them make their Peeis if they would, not 
Hell itself should make him vote for fifty six , he would vote 
for sixty-six or any numbei but that, that he would not split 
with the Tones on the fiist vote , if indeed they would consent 
to fifty-six he would, 01 to anything else they would agiee 
to, but if the Government brought this foiwaid no consideia- 
tion on eaith should prevent his opposing it ’ We then 
discussed the whole mattei, with the proposed amendments 
which Wood and I had talked over with lefeience to the 
metiopohtan members and town and county voting, and I am 
to go to-day and piopose that aftei the second leading is 
earned they should adjourn till after Eastei, and give a little 
time for the excitement (which theie must be) to subside, and 
to see how matters stand, and what probability xkeie is of 
getting the thing through quietly 

April 6 ih — I called on the Duke of Eichmond on Wednes- 
day morning, and told him what had passed between Wood 
and me, and Lord Hanowby and me afterwaids He was 
aware of the difficulty, and legietted it the moie because he 
might have to defend it m the House of Loids He wished 
me very much to go to Downing Street and see Loid Giey 
himself if possible befoie the levee, and he suggested that the 
woids fifty-six might be left m blank by Lord Giey’s own 
motion, that this would be m confoimity with the foims of the 
House I set off, but calling at home on my way found Loid 



282 


REIGN OP WILLI \.M IV 


[Ciup XVIII 


Hanowby at my dooi He came in, and was anxious to know 
if I had said anything , he was moie quiet than tue night be- 
foie, but still lesolved not to agiee to fifty-six, though anxious 
to have the mattei compiomised m some w ay Loid Hanowby 
wanted to adjourn aftei the second leading, but owned that 
the best effect would be to get tkiough Sckedxde A befoie 
Eastei Yesteiday I saw Wood , he limped upon the difficulty 
and the old stimn of the coantiy I suggested the point of 
form which Richmond had mentioned, but he said that could 
not be now m the Bill, as it was sent up fiom the Commons, 
that if the) weie beaten on fifty-six the countiy would considei 
it tantamount to thi owing out Schedule A, and would highly 
appiove of a cieation of Peeis, and that, m fact (if they 
wished it), it would be the best oppoitumty they could have 
I told him that it would heap udicule upon all the antecedent 
proceedings, and the pietext must ho manifest, as it would 
appeal m the couise of the discussions what the leal leason 
was In the middle of oui conveisation Ellice came m, and 
dnectly asked if my fi lends would swallow fifty-six, to which 
I said, Ho 3 We had then a vehement dispute, but at last 
Wood turned him out, and he and I lesumed We finally 
agieed that I should ask Loid Hairowby whethei, if Loid 
Giey of his own accoid pioposed to leave out the woids fifty- 
six, but with an expiession of his opinion that this must be 
the numbei, he (Loid Hanowby) would meet him with a 
conespondmg declaration that he objected to the specifica- 
tion of the numbei m the clause, without objecting to the 
extent of the disfianchisement, it being always undeistood 
that what passes between us is unauthonsed talk, and to 
commit nobody — e without prejudice/ as the lawyeis say 
I heard jesteiday, howevei, fiom Keate, who is attend- 
ing me (and who is the King’s suigeon, and sees him when 
he is in town), that he saw his Ma,est) aftei the levee on 
Wednesday and that he was ill, out of soits, and m eon- 
sideiable agitation , that he enquned of him about his health, 
when the King said he had much to anno) him, and that 
* many things passed theie (pointing to the Cabinet, out of 
which he had just come) which were by no means agiceable, 



1802] THE KINGS RELUCT iRCE TO MAKE PEERS 283 

and that lie liad had moie than usual to occupy him that 
morning 5 Keute said he was ^eiy suie fiom his mannei 
that something unpleasant had occuned This was, I have 
since discoveied, the question of a mention of Peeis again 
bi ought foiwaid, and to which the King’s aveision has le- 
turned so much so that it is doubtful if he will aftei all 
consent to a laige one It seems that unless the Peeis aie 
made (m the event of the necessity aiismg) Biougham and 
Althoip will lesign, at least so the} threaten I have seen 
enough of threats, and doubts, and sciuples, to be satisfied 
that theie is no ceitamty that an} of them will produce 
the anticipated effects, but I am lesolved I will tiy, out of 
these various elements, if I cannot work out something which 
may be seiviceable to the cause itself, though the matenals 
I have to woik with aie scanty The Mimsteis weie all day 
yesteiday settling who the new Peeis shall be, so senously 
aie they piepaung for the coup They had already fixed 
upon Lords Molyneux, Blindfold, Kennedy, Ebungton, 
Cavendish, Biabazon, and Chailes Fox, Littleton, Poitman, 
Fiedenek Lawley, Western, and many otheis, and tins would 
be what Loid Holland calls assimilating the House of Loids 
to the spirit of the othei House, and making it haimomse 
with the pievaihng sense of the people 

Api il 8th — Loid Hanowby was out of town when I called 
theie on Fuday, so I wiote to him the substance of my con- 
versation with Wood Yesteiday he letumed In the evening 
I met Wood at dmnei at Loid Holland’s, when he told me 
that he found on the put of his fuends moie leluctance than 
he had expected to give up the fifty-six, that he had done 
all he could to peisuade them, but they made gieat objections 
Moieover he had had a conversation with Sancton which he did 
not quite like, as he talked so much of holding the paity to- 
gethei All this was to make me think they aie stouter than 
they leally are, foi I am bettei mfomed than he thinks foi 
Yesteiday morning I got moie conect mfoimation about 
what had passed with the King Lord Giey went to him 
with a minute of Cabinet lequmng tin a he should make 



284 


BEIGN Or WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVIII 


Peeis m case the second reading was tin own out 1 To tins 
lie demuired, laised difficulties and doubts, which, natuially 
enougli alaim tlie Government veij much Howevei, when 
he got back to Wmdsoi he wiote two letteis, explaining his 
sentiments, fiom which it appears that he has gieat leluctance, 
that he will do it, but will not give any pledge beforehand, 
that he objects to mci easing the Peeiage, and wants to call 
up eldest sons and make lush and Scotch Peeis, that he did 
not say positively he would make the Peeis, but that he 
would be m the way, and come up when it was necessaiy 
They think that he has some idea that his pledging himself 
beforehand (though m fact he did so two months ago) might 
be diawn into an ltnpiopei precedent However this may 
be, his leluctance is so stiong that a great deal may be 
made of it, as it is piobable (if he continues m the same 
mind, and is not turned by some violence of the Opposition) 
that he will lesist still more making Peeis when the Bill is 
m Committee to cany the details, some of which he himself 
wishes to see alteied, but the difficulty is veiy gieat It is 
impossible to communicate with the Toiy leadeis , they will 
not believe what you tell them, and if they learnt the King’s 
scruples they would immediatelj imagine that they might 
piesume upon them to any extent, and stand out more 
obstinately than ever I went to Hanowby last night, and 
impaited to him the state of things, which I shall do to 
nobody else To Wnamclzffe I daie not He is not indis- 
posed to Wood’s compiomise,and I trust this will be settled, 
but he still leans to putting off the second leading till aftei 
Easter, and if the Tones also resolve upon that (which they 
aie mightily disposed to do) he will not separate fiom them 
on that point, and they are suie to carry it Unless this 
was accompanied with some declaration fiom them that 
they would be disposed to concede the gieat principles of 
the Bill, I think the Government would considei it such an 
indication of hostility as to call foi an immediate cieation 

1 [Tins Cabinet minute of the 3id of April, 1832, and the Bing’s lemaiks 
upon it, have been print* d m the * Couespondence of William IV and Bad 
Gie\/ vol n p oG7] 



1832] 


‘THE HUNCHBACK * 


285 


of Peeis, and I doubt whether the King could or would 
resist Theie aie many reasons why it would be desirable 
to make the second reading a iestmg-place, and adjourn then 
till aftei Eastei, provided all parties consented, but it would 
be very unwise to make it the subject of a contest, and no- 
body would evei believe that the leal leason was not to get 
lid of Schedule A by hook or by crook, oi of a good deal of 
it Hanowby will, I am suie, not divide against them on 
this, and they will not give it up, that theie are means of 
resistance, if they weie judiciously applied, I am suie, and 
if there weie temper, disci etion, and cordiality, the Bill 
might be licked into a very decent shape 

I went to see Shendan Knowles 5 new play the other 
night, ‘The Hunchback 5 Very good, and a gieat success 
Miss Fanny Kemble acted really well — foi the first time, m 
my opinion, gieat acting I have not seen anything since 
Mis Siddons (and peihaps Miss O’Neill) so good 

The Duke of Wellington made a very good speech on 
Irish affairs on Fnday, one of his best, and he speaks 
admnably to points sometimes and on subjects he undei stands 
I wish he had let alone that Irish Education — disgi aceful 
humbug and cant I don’t know that theie is anything 
else particularly new Orloff is made a gieat lout with, but 
he don’t latify The leal tiuth is that the King of Holland 
holds out, and the other Powers delay till they see the result 
of oui Refonn Bill, thinking that the Duke of Wellington 
may return to powei, and then they may make better terms 
for Holland and dictate to Belgium and to Fiance If the 
Refonn Bill is earned, and Government stays m, they will 
ratify, and not till then The choleia is disappearing hue 
and m the country 

April §th — Saw Loid Hanowby j esteiday morning lie 
( an’t make up his mind what is best to be done, whether to go 
into Committee or not He rathei wishes to get through 
Schedule A, but he won’t vote against the Tones if they 
divide on adjourning Then went to Wood and told him 
there would be no difficulty about fifty-si a Loid Giey 
came m, and talked the whole thing ovei He said he 



286 


imiGiS or W ILLI iM IV 


[Ciiap XVIII 


was ill — knocked up — that m his speech to-diy ho should 
be as model ate and tame as anybody could wish Fiom 
what Wood said, and he himself aftei wards, I should 
think they wish to adjourn aftei the second leading, but to 
make a merit of it if they do Duncannon, whom I saw 
afterwaids, seemed to be of the same opinion, that it would 
be best not to sit m Passion Week At night Whamclihe 
came back fiom Yoikshne He is all foi getting into 
Schedule A, and making no difficulties about fifty-six or 
anything else, and Hanowby, now that he fancies the Govern- 
ment want to adjourn, lathei wants not, suspecting some 
tuck Upon going all ovei the list, we make out the woist 
to give a majonty of six, and the best of eighteen, but the 
Tones still count upon getting back some of oui people We 
had a grand hunt aftei Lord Gambiei’s pioxy, he sent it to 
Loid de Saumaiez, who is laid up with the gout m Guernsey, 
and the difficulty was to get at Loid Gambiei and procui e 
anothei At last I made Hanowby, who does not know 
him, wnte to him, and Wood sent a messenger aftei lnm, 
so we hope it will amve m time 

April 11 th — The day before yesteiday Lord Giey mtio- 
duced the Refonn Bill m a speech of extieme modeiation , as 
lie piomised, it was veiy ‘tame 5 The night’s debate was dull , 
jesteiday was bettei Lord Mansfield made a fine speech 
against the Bill, Hairowby spoke well, Whamcliffe ill 
Nothing can equal the hot watei we have been m— defections 
threatened on eveiy side, expectations thw^aited and doubts 
ansing, betting neaily even Even de Ros came to me m 
the morning and told me he doubted how he should vote , that 
neither Hanowby noi Whamcliffe had put the question on 
the pioper giound, and his xeason for seceding from the 
Opposition was the menaced creation of Peers I wiote to 
Hanowby and begged him to say something to satisfy tendei 
consciences, and moved heaven and eaith to keep De Ros 
and Ooventiy (who was slippery) right, and I succeeded — at 
least I believe so, foi it is not yet ovei Nothing can equal 
the anxiety out of doois and the intensity of the intei est m 
the town, but the debate is fai less animated than that of 



1832] REFORM BILL CARRIED IK !THE HOUSE OF LORDS 28? 


last year As to our business, it is ‘ la mei a boire, 5 with 
nobody to canvass or whip m, and not being a paitj We 
shall, however, I believe, manage it, and but just 

I saw Keate this morning, who had been with the King 
His Majesty talked m high terms of Ellenboiough and of 
Mansfield It is difficult to count upon such a man, but if the 
second leading is passed I do not believe he will make Peeis 
to carry any points m Committee, unless it be the veiy vital 
ones, but it is veiy questionable if the Opposition will fight 
the battle then at all, or, if they do, fight m a way to secuie 
a fan, pi actical result 

April I4ith — The Eefoim Bill (second leading) was 
earned this morning at seven o’clock m the House of Loids 
by a majority of nine The House did not sit yesteidaj 
The night before Phillpotts, the Bishop of Exetei, made a 
grand speech against the Bill, full of fiie and venom, veiy 
able It would be an mjuiy to compare this man with Laud , 
he moie resembles Gaidmei , had he lived m those days he 
would have been just such another, boiling with ambition, 
an ardent tempeiament, and gieat talents He has a despe- 
rate and a dieadful countenance, and looks like the man he 
is The two last days gave plenty of reports of changes 
either way, but the majonty has always looked like fiom 
seven to ten The House will adjourn on Wednesday, and 
go into Committee uftei Eastei , and m the meantime what 
negotiations and what difficulties to get ovei ! The Dube of 
Wellington and Loid Hairowby have had some good- 
humouied talk, and the foimer seems well disposed to join 
in amending the Bill, but the difficulty will be to bring these 
extreme and irritated paities to any agreement as to terms 
The debate m the Loids, though not so good as last yeai, 
has been, as usual, much bettei than that m the Commons 
The accounts fiom Pans of the elioleia aie awful, veiy 
diffeient from the disease here Is it not owing to oui 
supenor cleanliness, diaimng, and precautions $ There have 
been 1,800 sick m a day there, and foi some dajs an aveiage 
of 1,000, here we have never aveiaged above fifty, I think, 
and, except the squabbling m the newspapers, we have seen 



288 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVIII 


nothing of it whatever , theie many of the uppei classes have 
died of it Casinnr Periei and the Duke of Orleans went to 
the Hotel Dieu, and the foimer was seized afterwards, and has 
been very ill, though they doubt if it really was cholera, as he 
is subject to attacks with the same sjmptoms 

Jp 7 il 15 th — The debate m the House of Loids was closed 
by a lcmarkable reply fiom Lord Giey, full of moderation, 
and such as to hold out the best hopes of an adjustment of 
the question — not that it pacified the ultra-Tones, who weie 
furious The speech was so ill lepoited at that late lioui 
that it is not generally known what he did say, and many of 
those who heaid it almost doubt then own accuracy, or 
suspect that he went further than he intended, so unhke was 
it to his former violent and unyielding language He said, 
with regard to a cieation of Peers, that nothing would justify 
him m recommending the exercise of that prerogative but a 
collision between the two Houses of Parliament, and that m 
such a case (he is lepoited to have said) he should deem it 
his duty first to lecommend a dissolution, and to ascertain 
whethei the feeling of the country was with the other House 
(these were not the words, but to this effect) If this be at 
all conect, it is cleai that he cannot make Peeis to cany 
the clauses, foi, m fact, the collision between the two Houses 
will not have aimed unless the Commons should 1 eject any 
amendments which may be made bj the Loids The tone, 
liowevei, of the violent supporteis of Government is totally 
changed , at Loid Holland’s last night they weie singing m 
a veiy different note, and, now, if the councils of the Loids 
aie guided bj modeiation and firmness, they may deal with 
the Bill almost as they please , but they must swallow 
Schedule A The difficulties, howevei, aie gieat , the High 
Tones are exasperated and vindictive, and will fiercely fight 
against any union with the seceders The Duke is model ate 
rn his tone, leady to act coidially with all parties, but he 
owes the secedeis agiudge, is anxious to j>reseive his in 
fluence with the Tones, and will probably insist upon 
mutilating the Bill more than will be prudent and feasible 
The Hairowby and Wharnclxffe party, now that the second 



1832] LORD WJBTARNCLIFFE AND LORD HARROWBY 289 

leading it o\ei, ceases to be a party It was a patched-up, 
miscellaneous concern at best, of men who were half- 
ieasoned,half-fnghtoned over, who could not bear separating 
from the Duke, long to return to him, and, besides, are 
ashamed of Wkaincliffe as a chief Tlieie nevei was such a 
* chef de cnconstance ’ He is a veij honest man, with a 
right view of things and a fan and unpiejudiced under- 
standing, vain and imprudent, w ithout authority, command- 
ing no lespect, and in a false position as the ephemeral leadei 
he is, mai clung in that capacity pan passu with Hairowby, 
who is infinitely moie looked up to, but whose bilious com- 
plexion pievents his mixing with society and engaging and 
persuading others to follow his opinions , nor has he (Lord 
Hanowby) any plan or design beyond the object of tho mo- 
ment He has no thought of mixing again m public life, he 
does not piopose to communicate with anybody oil anything 
furthei than the nrddle couise to be adopted now, and few 
people are disposed to se*ei the ties on which then future 
political existence depends for the sake of cultivating this 
shoit-lived connection If the Government, therefore, look 
to the secedeis who have earned the question for them to 
can} othei points, they will find it won’t do, foi then 
followeis will melt into the mass of the anti-Reformeis, who, 
though they will still frown upon the chiefs, will gladly take 
back the xank and file A fortnight will elapse, m the course 
of which opportunities will be found of ascei taming the dis- 
position of the gieat party and the piobabihty of an arrange- 
ment 

The debate was good on Frida}, but veiy infeuor to the 
last Phillpotts got a ternfic diessmg from Lord Grey, and 
was handled not veiy delicately by Goderich and Duiham, 
though the latter was too coarse He had laid himself very 
open, and, able as he is, he has adopted a tone and style 
inconsistent with his lawn sleeves, and unusual on the 
Episcopal Bench He is earned away by his ambition and 
his alaim, and horrifies his biethren, who feel all the dangei 
(m these times) of such a colleague The episode of which 
von n xj 



290 


BEIG-N OF ’WILLIAM IT 


[Chap XVIII 


lie was the object was, of coarse, the most amusing part oi 
the whole, 

Newmarket , April 22nd —HI and laid up with the gout 
for this week past Came here on Friday, the 20th The 
carrying of the second leading of the Bill seems to haie 
produced no effect Everybody is gone out of town, the 
Tones m high dudgeon The Duke of Wellington has 
entered a protest with all the usual objections, which has 
been signed by a whole labble of Peers, but not by Lyndhuist, 
Ellenborough, or Carnarvon, who monopolise the brains of the 
party , the} declined In the meantime things look bettei 
Whaincliffe, Hairowby, and Haddington have had two in- 
terviews with Lyndhurst and Ellenborough, and though they 
did not go into particulars the result was satisfactoiy, and 
a strong disposition evinced to co-operation and model ation 
It was agieed they should meet again next week, and see 
what could be ai ranged On Enday Palmerston sent to 
Wharncliffe and desired to see him They met, and Pal- 
merston told him that he came from Loid Grey, who was 
desirous of having an intei view with him, adding that Loid 
Giev had now become convinced that he might make much 
moie extensive concessions than he had evei yet contem- 
plated He added that Lord Giey would lather see Whain- 
chffe alone, without Hairouby, whose manner was so snappish 
and unpleasant that he could not talk so much at his ease 
as he would to Wharncliffe alone Wharncliffe replied that 
he could have no objection to see Lord Grey, but that he 
must fairlj tell him his situation was no longer the same, 
having put himself in amicable communication with Lynd- 
huist and Ellenborough, that the concuirence of the Tones 
was indispensable to him and his friends to effect the altera- 
tions the} contemplated, and he could not do anything which 
might have to them the appearance of underhand dealing , 
that he could tell Lyndhurst and Ellenboiough, and if they 
made no objection he would see Lord Grey Ellenboiough 
was gone out of town, but he went to Lyndhurst, who im- 
mediately advised him to see Lord Grey, and said it was 
most desirable they should be made acquainted with the 



1832J METING OF LORD GREY AND LORD WHARNCLIFFE 291 


views and disposition of Government, and lie undertook to 
write woid to the Duke of Wellington of all that had passed 
Lord Giey was unable to leave Sheen yesterday, so it was 
arranged that the meeting should be delayed till Whaincliffe’s 
return to London The Duke of Richmond has, however, got 
alettei of foui sides from Giey, empoweimg inm to treat heie 
with Whamcliffe, and Stanley and Giaham being expected, it 
is very likely some progress may be made Nothing can 
piomise better, and if the chiefs of the Tories can be brought 
to model ation the stupid obstinacy of the mass will not 
matter, and I do not think they will dare hold out, foi when 
a negotiation on such a conciliatory basis is proposed, a 
ternble case would be made hereaftei against those who should 
refuse to listen to it The advantages are so clear that 
nothing would make them persist m the line of uncompro- 
mising opposition but an unconquerable repugnance to affoid 
a triumph to the Wavereis, which a successful teimmation 
would do, not that they would profit by it, foi they are so 
few, and those who will ha\e been wrong so many, that 
clamoui will silence justice, and a thousand excuses and 
pretences will be found to depnve them of then rightful 
credit It is a long time — not probably since the days of 
Charles II — that this place (Newmarket) has been the 
theatre of a political negotiation, and, conceding the import- 
ance of the subject, the actors aie amusing— Richmond, 
Giaham, Wharncliffe, and myself By-the-bye it is perfectly 
true that (if I have not mentioned it before) the Royal 
carriages were all ready the morning of the decision of the 
second leading to take the King to the House of Lords to 
prorogue Parliament, and on Tuesday the Peeis would have 
appeared m the * Gazette 5 

London , May 1 2th — Nothing wntten for a long rime, 
nor had I anything to write till a few days ago Prom tbe 
time ofWhaincliffe’s depaituie I heaid nothing, and I bitteily 
regret now not having been m town last week 1 The Com- 

1 [It was on the 7th of May that the Lords went mto Committee on the 
Bill, and Loid Lyndhurst’s motion to postpone the ^franchising clauses 
until aftei the enfranchising clauses had been agreed to was carried i 



292 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVIII 


mittee stood foi Monday , on Fnday se’nmglit last I tv as 
at Buckenham, when the Duke of Rutland told me he was 
going to London, that they meant to divide on Monday on 
a proposal to postpone Schedules A and B till after C and 
D, and expected to beat the Government , I wrote by that 
post to Lady Harrowbj, sajmg I hoped this was not tiue, 
and that if it was it appeared to me most injudicious On 
Tuesday I received by the post a lettei from Whamchffe, 
saying that they had been m frequent communication with 
Ellenboiough and Lyndhurst, that the Opposition were pre- 
pared to make great and satisfactory concessions, and lie 
thought all would go off well The only difheuhy he appre- 
hended was fiom the postponement of the disfranchising 
clause, which the Tories insisted on, and to which he and 
Harrowby had thought it light to agree The next day I 
received a second lettei, with an account of the debate and 
its consequences, to which I wrote him a trimming leply, 
and anothei to Lady Hanowby, expressing my sentiments 
on then conduct on the occasion Before all this happened 
Wharncliffe had had to encounter abuse of eveiy kind, and 
he has ceitamly continued to play his caids m such a way, 
fiom fiist to last, as to quarrel with Whigs and Tones in suc- 
cession With very good intentions, and veiy honest, he has 
exposed himself to every repioach of insincerity, intrigue, 
and double-dealing 

On ai riving m town I found a note from him, desiring 
I would see him and hear his defence of himself before I 
expressed elsewhere the opinion I had given to him Ac- 
cordingly I went to Boodle’s, where I found him, and he 
immediately began his case He said that on his return to 
town he saw Lord Giey, who ^aid that he wished to know 
what weie the intentions of his party, and how fax they 
were disposed to go, and what concessions they looked for 
He replied that Lord Grey must understand that he now 

majority of thirty-five against the Government The seventeen Peeis who 
had assisted to cairy the second leading on the 11th of April relapsed into 
the Conservative ranks, and the lesult was, foi the moment, such as to stop 
the piogress of the Bill and turn out the Government ] 



1832] DEFEAT OF GOVERNMENT IN COMMI1TEF 293 

stood m a very different position, and that, leumted as he 
was with the Tones, he must act with them — much, m 
short, what he had before said to Palmerston They then 
discussed the question, and he said that theie was one point 
for which Loid Giey ought to be prepared, and that he knew 
the Tories were much bent upon proposing the postponement 
of Schedules A and B Loid Giey said this would be pro- 
ductive of the gieatest embairassment, that it would be a 
thing they could not agiee to, and he hoped he would do all 
in his power to prevent it Whaincliffe said that he would 
endeavour, but he believed they were very eager about it, 
and he added that Loid Giey might be sure he would support 
nothing calculated to interfere with the essential piovi- 
sions of the Bill After this his and Hairowby’s communi- 
cations with Ellenborough and his fi lends continued, and on 
the Saturday (I think) Lyndhurst told him that the Tories 
were so nrevocably bent upon this, and that they weie so 
difficult to manage and so disposed to fly off, that it was 
absolutely necessary to give way to them, and it must be 
proposed, though he would gladly have waived it, but that 
was impossible , upon which Harrowby and Wharnchffe 
gave in and agreed to support it One of them (Hadding- 
ton, I think) suggested that Wharnchffe ought to communi- 
cate this intention to Lord Grey, to which, however, Lyndhurst 
objected, said that the Tories weie auspicious, had alieady 
taken umbrage at the communications between Whaincliffe 
and Grey, and that it must not be To this prohibition 
Wharnchffe fatally submitted, and accordingly not a word 
was said by anybody till the afternoon of the debate, when 
just before it began 'Wharnchffe told the Duke of Richmond, 
who of course told Lord Gi ey Wharnchffe at the same time 
had some conversation with John Russell and Stanley, who 
strongly depiecated this intention, but it was too late to 
arrange or compiomise anything then The debate came on , 
the proposition was made m a very aggiavatmg speech by 
Lyndhurst, and on its being carried Lord Grey thiew up the 
Bill and the Government m a passion It is the more remark- 
able that they should hare taken this course at once, because 



294 


EEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVIII 


they certainly had veiy strong reason to doubt whether the 
King would consent to a creation of Peers, though they pro- 
bably thought he might be bullied upon an occasion which 
they fancied they could turn, to gieat account , but he was 
stout and would not hear of it 

The day after the debate Grey and Biougham went down 
to Windsor and proposed to the King to make fifty Peers 
They took with them a minute of Cabinet signed by all the 
members except the Duke of Richmond Palmeiston pro- 
posed it m Cabinet, and Melbourne made no objection His 
Majesty took till the next day to considei, when he accepted 
their lesig nations, which was the alternative they gave him 
At the levee the same day nothing occuired, the King 
hardly spoke to the Duke, but he aftei wards saw Lyndhuist 
(having sent for him) I do not know what passed between 
them, but the Duke of Wellington was soon sent for The 
Duke and Lyndhuist endeavouied to prevail on Peel to take 
the Government upon himself, and the formei offeied to act 
m any capacity in which he could be useful, but Peel ould 
not Some communication also took place between Lynd- 
huist and Hanowby, but the latter declaied at once he would 
suppoit the new Government, but not take office When Peel 
finally declined, the Duke accepted, and yesterday at three 
o’clock he went to St James’s The King saw Peel and the 
Speaker Nothing is known of the foi nation of the Cabinet, 
but the reports were first that Alexander Baring was to be 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and since that he has refused 
on account of his health, and that Lyndhurst is to go to the 
King’s Bench, Tenteiden to retire, and the Gieat Seal to be 
put m commission 

The firsr act of the Duke was to advise the King to re- 
ject the address of the Bnmmgham Union, which he did, and 
said he knew of no such body All veiy piopei In the 
morning I called upon Wood at the Tieasury, to explain to 
him that I had never been cognisant of the late proceedings 
m the House of Lords, and that I was far fiom approving the 
conduct of my old associates He said he had never believed 



1832] 


POSITION OP PABTIES 


295 


that I was any paity to it, and regretted that I had not been 
m town, when it was just possible I might have persuaded 
them of the unworthmess of the course they were taking 
He said that I did not know how bad it was, for that 
Wharncliffe had distinctly said that if such a thing was pro- 
posed he should oppose it, and that Palmerston was present 
when he said so This Wharncliffe positively denies, and 
yesterday he went to Palmerston to endeavoui to explain, 
taking with him a minute which he said he had draw n up at the 
time of all that passed, but which he had never befoie shown 
or submitted for correction, and which Palmerston told him 
was incoiiect, inasmuch as it omitted that engagement 
They are at issue as to the fact The position of the re- 
spective paities is curious The Wavereis undertook a task 
of gieat difficulty with slender means, and the} accomplished 
it With complete success All turned out as they expected 
and desned, but, aftei having been m confidential commu- 
nication with both parties, they have contrived moitally to 
offend both, and to expose themselves to odium from every 
quarter, and to an umveisal imputation of insincerity and 
double-dealing, and this without any other fault than mis- 
management and the false position m which they found 
themselves, without influence 01 power, between two mighty 
parties The Tones, who have exhibited nothing but obsti- 
nacy and unreasonableness, and who thwarted the Waveieis 
by every means they could devise, have reaped all the bene- 
fit of then efforts, and that without admitting that they 
were right or thanking them foi bunging matters to this 
pass They are tnumphant, m spite of all they did to pre- 
vent then own triumph, and have had all the spiteful 
pleasuie of abuse and obloquy, all the glory of consistency, 
and the satisfaction of peitmacity, with all the advantages 
that an opposite line of conduct promised to give them 
[Then triumph was of short duration, and nothing so com- 
plete as their final discomfiture ] 

The King took leave of his Ministers with a gieat effusion 
of tenderness, particularly to Richmond, whom he entreated 



296 


KEIGK OF WILLI UI IV 


[Chip XVIII 


to remain m office , but I take it that be easily consoles him- 
self, and does not care much more for one Mmistei than 
another 

The debate m the House of Com mo is was not so violent 
as might have been expected, and the Tones weie greatly 
elated with the divisions on Ebrmgton’s motion, because theie 
was a majority less by fifty-six than on a similar motion 
when the Bill was lejected in October The circumstances 
weie, howevei, diffeient, and some would not vote because 
they disapprove of ci eating Peers, which this vote would 
have committed them to appiove of Theie is so much of 
wonder, and cuuosity, and expectation abroad that theie is 
less of abuse and exaspeiation than might have been ex- 
pected, but it will all bui st forth The town is fearfully quiet 
What is odd enough is that the King was hissed as ho left 
London the other day, and the Duke cheeked as he came out of 
the Palace There have been some meetings, with resolutions 
to support the Bill, to express approbation of the Mmisteis, 
and to piotest against the payment of taxes, and theie will 
probably be a good deal of bustle and bluster heie and else- 
where, but Ido not believe m real tumults, paiticularly when 
the rabble and the unions know that there is a Government 
which will not stand such things, and that they will not be able 
to bandy compliments with the Duke as they did with Althorp 
and John Russell, not but what much dissatisfaction and much 
disquietude must prevail The funds have not fallen, which 
is a sign that theie is no alaim m the City At this early 
penod of the business it is difficult to foim anj opinion of 
what will happen, the present Government m opposition 
will again be formidable, but I am disposed to think things 
will go on and light themselves , we shall avoid a eieatioii of 
Peers, bnt we must have a Refoim Bill of some soit, and per- 
haps a harmless one after all, and if the elements of disorder 
can be resolved into tranquillity and ordei again, we must 
not quarrel with the means that have been employed, nor 
the quantum of moial injustice that has been pei petrated 
The Tories aie very indignant with Peel for not taking 
office, and if, as it is supposed, he is to suppoit Government 



1832] 


PEEL EEETJSES TO TAKE OFFICE 


297 


and the Bill out of office, and wlien all is ovei come m, it is 
haidly worth while for such a farce to depuve the King and 
the country of his sei vices m the way that they could be 
most useful, but he is still smarting under Catholic question 
reminiscences, while the Duke is more thick-skinned After 
he had earned the Catholic question the world was piepaied 
for a good deal of veisatility on his part, but it was in mere 
derision that (affcei his speech on Keform m 1830) it used to 
be said that he would very likely be found pioposmg a Bill 
of Eefoim, and here he is coming into office for the express 
puipose of carrying on this \ery Bill against which the other 
day he entered a protest which must staie him m the face 
thiough the whole progress of it, or, if not, to bring m 
another of the same chaiactei, and piobably nearly of the 
same dimensions Pietexts aie, however, not wanting, and 
the necessity of suppoitmg the King is made pai amount to 
every other consideiation The Duke’s worshippeis (a nume- 
rous class) call this the finest action of his life, though it is 
difficult to perceive m what the grandeui of it consists, oi 
the magnitude of the sacrifice However, it is fair to w ait 
a little, and heai from his own lips his exposition of the mode 
m which he intends to deal with this measure, and how he 
will leconcile what he has hitheito said with what he is now 
about to do Talley i and is of course m a state of great 
consternation, which will be communicated like an electucal 
shock to the Powers specially favoured and piotected by the 
late Government — Leopold and Don Pedro, foi instance It 
will be a difficult thing for the Duke to deal with some of 
the questions on which he has committed himself pretty con- 
siderably while m opposition, both with lespect to foieign 
politics and especially Irish Education 

Monday , May 14 th — Nothing more was known yesteida), 
but eveiybody was congiegated at the clubs, asking, discuss- 
ing, and wondering There was a gieat meeting at Apsley 
House, when it was supposed e\erytkmg was settled The 
Household went yesteiday to St James’s to resign then sticks 
and badges, amongst the lest Lord Foley The King was 
veiy civil to him , made him sit dovn and said, c Loid Folej , 



298 


BEIG-K OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVIII 


you are a young man ’ Su, I am afiaid I cannot flattei 
myself that I have any right to that appellation 1 * * * 5 ‘ Oh, yes , 

you are a young man — at all events in companson with me — 
and you will piobably come into office again , but I am an old 
man, and I am afraid I shall not have the pleasuie of seeing 
you there 5 It is supposed that this coup has been pieparmg 
for some time All the Koyal Family, bastards and all, have 
been incessantly at the King, and he lias piobably had more 
difficulty m the long run m resisting the constant importu- 
nity of his entourage and of Ins womankind paiticularly, than 
the dictates of his Ministers , and between this gradual but 
poweiful impression, and his real opinion and fears, he was 
not soir} to seize the first good oppoitunity of shaking off 
the Whigs When Loid Anglesey went to take leave of him 
at Wmdsoi he was stiuck with the change m his sentiments, 
and told Lady Anglesey so, who lepeated it to my biotliei 

It is gratifying to find that those with whom I used to 
dispute, and who would heai of nothing but rejecting the 
second reading, now admit that my view was the correct one, 
and Yesey Fitzgeiald, with whom I had moie than one dis- 
cussion, complimented me very handsomely upon the justifi- 
cation of my view of the question which the event had 
afforded The High Tones, of course, will ne\er admit that 
they could have been wrong, and have no othei lesouice but 
to insist boldly that the King never would have made Peers 
at all ^ 

London, May 17th — The events of the last few days have 
passed with a xapidity which haidly left time to think upon 
them — such sudden changes and transitions from rage to 
triumph on one side, and from foolish exultation to mortifica- 
tion and despair on the other The first impiession was that 
the Duke of Wellington would succeed in forming a Govern- 
ment with oi without Peel The fust thing he did was to try 

1 [Everyone knows how shoit-hved were the e\pectations caused by the 

temporal y resignation of Lord Giev’s Government It will be seen m the 

following pages how soon the vision passed away, but the foregoing pas- 

sages are retained precisely because they contain a vivid and faithful picture 

of the state of opinion at the moment ] 



1832] WELLINGTON S EFFORTS TO FORM A MINISTRY 299 

and prevail upon Peel to be Pume Minister, but lie was inexor- 
able He then turned to Baring , 1 who, after much hesitation, 
agreed to be Chancellor of the Exchequer The woik went 
on, but with difficulty, for neithei Peel, Goulbuin, nor Croker 
would take office They then tued the Speaker, who was 
mightily tempted to become Secretary of State, but smll 
doubting and fearing, and requnmg time to make up his 
mind At an interview with the Duke and Lyndhurst at 
Apsley House he declaied his sentiments on the existing 
state of affans m a speech of three hours, to the unutterable 
disgust of Lyndhuist, who leturned home, flung himself into 
a chair, and said that ‘he could not enduieto have anything 
to do with such a damned tiresome old bitch 3 Aftei these 
thiee hours of oratoiy Manners Sutton desired to have till 
the next morning (Monday) to make up his mind, which he 
again begged might be extended till the evening On that 
evening (Monday) ensued the memoiable night m the House 
of Commons, which eveiybody agiees was such a scene of 
violence and excitement as nevei had been exhibited withm 
those walls Tavistock told me he had never heaid anything 
at all like it, and to his dying day should not foiget it The 
House was ciammed to suffocation, every violent sentiment 
and vitupeiative expiession was received with shouts of ap- 
probation, yet the violent speakeis weie listened to with the 
greatest attention 2 TomDuncombe madeone of his blustering 
Badical harangues, full of every soit of impertinence, which 
was received with immense applause, but which contrasted with 
an admirable speech, full of dignity, but also of sarcasm and 
severity, fiom John Bussell — the best he evei made The con- 
duct of the Duke of Wellington m taking office to earn, the Billy 
which was not denied, but which his fi lends feebly attempted 
to justify, was assailed with the most meiciless seventy, and 
(what made the greatest impression) was condemned (though 
m moie measured terms) by moderate men and Tones, such 
as Inglis and Davies Gilbert Baimg, who spoke four times, 

1 [Alexander Baring, aftei wards Loid Ashbuiton ] 

3 [The debate arose on a petition of the City of London, playing th \t the 

House would lefuse supplies until the Reform Bill had become law ] 



300 


BEIGKN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVIII 


at last proposed that there should be a compiomise, and that 
the ex-Mimsters should resume their seats and carry the 
Bill This extraordinary proposition was drawn from him 
by the state of the House, and the impossibility he at once 
saw of forming a new Government, and without any previous 
concert with the Duke, who, however, entirety approved of 
what he said After the debate Baring and Sutton went to 
Apsley House, and related to the Duke what had taken 
place, the former saying he would face a thousand devils 
rathei than such a House of Commons From that moment 
the whole thing was at an end, and the next morning (Tues- 
day) the Duke repaired to the King, and told him that he 
could not form an Administration This communication, for 
which the debate of the previous night had piepared every- 
body, was speedily known, and the joy and triumph of the 
Whigs were complete 

The King desired the Duke and Lyndhurst (foi they went 
together) to advise him what he should do They advised 
him to wiite to Lord Grey (which he did), mfoimmg him that 
the Duke had given up the commission to form a Govern- 
ment, that he had heard of what had fallen from Mi Baring 
in the House of Commons the night before on the subject of 
a compromise, and that he wished Loid Giey to letum and 
resume the Government upon that principle Lord Giey 
sent an answer full of the usual expressions of zeal and 
respect, but saying that he could give no answei until he 
had consulted his colleagues He assembled his Cabinet, 
and at five o’clock the answer was sent 1 

Yesterday morning Lord Grey saw the King , but up to 
last night nothing was finally settled, everything turning 
upon the terms to be exacted, some of the violent of the 
party desiring they should avail themselves of this oppor- 
tunity to make Peers, both to show their power and mciease 
their strength, the more moderate, including Lord Grey 
himself and many of the old Peer-makers, were for sparing 
the King’s feelings and usmg their victory with moderation, 

1 [These communications have been published m the f Con e«*pondence of 
Eail Giey with Willi un I\ \ol u pp 406-411 ] 



1832] 


TRIUMPH OP THE WHIGS 


301 


all, how evei, agieemg that the only condition on which they 
could return was the certainty of cairymg the Refoim 
Bill unalteied, eithei by a creation of Peers 01 by the seces- 
sion of its opponents Up to the present moment the 
mattei stands thus the King at the meicy of the Whigs, 
just as aveise as evei to make Peers, the violent wishing to 
pi ess him, the moderate wishing to spaie him, all parties 
railing at each othei, the Tories broken and discomfited, and 
meditating no fuithei lesistance to the Reform Bill The 
Duke is to make his expose to-night 

Peel, who has kept himself out of the scrape, is stiongty 
suspected of being anything but sony foi the dilemma into 
which the Duke has got himself, and they think that he 
secietlj encomaged him to peiseveie, with promises of pie- 
sent suppoit and futuie co-opeiation, with a shrewd anticpa- 
tion of the fate that awaited him I am by no means indis- 
posed to grve credit to this, for I well remember the wiath of 
Peel when the Duke’s Government was bioken up m 1830, and 
the v a nous instances of seciet dislike and want of real eoidi- 
ality which hai e peeped from under a decent appearance of 
union and fuendship Nothing can be moi e certain than that 
he is m high spmts m the midst of it all, and talks with gieat 
complacency of its being very well as it is, and that the sal- 
vation of cliaiactei is everything , and this from him, who 
fancies he has saved his own, and addiessed to those who 
have forfeited thens, is amusing 

The joj of the Knig at what he thought was to be his 
deliverance fiom the Whigs was unbounded He lost no 
time in putting the Duke of Wellington m possession of 
everything that had taken place between him and them upon 
the subject of Reform, and with legard to the creation of 
Peers, admitting that he had consented, but saying he had 
been subjected to evei y species of pei secution His ignorance, 
weakness, and levity put him m a miserable light, and piove 
him to be one of the silliest old gentlemen m his dominions , 
but I believe he is mad, for yesterday he gave a great dmnei 
to the Jockej Club, at which (notwithstanding his cares) he 
seemed m excellent spirits , and after dinner he made a 



302 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVIII 


number of speeches, so ridiculous and nonsensical, beyond 
all belief but to those who heard them, rambling from one 
subject to anothei, repeating the same thing over and over 
again, and altogether such a mass of confusion, trash, and 
imbecility as made one laugh and blush at the same time 

As soon as the Duke had agreed to tiy and foim a 
Government he applied to the Tories, who neaily all agieed 
to support him, and were prepared to go to all lengths, even 
to that of swallowing the whole Bill if necessary , the Duke 
of Newcastle paiticulaily would do anything These were 
the men who were so squeamish that they could not be 
brought to suppoit amendments even, unless they weie per- 
mitted to turn the schedules upside-down, straining at gnats 
out of office and swallowing camels m It is remarkable 
that after the sacrifice Whaincliffe made to re-mgiatiate 
himself with the Tories, incuriing the detestation and abuse 
of the Whigs, and their reproach of bad faith, the formei 
have utteily neglected him, taking no notice of him whatever 
during the whole of then proceedings from the moment of 
the division, leaving him in ignorance of their plans and 
intentions, nevei inviting him to any of their meetings, and 
although a communication was made by Lyndhurst to 
Harrowby (they wanted Harrowby to be Piime Mimstei), 
the latter was not at liberty to impart it to Whaincliffe It 
is not possible to be more deeply moitified than he is at the 
treatment he has experienced from these allies after having 
so committed himself Prom the account of the King’s 
levity throughout these proceedings, I strongly suspect that 
(if he lives) he will go mad While the Duke and Lyndhurst 
were with him, at one of the most critical moments (I forget 
now at which) he said, ‘I have been thinking that something 
is wanting with legal d to Hanovei Duke, you aie now my 
Ministei, and I beg you will thmk of this , I should like to 
have a shoe of Belgium, which would be a convenient addition 
to Hanover Piaj remembei this,’ and then resumed the 
subject they were upon 

May 19th — The night befoie last the Dube made his 
statement It was extremely cleai, but very bald, and left 



1832] 


THE KINO’S LETTER TO THE PEERS 


303 


his case just where it was, as he did not say anything that 
everybody did not know before His friends, howevei, 
extolled it as a masterpiece of eloquence and a complete 
vindication of himself The Toiy Loids who spoke after him 
bedaubed him with praise, and vied with each othei m 
expressions of admnation These weie Carnarvon, Vm- 
chelsea, and Haddington Theie was not one word fiom 
the Duke (noi fiom the othei s) indicative of an intention to 
secede, which was what the Government expected His 
speech contained a soit of covert attack upon Peel , m fact, 
he could not defend himself without attacking Peel, foi if the 
one was in the light m taking office the other must have been 
m the wiong m refusing to join him There was nothing, 
however, which was meant as a reproach, though out of the 
House the Duke’s friends do not conceal their anger that 
Peel would not embark with him m his desperate enteipuse 
Lyndhurst was exceedingly able, highly excited, very 
eloquent, and contrived to make his case a good one It was 
a fine display and veiy short Carnarvon and Mansfield 
were outiageously violent, but both m their way clever, and 
parts of the speech of the latter were eloquent Loi d Grey w as 
excellent, short, veiy temperate and judicious, exactly what 
was requisite and nothing more Nobody else spoke on his 
side, except Mulgrave at the end 

The debate, however intei estmg, left the whole matter in 
unceitamty , and the next day the old question began again 
What was to be done — Peeis 01 no Peers 9 A Cabinet sat 
neaily all day, and Loid Grey went once oi twice to the 
King He, pool man, was at his wits’ end, and tried an 
expenment (not a very constitutional one) of his own bj 
writing to a number of Peers, entreating them to withdraw 
their opposition to the Bill These letters were written (I 
think) before the debate On Thursday nothing was settled, 
and at anothei meeting of the Cabinet a minute was diawn up 
agreeing to offei again the same advice to the King Befoie 
this was acted upon Richmond, who had been absent, aruved, 
and he prevailed upon his colleagues to cancel it In the 
meantime the Duke of Wellington, Lyndhurst, and other 



304 


BEIGN OE WILLIAM II 


[Chip XVIII 


Peers had given the desired assurances to the King, which 
he communicated to Lord Giey These weie accepted as 
sufficient seeunties, and deelaiations made accordingly m 
both Houses of Parliament If the Ministers had again gone 
to the Kmg with this advice, it is impossible to say how it 
would have ended, for he had already been obstinate, and 
might have continued so on this point, and he told Lord 
Yerulam that he thought it would be contraiy to his corona- 
tion oath to make Peeis Our punces have stiange notions 
of the obligvtions imposed by their coronation oath 

On Thursday in the House of Commons Peel made his 
statement, in which, with gieat civility and many expressions 
of esteem and admiration of the Duke, he pronounced as 
bitter a censuie of his conduct, while apparently confining 
himself to the defence of his own, as it was possible to do, 
and as such it was taken I have not the least doubt that he 
did it con amoi e, and that he is doubly lejoiced to be out of 
the sci ape himself and to leave otheis m it 

May 31 st — Since I c ime back horn Newmarket theie has 
not been much to wnte about A calm has succeeded the 
storm Last night Schedules A and B were galloped 
through the Committee, and they finished the business On 
Thuisday next the Bill will probably be lead a thud time 
In the House of Lords some dozen Tones and Waveieis have 
continued to keep up a little skumish, and a good deal of 
violent language his been bandied about, m which the Whigs, 
being the wmneis, have shown the best tempei In society 
the excitement has ceased, but the bitterness lemains The 
Tories are, however, so utterly defeated, and the vietoiy of 
then- opponents is so complete, that the lattei can affoid to 
be model ate and decorous m their tone and manner , and the 
former are exceedingly sulky, cockering up each other with 
much self-giatulation and praise, but aware that m the 
opinion of the mass of mankind they are covered with odium, 
ridicule, and disgrace Peel and the Duke are ostensibly 
great fiiends, and the udiculous farce is still kept up of 
each admiring what he would not do himself, but what the 
other did 



1832] 


FAVGUBITES OF LOUIS XVIII 


305 


June ls£ — Met the Duke of Wellington at dinner yes- 
terday, and afterwards had a long talk with him, not on 
politics I never see and converse with him without re- 
proaching myself for the sort of hostility I feel and express 
towards his political conduct, for theie are a simplicity, a 
gaiety, and natuial urbanity and good-humoui m him which 
are remarkably captivating m so great a man We talked 
of Dumont’s book and Louis XVIII ’s ‘ Memoirs 5 I said I 
thought the 6 Memoirs ’ were not genuine He said he was 
sure they were, that they bore the stiongest internal evidence 
of being so, paiticularly m their accuiaey as to dates, that he 
was the best chronologist m the woild, and that he knew the 
day of the week of every event of importance He once asked 

the Duke when he was born, and when he told lnm the day 
of the month and year, he at once said it was on a Tuesday , 1 
that he (the Duke) hadiemembered that throughout the book 
the day of the week was always mentioned, and many of the 
anecdotes he had himself heard the King tell He then 
talked of him, and I was sui prised to hear him say that 
Charles X was a cleverer man, as far as knowledge of the 
woild went, though Louis XYIII was much bettei informed 
— a most curious remark, considering the history and end of 
each [Nothing could be more mistaken and untrue than 
this opinion] That Louis XVIII was always governed, 
and a favourite indispensable to him At the Congiess of 
Vienna the Duke was deputed to speak to M de Blacas, his 
then favourite, and tell him that his unpopularity was so 
great m France that it was desirable he should not return 
there Blacas replied, ‘ You don’t know the King , he must 
have a favourite, and he had bettei have me than another 
I shall go , he will have another, and you should take pains 
to put a gentleman m that situation, for he is capable of 
taking the first person that finds access to him and the 

1 [If, as is commonly stated the Duke of Wellington was horn on the 
1st of May, 1769, that day fell on a Monday, and the King was wrong But 
I am informed that the baptism of Arthur Wellesley was registered on the 
30th of April, 1769, and if, as the Duke seems to imply, he was horn on a 
Tuesd ly, that would thiow hack his buth to Tuesday Apnl 25th But 
men seldom know the day of the week on which they weie born ] 

VOL II X 



306 


REIGN 01 WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVIII 


opportunity of pleasing him ’ He added that he should not 
wonder if lie took Fouche He did not take Fouche, who was 
not aware of the part he might have played but he took De 
Cazes, who governed him entirely This continued till the 
Koyal Family determined to get nd of him, and by threaten- 
ing to make an esdandi e and leave the chateau they at last 
succeeded, and De Cazes was sent as Ambassador to London 
Then the King wrote to him constantly, sending him verses 
and literary sciaps The place remained vacant till accident 
threw Madame du Cayla in his way 1 She was the daughter 
of Talon, who had been concerned in the affair of the Marquis 
de Favras, and she sent to the King to say she had some papeis 
of her father’s relating to that affair, which she should like 
to give mto his own hands He saw hei and was pleased 
with her The Koyal Family encouraged this new taste, m 
order to get rid entirely of De Cazes, and even the Duchesse 
d’Angoulfime promoted her success It was the same thing 
to him to have a woman as a man, and there was no sexual 
question m the mattei, as what he wanted was merely some 
one to whom he could tell everything, consult with on all 
occasions, and with whom he could bandy literaiy tufles 
Madame du Cayla, who was clever, was speedily installed, and 
he directly gave up De Cazes He told the Duke that he 
was bromlle with De Cazes, who had behaved vein ill to him, 
but he had nothing specific to allege against him, except 
that his manner to him was not what it ought to have been 
The Ministers paid assiduous court to Madame du Cajla, 
imparted everything to ner, and got her to say what they 
wanted said to the King , she acted all the part of a mistress, 
except the essential, of which there nevei was any question 
She got great sums of money from him and very valuable 
presents 

June 18 th — Breakfasted on Thursday with Rogeis, and 
yesterday at the Athenaeum with Henry Taylor, and met Mr 
Charles Austin, a lawyei, clever man, and Badical The Bills 
are jogging on and theie is a comparative calm The Whigs 
swear that the Refoimed Pailiament will be the most ansto- 

1 [This lady has already been noticed m a pievious portion of these 
Memoirs, she visited England See toI i p 2151 



1832] 


CHARACTER OP WILLIAM IV 


307 


ciatic we have ever seen, and Ellice told me that they cannot 
hear of a single improper person likely to be elected for any 
of the new places [Then choice did not correspond with 
this statement of their disposition ] The metropolitan dis- 
tricts want rank and talent The Government and then 
people have now found out what a fool the King is, and it is 
very amusing to hear them on the subject Formerly, when 
they thought they had him fast, he was very honest and 
rather wise , now they find him rather shuffling and exceed- 
ingly silly When Noimanby went to take leave of him on 
going to Jamaica he pronounced a harangue in favour of 
the slave trade, of which he has always been a great ad- 
mirer, and expressed sentiments for which his subjects would 
tear him to pieces if they heard them It is one of the great 
evils of the recent convulsion that the King’s imbecility has 
been exposed to the world, and in his person the regal 
authority has fallen into contempt, his own peisonal un- 
popularity is not of much consequence as long as it does not 
degrade his office , that of George IV never did, so little so 
that he could always as King cancel the bad impressions 
which he made m his individual capacity, and he frequently 
did so Walter Scott is arrived here, dying A great 
mortality among great men Goethe, Perier, Champollion, 
Cuvier, Scott, Grant, Mackintosh, all died within a few weeks 
of each other 

June 2bth — At Fem Hill all last week, a gieat party, 
nothing but lacmg and gambling, then to Shepperton, and 
to town on Saturday The event of the races was the King’s 
having his head knocked with a stone It made very little 
sensation on the spot, for he was not hurt, and the fellow 
was a miserable-looking ragamuffin It, however, produced 
a gieat buist of loyalty m both Houses, and their Majesties 
were loudly cheered at Ascot The Duke of Wellington, who 
had been the day before mobbed m London, also reaped a 
little harvest of returning popularity from the assault, and 
so fai the outrages have done rathei good than harm 

July 12th — The suttee case was decided at the Privy 
Council on Saturday last, and was not uninteresting The 



308 


REIGN OP WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVIII 


Chancelloi, Loid President, Graham, John Russell and Grant, 
Sir Edward East, the Master of Rolls, Vice-Chancellor, Lord 
Amherst, and Loid Wellesley were present (the lattei not the 
last day) Lushmgton was for the appeal, and Home and 
Staikie against The formei made two very able and ingenious 
speeches , when the counsel withdiew the Lords gave then 
opinions seriatim Leach made a very short and very neat 
speech, condemning the order 1 of the Governor-General, but 
admitting the dangei of lescmdmg it, and recommending, 
therefore, that the execution of it should be suspended Sir 
Edwaid East, m a long, diffusive harangue, likewise con- 
demned the order, but was against suspension , Sir James 
Graham was against the oidei,but against suspension. Lord 
Amherst the same The rest appi oved of the order altogether. 
John Russell gave his opinion veiy well The Chancelloi was 
piohx and confused, he hit upon a bit of metaphysics m one 
of the cases on which he took pleasure m dilating The lesult 
was that the petition was dismissed 

I know nothing of politics for some time past The 
Reform fever having subsided, people are principally occupied 
with speculations on the next elections At piesent there 
is every appearance of the leturn of a House of Commons 
very favourable to the piesent Government, but the Tory 
paity keeps togethei m the House of Loids, and they aie 
animated with vague hopes of being able to turn out the 
Ministry, more from a spmt of hatred and revenge than 
from any clear view of the practicability of their carrying 
on the Government I conceive, however, that as soon as 
Parliament is up there will be a creation of Peers In the 
House of Commons the lush Tithe question has been the 
great subject of interest and discussion O’Connell and the 
Irish members debate and adjourn just as they please, and 
Althorp is obliged to give way to them When Stanley 
moved foi leave to bring in his Bill he detailed his plan m 
a speech of two hours They thought fit to oppose this, 

1 The order was a decree of the Governor-General of India abolishing 
the practice of suttee, against which certain Hindoos appealed to the 
King m Council Another narty, however, weie m favour of the older, 
and the Rajah Ramxnohun Roy is acting m this country as then agent 



1832 ] 


0 CONNELLS DECAL OF GHOLFK V 


309 


which is quite unusual, and O’Connell did not arrive till 
after Stanley had sat down Not ha\ mg heard his speech 
he could not answer him, and he therefore moved the ad- 
journment Upon a former occasion, during the Reform 
Bill, when the Tories moved an adjournment aftei many 
hours’ debate, the Government opposed it, and voted on 
through the night till seven o’clock in the morning, now 
the Tories were ready to support Government against the 
Irish members, but they would not treat the Radicals as 
they did the Tories, and then on a subsequent occasion they 
submitted to have the debate adjourned 

O’Connell is supposed to be horridly afraid of the cholera 
He has dodged about between London and Dublin, as the 
disease appealed first at one and then the other place, and 
now that it is eveiywhere he shnks the Hou^e of Commons 
from fear of the heat and the atmosphere The cholera is 
here, and diffuses a certain degiee of alarm Some servants 
of people well known have died, and that fughtens all other 
seivants out of then wits, and they frighten then masteis, 
the death of any one person they aie acquainted with terrifies 
people much more than that of twenty of whom they knew 
nothing As long as they read daily returns of a paicel of 
deaths here and there of A, B, and C they do not mmd, 
but when they hear that Lady such a one’s nurse or Sn 
somebody’s footman is dead, they fancy they see the disease 
actually at their own door 

July 15 th — I had a good deal of conveisation yesterday 
with Lord Duneannon and Lord John Russell about Ii eland 
The debate the night before lasted till four o’clock O’Connell 
made a furious speech, and Dawson the other evening another, 
talking of resistance and of his readiness to join in it This 
drew up Peel, who had spoken befoie, and who, when attacked 
with cries of 4 Spoke * ’ said, Yes, I have spoken, but I will 
say that no party considerations shall prevent my supportmg 
Government m this measure, and giving them my coidial 
support ’ He was furious with Dawson, and got up m 
older to throw him over, though he did not addiess himself 
to him, oi to anything he had said expressly John Russell 
spoke out what ought to have been said long ago, that the 



310 


EEIG-N OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVIII 


Ohuich could not stand, but that the present clergymen 
must be paid Both he and Duncanno: n are aware of the 
false position m which the Government is placed, pretending 
to legislate with a knowledge that their laws cannot be 
enforced, and the latter said that, wliatevei might he done, 
the Irish would take nothing at the hands of Stanley It 
is unfortunate that his attachment to the Church makes 
him the unfittest man m the country to manage Irish affairs, 
and he has contrived to make himself so personally unpopular 
that with the best intentions he could not give satisfaction 
Under these circumstances his remaining there is impossible, 
but what is to be done with him & He is of such importance 
m the House of Commons that they cannot part with him 
I asked John Bussell why they did not send Hobhouse to 
Ireland and make Stanley Secretary of Wai He said would 
he consent to exchange 9 that he was tired of office, and 
would be glad to be out I said I could not suppose m such 
an emergency that he would allow any personal considerations 
to influence him, and that he would consent to whatever 
arrangement would be most beneficial to the Government 
and conducive to the settlement of Irish affairs The truth 
is (as I told him) that they are with respect to Ii eland m 
the situation of a man who has got an old house m which 
he can no longer live, not tenable, various architects propose 
this and that alteration, to build a room here and pull down 
one there, but at last they find that all these alterations will 
only serve to make the house habitable a little while longer, 
that the dry rot is m it, and that they had better begin, as 
they will be obliged to end, by pulling it down and building 
up a new one He owned this was true, but said that here 
another difficulty presented itself with regard to Stanley — 
whether he would, as a leading member of the Cabinet, con- 
sent to any measures which might go so much further than 
he would be disposed to do I said that I could not ima gine 
(whatever might be his predilections) that his mind was not 
awakened to the necessity of giving way to the state of things, 
and that he might consent to measures which he felt he was 
not a fit person to introduce and recommend He assented 
to this He then talked of the views of the Protestants, of 



1832J 


IRISH TITHES 


311 


the Lefroys, &e , that they began to admit the necessity of 
a change, but by no means would consent to the alienation 
of Church property fiom Protestant uses , that they were 
willing where theie was a large parish consisting entirely 
of Catholics that the tithes should be taken from the rector 
of such parish and given to one who had a laige Protestant 
flock — an arrangement which would disgust the Catholics as 
much as or more than any other, and be considered a perfect 
mockery The fact is we may shift and change and wriggle 
about as much as we will, we may examine and report and 
make laws, but tithe, the tithe system is at an end The 
people will not pay them, and theie are no means of com- 
pelling them The march of events is just as certain as that 
of the seasons The question which is said to be beset with 
difficulties is m fact very easy — that is, its difficulties arise 
from conflicting interests and passions, and not from the 
uncertainty of its operation and end Those conflicting 
passions aie ceitamly veiy great and verj embarrassing, 
and it is no easy matter to deal with them, but it seems to 
me that the wisest policy is to keep oui eyes steadfastly fixed 
on the end, and, admitting the inevitable conclusion, labour 
to bring it about with the smallest amount of individual loss, 
the greatest general benefit, and the best chance of perma- 
nence and stability By casting lmgenng looks at the old 
system, and endeavouring to save something here and there, 
by allowing the Church to lemam m the rags and tatters 
of its old supremacy, we shall foster those hostile feelings 
which it is essential to put down for evei, and leave the 
seeds of grievance and hatred to spring up in a future harvest 
of agitation and confusion 

July 25th — Nothing of moment has occuned lately , the 
dread of cholera absorbs everybody Mrs Smith, young and 
beautiful, was dressed to go to church on Sunday morning 
when she was seized with the disorder, never had a chance of 
rallying, and died at eleven at night This event, shocking 
enough m itself from its suddenness and the youth and beauty 
of the person, has created a terrible alarm , many people have 
taken flight, and others are suspended between their hopes of 
safety m country air and their dread of being removed from 



312 


EEIGrK of WILLIAM IV 


[Ch*p XVIII 


metropolitan aid The disease spieads graduallj m all direc- 
tions m town and country, but without appealing like an 
epidemic, it is scattered and uncertain, it brings to light 
horrible distiess We, who live on the smooth and plausible 
surface, know little of the fughtful appearance of the bowels 
of society 

Don Pedio has never been heard of since he landed, and 
nobody seems much to care whether he or Miguel succeed 
The Tories aie for the latter and the Whigs for the foimer 
In a fourth debate on the Eussian Dutch Loan Ministers 
got a good finale, a large division, and a brilliant speech 
from Stanley, totally unprepared and prodigiously successful 
Nothing could be worse m point of tactics than renewing this 
contest, neithei party having, m fact, a good case Parlia- 
ment is going to separate soon, and the cholera will accelerate 
the prorogation , not a step has been made towards an ap- 
proximation between the rival parties, who appear to be 
animated against each other with unabated virulence The 
moderate Tories talk of their desire to see the Government 
discard then Eadical friends, but the great body give them no 
encouiagement to do so by evincing any diminished hostility 
to them as a party Opinions are so difieient as to the 
probable composition of the next Parliament, that it is 
difficult to amve at any satisfactory conclusion about it The 
Tones evidently expect that they shall reappear m very 
formidable strength, though in particular places the Tory 
party is entirely crushed , the sooner it is so altogether the 
better, for no good can be expected from it, and it would be 
far better to erect a Conservative party upon a new and 
broader basis than to try and bolster up this worn-out, 
prejudiced, obstinate faction But the times aie difficult 
and men aie wanting, the middle classes aie pressing on, 
and there are men enough there of fortune, energy, activity, 
zeal, and ambition — no Cannings perhaps 01 Broughams, but 
a host of fellows of the calibre of the actors m the old French 
Constituent Assembly 

July 2 9th — There has been a great breeze between the 
Chancellor and Sugden, abusing and retorting upon each 



1832] QUARREL BETWEEN BROUGHAM AND SUGDEN 


313 


other from their respective Houses of Parliament As all 
personal matters excite greater interest than any others, so 
has this Scott, Lord Eldon’s son, died, and his place be- 
came vacant Biougham had recommended their abolition 
long ago m his evidence before the House of Commons, and 
both publicly and privately Some days ago Sugden gave 
notice to Horne (Solicitor-General) that he meant to put a 
question to him in the House of Commons as to whether 
these appointments were to be filled up or not, but before he 
did so (at four o’clock in the morning) the writ was moved 
for James Brougham, who had been put by the Chancellor m 
Scott’s place Accordingly the next day Sugden attacked 
the appointment in the House of Commons, and though he 
was by way of only asking a question, he m fact made a long 
vituperative speech Nobody was there to iep]y Althorp 
said he knew nothing of the matter, and various speeches 
were made, all expressive of a desire that the appointment 
should only be tempoiary Horne (it seems) had never told 
the Chancellor what Sugden said, and Denman, who had no 
authority from him, did not dare get up and say that it was 
not to be peimanent Later m the day, having received in- 
structions from the Chancellor, he did get up and say so 
The next day Brougham introduced the subject in the 
House of Lords, and attacked Sugden with all the sarcasm 
and contumely which he could heap upon him, comparing 
him to e a crawling reptile,’ &c Not one of his Tory friends 
said a woid, and, what is curious, the Duke of Wellington 
praised Brougham for his disinterestedness, and old Eldon 
defended the place The folio wmg day (Friday) Sugden 
again brought the matter before the House of Commons, 
complained bitterly of the Chancellor’s speech, was called to 
order by Stanley, when the Speaker interfered, and, dex- 
terously turning Sugden’s attack upon the newspaper report, 
enabled him to go on A violent discussion followed — lather 
awkward for the Chancellor, whose friends endeavoured to 
soften the thing down by denying the accuracy of the report 
After much acrimonious debate the matter ended Yesterday 
the * Times,’ throwing over Brougham and Sugden, asserted 



314 


REM S OF WILLIAM IV 


rcHAP xvm 


the accuracy of its own repoiter, and declaied that whethei 
the Chancellor was right or wiong to have uttered them, the 
■words were spoken by him exactly as they had been reported 
Both parties aie furious, but on the whole the Chancellor 
seems at present to have the worst of it, for it is woise for a 
■m fj.n m his station to be m the wrong, and moie indecent to 
be scumlous, than for an individual who is nothing Sugden 
now declares he will bring on a motion he has long meditate^ 
on the subject of the Court of Chancery, m which he will 
e xhib it to the world the whole conduct of Brougham since he 
has held the Great Seal, his early haste and precipitation, his 
lecent carelessness and delay, his ignorance, inattention, and 
incompetence for the office he holds In this he expects to 
be supported by Wetherell, Knight, and Pemberton, three of 
the most eminent Chancery lawyers, while Brougham has 
nobody but Horne (of the piofession) to defend him If this 
should occur he may thank himself, for he would put Home 
there 

Sir Charles Bagot called on me yesterday , told me that 
he thought the Belgian question was at last on the point of 
being settled, that the King of Holland had made ‘the great 
concession,’ and that the rest must soon follow , that he had 
never passed two such years amidst such difficulties, the King 
so obstinate His view was that by holding out and main- 
taining a large army events would produce war, and that he 
would be able to sell himself to some one of the contending 
parties, getting back Belgium as the price of his aid, that 
he now only gave m because not a hope was left, that the 
difficulties were so great that it was not the fault of this 
Government that matteis were not settled before I asked 
him how the Dutch had contrived to make such an exertion 
He said it was very creditable to them, but that they were 
very nch and very frugal, and had lugged out their hoards 
They had saddled themselves with a debt the interest of which 
amounts to about 700,0001 a year — a good deal for two 
millions of people 

August 1st — Here is an anecdote exhibiting the character 
of Brougham, hot, passionate, and precipitate He is pre- 



1832] 


BROUGHAM’S RESENTMENT 


315 


paring bis Bill foi tbe amendment of tbe Court of Chancery, 
by which the pationage is to be done away with Compen- 
sation was to be given to the piesent interests, but upon this 
lecent affan between Sugden and him, to revenge himself 
upon men who are all 01 mostly of Sugden’s paity, he 
oidered the compensation clauses to be struck out Sefton 
(who is a sort of Sancho to him) came up to dinnei quite 
elated at having heard the order given ‘ I wish/ said he, 
tf you had heard a man treated as I did in the Chancellor's 
room He came m to ask him about the Bill he was drawing 
up “I suppose the compensation clauses are to be put m° 5> 
“ Compensation ^ 99 said Brougham “ No, by God, no com- 
pensation Leave them out, if you please They chose to 
attack me, and they shall have enough of it 5,5 And what will 
be the end of all this & — that the Chancellor shows his spite 
and commits himself, shows that he is influenced m legislation 
by personal feelings, and mcurs the suspicion that because 
he cannot get a compensation foi his brother he is lesolved 
nobody else shall have any Althoip’s speech about the 
pensions on Monday set at lest the question of compensation, 
and if these offices are abolished the Chancellor cannot pre- 
vent their getting it In the House of Lords the eternal 
Russian Dutch Loan came on again The Duke made a 
speech and Wynford made a speech, and they were opposed 
to each othei , the Duke hit the right nail on the head, and 
took that course which he frequently does, and which is such 
a redeeming quality m his political character — addressed 
himself to the question itself \ to the real ments of it, without 
making it a mere vehicle for annoying the Government 
Aberdeen sneered, but when the Duke throws ovei his people 
they can do nothing 

August 8 th — Pedro’s expedition, which always has 
hobbled along, and never exhibited any of that dash which 
is essential to the success of such efforts, may be considered 
hopeless Palmella arrived here a day or two ago, very low, 
and the Regency scrip has fallen four per cent Nobody 
joins them, and it seems pretty clear that, one coqmn for 
another, the Portuguese think they may as well have Miguel 



316 


REIGN OE WILLUM IV 


[Chap XVIII 


The Dutch affair is not yet settled, hut on the point of it, 
for the fiftieth time a ‘little hitch ’ has again arisen Last 
night, in the House of Lords, the Chancellor, m one of his 
most bungling ways, made what he meant to be a sort of 
amende to Sugden, making the matter rather worse than it 
was before, at least for his own ciedit, for he said that £ he 
had never intended to give pam, which he of all things 
abhorred,’ and that he had not been at all m a passion — both 
false, and the latter being in fact his only excuse I sat next 
to Melbourne at dinner, who concuried in the judgment of 
the world on the whole transaction, and said, ‘The real truth 
is, he was m a gieat rage, for he had foi gotten all his own 
evidence and his own speeches, and he meant to have kept 
the place ’ This evidence from his own colleague and friend 
is conclusive, and will be a nice morsel for the future bio- 
grapher of Brougham 

I dined at Holland House yesterdaj , a good many people, 
and the Chancelloi came in aftei dinner, looking like an old 
elothes man and duty as the ground We had a true Holland 
House dinner, two more people arriving (Melbourne and Tom 
Duneombe) than there was room for, so that Lady Holland 
had the pleasme of a couple of general squeezes, and of 
seeing oui arms prettily pinioned Lord Holland sits at 
table, but does not dme He proposed to retire (not from the 
room), but was not allowed, for that would have given us all 
space and ease Loid Holland told some stories of Johnson 
and Garrick which he had heard from Kemble Johnson 
loved to bully Gairick, from a recollection of Gamck’s former 
impertinence When Garrick was m the zenith of his popu- 
lanty, and giown rich, and lived with the great, and while 
Johnson was yet obscuie, the Doctor used to drink tea with 
him, and he would say, ‘Davy, I do not envy you your 
money nor your fine acquaintance, but I envy you your 
power of drinking such tea as this 5 ‘Yes,’ said Ganich, ‘it 
is very good tea, but it is not my best, nor that which I give 
to my Lord this and Sir somebodj t’other ’ 

Johnson liked Fox because he defended his pension, and 
said it was only to blame m not being large enough 



832J 


CHARACTER OE MACAULAY 


317 


Fox, ne said, is a nbeial man, Tie would always be “aut 
Caesar aut nullus , 99 whenever I have seen him he has been 
nullus ’ Lord Holland said Fox made it a rule never to talk 
m Johnson’s presence, because he knew all his conveisations 
were recorded for publication, and he did not choose to figure 
m them 

August 12 th — The House of Commons has finished (or 
nearly) its business Althorp ended with a blunder He 
brought m a Bill to extend the time foi payment of rates 
and for voteis under the new Bill, and because it was opposed 
he abandoned it suddenly , his friends are disgusted Eobarts 
told me that the Bank Committee had executed then labonous 
duties in a spirit of great cordiality, and with a general 
disposition to lay aside all political diffeiences and concui m 
accomplishing the best results , a good thing, fox it is m such 
transactions as these, which afford an opportunity for laying 
aside the bitterness of paity and the lancorous feelings 
which animate men against each other, that the only chance 
can be found of a future amalgamation of public men He 
told me that the evidence all went to piove that little 
improvement could be made m the management of the 
Bank 

Dined yesteidayat Holland House, the Chancellor, Lord 
Grey Luttrell, Palmeiston, and Macaulay The Chancellor 
was sleepy and would not talk, he uttered nothing but 
yawns and grunts Macaulay and Allen disputed history, 
particularly the character of the Empeior Frederick II , and 
Allen declared himself a Guelph and Macaulay a Ghibellme 
Macaulay is a most extraordinary man, and his astonishing 
knowledge is every moment exhibited, but (as far as I have yet 
seen of him , which is not sufficient to judge) he is not agree- 
able His propositions and his allusions are rather too abrupt , 
he starts topics not altogether naturally , then he has none 
of the graces of conversation, none of that exquisite tact and 
refinement which are the result of a felicitous intuition or a 
long acquaintance with good society, or inoie piobably a 
mixture of both The mighty mass of his knowledge is not 
animated by that subtle spirit of taste and disci etion which 



318 


BEIG-K OF -WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVIII 


alone can give it the qualities of lightness and elasticity, and 
without which, though he may have the power of instructing 
and astonishing, he never will attain that of delighting 
and captivating his hearers The dinner was agreeable, and 
enlivened by a squabble between Lady Holland and Allen, 
at which we weie all ready to die of laughing He jeered 
at something she said as brutal, and chuckled at his own 
wit 

Shejiperton, August 31 st — I came here last Sunday to 
see my fathei, who (my mother wrote me word) had been 
unwell for a day or two I got here at four o’clock (havmg 
called on Madame de Lieven at Richmond on the way), 
and when I arrived I found my father at the point of 
death He was attacked as he had often been before, medi- 
cines afforded him no relief, and nothing would stay on his 
stomach On Saturday violent spasms came on, which 
occasioned him dreadful pain , they continued mtermittmgly 
till Sunday afternoon, when, as they took him out of bed to 
put him m a warm bath, he fainted From this state of in- 
sensibility he never recovered, and at half-past twelve o’clock 
he expired My brothers weie both here I sent an express 
for my sister, who was at Malvern and she arrived on Tues- 
day morning Dr Dowdeswell was m the house, and he 
stayed on with us and did all that was required This 
morning he was buried m the church of this village, close to 
the house, in the simplest mannei, and was followed to the 
grave by my brotheis and brother-in-law, Dowdeswell, Ives, 
the doctor who attended him, and the servants He had long 
been ailing, and at his age (nearly 70 years) this event was 
not extraordinary, but it was shocking, because so sudden 
and unexpected, and no idea of danger was entertained by 
himself or those about him My father had some faults and 
many foibles, but he was exposed to great disadvantages m 
early youth , his education was neglected and his disposition 
was spoilt His fathei was useless, and worse than useless, 
as a parent, and his mother (a woman of extraordinary 
capacity and merit) died while he was a young man, having 
been previously separated from hei husband, and havmg 



1832J ANECDOTES OP PRINCESS CHARLOTTE 319 

retired from the world 1 The circumstances of his maircage, 
and the mcidents of his life, would be interesting to none 
but his own family, and need not be recorded by me He 
was a man of a kind, amiable, and liberal disposition, and 
what is remarkable, as he advanced in years his tempei 
grew less irritable and more indulgent, he was cheerful, 
hospitable, and unselfish He had at all times been a lively 
companion, and without much instruction, extensive informa- 
tion, 01 a vigorous understanding, his knowledge of the 
world m the midst of which he had passed his life, his taste 
and turn for humour, and his good-nature made him a very 
agreeable man He had a few intimate friends to whom he 
was warmly attached, a host of acquaintances, and I do not 
know that he had a single enemy He was an affectionate 
father, and ready to make any sacrifices for the happiness 
and welfare of his children— in short, he was amiable and 
blameless m the various lelations of life, and he deserved 
that his memory should be cherished as it is by us with 
sincere and affectionate 1 egret 

September 18 th — I have been in London, at Shepperton, 
and twice at Brighton to see Henry de Eos , came back yester- 
day The world is half asleep Lord Howe returns to the Queen 
as her Chamberlain, and that makes a sensation I met at 
Brighton Lady Keith [Madame de Mahaut], who told us a 
gieat deal about French polities, which, as she is a partisan, 
was not worth much, but she also gave us rather an amusing 
account of the early days of the Princess Charlotte, at the time 
of her escape from Warwick House in a hackney-coach and 
taking refuge with hei mother, and of the earliei affair of 
Captain Hess The former escapade arose from her deter- 
mination to break off her marnage with the Prince of Orange, 
and that from her suddenly falling in love with Pimce 
Augustus of Prussia, and her lesolvmg to marry him and 

1 [Mr Charles Greville, semoi, was the fifth son of Fulk Greville, of 
Wilbury, by Frances Macartney, a lady of some liteiaiy reputation as the 
authoress of an ‘Ode to Indifference * She was the daughter of Geneial 
Macartney Horace Walpole speaks of hex as one of the beauties of his 
time She died in 1789 Mr Greulle may have inherited fiom her his 
strong literary tastes ] 



320 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XVIII 


nobody else, not knowing that he was already married de la 
mam gauche m Prussia It seems that she speedily made 
known her sentiments to the Prince, and he (notwithstanding 
his marriage) followed the thing up, and had two interviews 
with her at her own house, which were contrived by Miss 
Knight) her governess During one of these Miss Mercer 
arrived, and Miss Knight told her that Punce Augustus was 
with the Princess in hei room, and what a fright she (Miss 
Knight, was in Miss Mercei, who evidently had no mind 
anybody should conduct such an affair for the Princess but 
herself, pressed Miss Knight to go and interrupt them, which 
on her declining she did herself The King (Regent as he 
was then) somehow heard of these meetings, and measuies 
of coercion were threatened, and it was just when an ap- 
proaching visit from him had been announced to the Princess 
that she went off Miss Meicei was m the house at the time, 
and the Regent, when he came, found hei there He accused 
her of being a party to the Princess’s flight, but afterwards 
either did or pretended to believe her denial, and sent her 
to fetch the Princess back, which after many pourparlers 
and the intervention of the Dukes of Yoik and Sussex, 
Brougham, and the Bishop of Salisbury, her preceptor, was 
accomplished at two m the morning 

Hess’s affaii was an atrocity of the Princess of Wales 
She employed him to convey letters to her daughter while 
she used to ride in Windsor Park, which he contrived to 
deliver, and occasionally to converse with hei , and on one 
occasion, at Kensington, the Princess of Wales brought them 
together in her own room The Princess afterwards wrote 
him some letters, not containing much harm, but idle and 
improper When the Duke of York’s affair with Mrs Clark 
came out, and all the correspondence, she became very much 
alarmed, told Miss Mercer the whole stoiy, and employed her 
to get back her letters to Hess She accordingly wrote to 
Hess (who was then m Spam), but he evinced a disinclina- 
tion to give them up On his return to England she saw 
him, and on his still demurring she threatened to put the 
affau into the Duke of York’s hands, which fughtened him, 
and then he surrendeied them, and signed a papei de clarin g 



1832] 


BELGIUM, SPAIN, FRANCE 


321 


he had given up everything The King afterwards heaid of 
this affair, and questioning the Princess, she told him every- 
thing He sent for Miss Mercer, and desired to see the 
letters, and then to keep them This she refused This 
Captain Hess was a short, plump, vulgar-looking man, 
afterwards lover to the Queen of Naples, mother of the 
present King, an amour that was carried on under the 
auspices of the Margravine at her villa m the Strada Nova 
at Naples It was, however, detected, and Hess was sent 
away from Naples, and nevei allowed to return I remember 
finding him at Turin (married), when hS was lamenting his 
hard fate m being excluded from that Paradiso Naples 

September 2 8th — At Stoke from the 22nd to the 26th, 
then to the Giove, and returned yesterday, at the former 
place Madame de Lieven, Alvanley, Melbourne , tolerably 
pleasant , question of war again The Dutch King makes 
a stir, and threatens to bombard the town of Antwerp , the 
Fieneh offered to march, and put their troops m motion, but 
Leopold begged they would not, and chose rather to await 
the effect of moie confeiences, which began with great vigour 
a few days ago What they find to say to each other for eight 
or ten hours a day for several consecutive days it is hard to 
guess, as the question is of the simplest kind The King 
of Holland will not give up the citadel of Antwerp, noi 
consent to the free navigation of the Scheldt, the Belgians 
insist on these concessions , the Conference says they shall 
be granted, but Russia Piussia, and Austria will not coeice 
the Dutchman , England and France will, if the others don’t 
object A French army is in motion, and a Fiencli fleet is off 
Spithead , so probably something will come of it Nothing 
has damaged this Government more than these protracted 
and abortive conferences 

Four days ago there was a repoit that the King of Spam 
was dead, accompanied with a good many particulars, and 
all the world began speculatmg as to the succession, but 
yesteiday came news that he was not dead, but better Pedro 
and Miguel are fighting at Oporto with some appearance of 
spirit, Miguel is the favourite The Fiench Government is 
vol n. T 



322 


BEIGN OF WILLIAM IV- 


[Chap XVIII 


lepicsented to "be m a wretched state, squabbling and feeble, 
and nobody is inclined to be Minister Dupm was veiy near 
it, but lefused because Louis Philippe would not make him 
Piesident of the Council The King is deteimmed to be his 
own Mimstei, and can get nobody to take office on these 
teims They think it will end m Dupm The present 
Government declares it cannot meet the Chambers until 
Antwerp is evacuated by the Dutch and the Duchesse de 
Bern departed out of Prance or taken This heroine, much 
to the annoyance of hei family, is dodging about m La Vendee 
and doing rather harm than good to her cause The Dau- 
phmess passed through London, when oui Queen very politely 
went to visit her She has not a shadow of doubt of the 
restoration of hei nephew, and thinks nothing questionable 
but the time She told Madame de Lieven this I talked to 
Madame de Lieven about wai, and added that if any did 
break out it would be the wai of opinion which Canning had 
predicted She said yes, and that the monarchical principle 
(as she calls the absolute pimciple) would then crush the 
other 

I came up with Melbourne to London He is uneasy 
about the state of the countiy — about the desire for change 
and the general lestlessness that prevails We discussed the 
different members of the Government, and he agieed that 
John Eussell had acted unwariantably m making the speech 
he did the other day at Torquay about the Ballot, which, 
though hypothetical, was nothing but an invitation to 
the advocates of Ballot to agitate for it , this, too, fiom a 
Cabinet Mimstei 1 Then comes an awkward sort of explana- 
tion, that what he said was m his individual capacity, as if 
he had any right so to speak Melbourne spoke of Biougham, 
who he said was tossed about m peipetaal caprices, that he 
was fanciful and sensitive, and actuated by all sorts of little- 
nesses, even with regard to people so insignificant that it is 
difficult to conceive how he can ever think about them , that 
he is conservative, but under the influence of his old con- 
nexions, particularly of the Saints His friends are so often 
changed that it is not easy to follow him in this respect. 



1832] 


CONVERSATION WITH LORD MELBOURNE 


323 


Duiham used to be one , now be hates him , he has a high 
opinion of Sefton J of his judgment * f What is talent, what 
are great abilities, when one sees the gigantic intellect of 
Biougham so at fault ? Not only does the world manage to go 
on when little wisdom guides it, but how ill it may go on with a 
gieat deal of talent , which, however, is diffeient from wisdom 
He asked me what I thought of Richmond, and I told him that 
he was ignorant and narrow-minded, but a good sort of 
fellow, only appearing to me, who had known him all my life, 
m an odd place as a Cabinet Minister He said he was sharp, 
quick, the King liked him, and he stood up to Durham more 
than any other man m the Cabinet, and that altogether he was. 
not unimportant , so that the ingredients of this Cabinet seem 
to be put there to neutialise one anothei, and to be good for- 
nothing else , because Durham has an overbearing temper* 
and his fathei-m-law is weak, there must be a man without 
any othei ment than spirit to curb that temper He talked of 
Ii eland, and the difficulty of settling the question there, that 
the Aiclibishop of Canteibuiy was willing to leform the 
Church, but not to alienate any of its revenues c Not/ I 

asked, tf for the payment of a Catholic clergy ? 5 tf No, not 
from Protestant uses * I told him there was nothmg to be 
done but to pull down the edifice and rebuild it He said you 
would have all the Protestants against you, but he did not 
appeal to differ To this things must come at last Mel- 
bourne is exceedingly anxious to keep Loid Hill and Fitzroy 
Someiset at the head of the army, from which the violent of 
his paity would gladly oust them, but he evidently contem- 
plates the possibility of having occasion for the army, and does 
not wish to tamper with the seivice or play any tucks with 
it It is curious to see the working and counteiwoikmg of 
his leal opinions and principles with his false position, and 
the mixture of bluntness, facility and shrewdness, discretion, 
levity and seriousness, which, colouring his mind and cha- 
racter by turns, make up the stiange compound of his 
thoughts and his actions 



324 


BEIG-N Or WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIX 


CHAPTER XIX 

Foreign Difficulties— Conduct of Peel on tlie Designation of Lord Giey — 
Man ners Sutton proposed as Tory Premier— Coolness between Peel and 
the Duke— Embargo on Dutch Ships— Death of Lord Tenterden — 
Denman made Lord Chief Justice — Tableau of Holland House — The 
Speakership— Home and Campbell Attorney- and Solicitor-Geneial— The 
Court at Bughton— Lord Howe and the Queen — Elections under the 
Deform Act— Mr Gully — Petworth — Lord Egremont — Attempt to re- 
instate Lord Howe— Namik Pacha— Lord Lyndhurst’s Veision of what 
occurred on the Designation of Lord Grey— Lord Denbigh appointed 
Chamberlain to the Queen— Brougham’s Privy Council Bill— Talley- 
rand’s Delations with Fox and Pitt— Negro Emancipation Bill— State of 
the West Indies— The Deformed Parliament meets— Dussian Intrigues — 
Dour Days’ Debate on tbe Address— Peel’s Political Career 

hondon , October 7th — I went to Newmarket on the 30th 
'of September, to Panshanger on the 5th, and came to town 
on the 6th Great fears entertained of war , the obstinacy 
of the Dutch King, the appointment of Soult to be Prime 
Minister of Fiance, and the ambiguous conduct of the Allied 
Courts look like war Miguel has attacked Oporto without 
success, but, as he nearly destroyed the English and Fiench 
battalions, he will probably soon get possession of the city 
It is clear that all Portugal is for him, which we may be sorry 
for, but so it is The iniquity of his cause does not appear 
to affect it 

October 12 th — Lady Cowper told me at Panshangei that 
Palmerston said all the difficulties of the Belgian question 
came from Matuscewitz, who was insolent and obstinate, and 
astute m making objections , that it was the more provoking 
as he had been recalled some time ago (the Greek business 
being settled, for which he came), and Palmerston and some 
of the others had asked the Emperor to allow him to stay here, 



1832] TORY ATTEMPTS TO FORM A MINISTRY 325 

on account of his usefulness in drawing up the minutes of the 
pioeeedmgs of the Conference , that Lieven had by no means 
wished him to stay, but could not object when the otheis 
desned it Accoidingly he remained, and now he annojs 
Palmerston to death All this she wrote to Madame de 
Lieven, who replied that it was not the fault of Matusce- 
witz, and that he and Lieven agreed peifectly She talked, 
howevei, rathei moie pacific language This clever, in- 
ti igumg, agreeable diplomatess has renewed her fuendship 
with the Duke of Wellington, to which he does not object, 
though she will haidly ever efface the impression her former 
conduct made upon him My journal is getting intolerably 
stupid, and entnely banen of events I would take to mis- 
cellaneous and pnvate matters if any fell m my way, but 
what can I make out of such animals as I herd with and 
such occupations as I am engaged m ? 

Huston , October 2 6th — Went to Downham on Sunday 
last, the Duke of Rutland, the Walewskis, Lord Burg- 
heish, and Hope Came here on Wednesday morning , the 
usual paity At Downham I picked up a good deal from 
Aibuthnot (who was very ganulous) of a miscellaneous de- 
scription, of which the most curious and important was the 
entire confirmation of (what I before suspected) the ill blood 
that exists between the Duke of Wellington and Peel; 
though the interests of party keep them on decent terms, 
they dislike one anothei, and the Duke’s fi lends detest Peel 
still moie than the Duke does himself He told me all that 
had passed at the tune of the blow-up of the present Govern- 
ment, which I have paitly lecoided from a former conversa- 
tion with him, and his stoiy certainly proves that the 
Duke (though I think he committed an enoimous enor m judg- 
ment) was not influenced by any motives of personal ambition 

As soon as the King sent for Lyndhurst the latter went 
to the Duke, who (as is known) agreed to foim a Govern- 
ment, never doubting that he was to be himself Prime 
Mimstei Lyndhurst went to Peel, who declined to take 
office, and he then went to Baring Lyndhuist and Arbuth- 
not seat foi Baring out of the House of Commons, and took 



326 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Cjl*ap XIX 


him to old Bankes’ house m Palace Yaid, where they had 
then conversation with him He begged for time to consider 
of it, and to be allowed to consult Peel, to which they as- 
sented He afterwaids agreed, but on condition that Man- 
ners Sutton should also be m the Cabinet Lyndhuist had 
about the same time made oveitures to Manneis Sutton, 
and though nothing was finally settled it was undei stood he 
would accept them So matteis stood, when one day (it 
must have been the Wednesday or Thuisdaj) Yesey Fitz- 
geiald called on the Aibuthnots, and m a conveisation 
about the differeut anangements he intimated that Manners 
Sutton expected to be Pnme Minister, and on asking him 
more particularly they found that this was also his own 
impression The next morning Arbuthnot went off to Lynd- 
hurst’s house, where he ai lived before Lyndhuist was 
diessed, and told him what had fallen from Fitzgeiald, and 
asked what it could mean Lyndhuist answered very 
evasively, but promised to have the matter cleaied up 
Aibuthnot, not satisfied, went to the Duke and told him 
what had passed, and added his conviction that there was 
some such project on foot (to make Sutton Pi emier) of which 
he was not awaie The Duke said he did not care a farthing 
who was Pi emier, and that if it was thought desirable that 
Sutton should be he had not the smallest objection, and was 
by no means anxious to fill the post himself I asked 
whether the Duke would have taken office if Sutton had 
been Minister, and was told that nothing was settled, but 
piobably not 

The same day there was a meeting at Apsley House, at 
which the Duke, Lyndhurst, Baring, Ellenborough, and (I 
think) Bosslyn or Aberdeen, or both, were present, and to 
which Sutton came, and held forth for nearly four houis 
upon the position of their affairs and his coming into office 
He talked such incredible nonsense (as I have before 
related) that when he was gone they all lifted up their 
hands and with one voice pronounced the impossibility of 
forming any Government under such a head Baring was 
tnen asked why he had made Sutton’s coming into office 



13*2] MANXES SUTTON PROPOSED AS PREMIER 327 

the condition of Ins own acceptance, and why he had 
wished him to be Prime Minister He said that he had 
never desn ed any such thing himself, and had hardly any 
acquaintance with Sutton, except that as Speaker he was 
civil to him, and he dined with him once a year, but that 
when he had gone to consult Peel, Peel had advised him 
to insist upon having Sutton, and to put him at the head of 
the Government This avowal led to fuither examination 
mto what had passed, and it came out that when Lyndhurst 
went to Peel, Peel pressed Manneis Sutton upon him, 
refusing to take office himself, but promising to support the 
new Government, and uigmg Lyndhurst to offer the Pre- 
miership to Sutton At the same time he put Sutton up to 
this, and desired him to refuse every office except that of 
Premier Accordingly, when Lyndhurst went to Sutton, the 
latter said he would be Prime Minister or nothing, and 
Lyndhuist had the folly to promise it to him Thus matters 
stood when Lady Cowley, who was living at Apsley House, 
and got hold of what was passing, went and told it to her 
bi other, Lord Salisbury, who lost no time m imparting it to 
some of the other High Tory Lords, who all agreed that it 
would not do to have Sutton at the head of the Government, 
and that the Duke was the only man for them On Satur- 
day the great dinner at the Conservative Club took place, at 
which a number of Tories, principally Peers, with the Duke 
and Peel, were present A great many speeches were made, 
all full of enthusiasm foi the Duke, and expressing a deter- 
mination to support**^ Government Peel was in very ill 
humour and said little , the Duke spoke much in honour of 
Peel, applauding his conduct and saying that the difference 
of their positions justified each m his different line The 
next day some of the Duke’s friends met, and agreed that 
the unanimous desire for the Duke’s being at the head of 
the Government which had been expressed at that dinner, 
together with the unfitness of Sutton, proved the absolute 
necessity of the Duke’s being Piemier, and it was resolved 
that a communication to this effect should be made to Peel 
Aberdeen charged himself with it and went to Peel’s house. 



328 


KEIGKS OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIX 


wheie Sutton was at the time Peel came to Abeideen m 
a very bad humour, said he saw from what had passed at 
the dinner that nobody was thought of but the Duke, and 
he should wash his hands of the whole business, that he had 
already declined having anything to do with the Govern- 
ment, and to that determination he should adhere The 
following Monday the whole thing was at an end 

I am not sure that I have stated these occurrences 
exactly as they were told me There may be enois m the 
Older of the interviews and pomparleis, and m the verbal 
details, but the substance is correct, and may be summed up 
to this effect that Peel, full of ambition, but of caution, 
animated by deep dislike and jealousy of the Duke (which 
policy induced him to conceal, but which temper betrayed), 
thought to make Manners Sutton play the part of Adding- 
ton, while he was to be anothei Pitt , he fancied that he 
could gam m political character, by an opposite line of con- 
duct, all that the Duke would lose , and he resolved that a 
Government should be formed the existence of which should 
depend upon himself Manners Sutton was to be his 
creature , he would have dictated every measure of Govern- 
ment , he would have been their protector m the House of 
Commons, and, as soon as the fitting moment ai rived, he 
would have dissolved this miseiable Ministry and placed 
himself at the head of affairs All these deep-laid schemes, 
and constant regard of self, form a strong contrast to the 
simplicity# and heartiness of the Duke’s conduct, and make 
the two men appear m a very different light from that m 
which they did at first Peel acted light fiom bad motives, 
the Duke wiong fiom good ones The Duke put himself 
forward, and encountered all the obloquy and repioach to 
which he knew he exposed himself, and having done so* 
cheerfully offered to lesign the powei to anothei Peel en- 
deavoured to seize the power, but to shield himself from 
responsibility and danger It is a melancholy proof of the 
dearth of talent and the great capacity of the man that, 
notwithstanding the detection of his practices and his 
motives, the Tones are compelled still to keep well with 



1832] 


EMBARGO ON DUTCH SHIPS 


329 


lmn and to accept him for their leadei No cordiality, 
however, can exist again between him and the Duke and 
his friends, and, should the Whig Government be expelled, 
the animosity and disunion engendeied by these circum- 
stances will make it extremely difficult to form a Tory 
Administration [In a short time it was all made up — foi- 
given, if not forgotten ] 

November 7th — Came to town on Sunday The answer 
of the Dutch King to the demand of England and Eiance 
that he should give up Antweip was anxiously expected 
It aruved on Monday afternoon, and was a refusal Ac- 
cordingly a Council met yesterday, at which an order was 
made foi laying an embaigo on Dutch merchant ships, which 
are to be sequestrated, but not confiscated The Fieneh 
army marches foithwith, and Palmerston told me they ex- 
pected two or three dajs of bombaidment would suffice for 
the capture of the citadel, after which the Piench would 
letire within then own fiontiei The combined fleets will 
remain at the Downs, foi they can do nothing on the coast 
of Holland at this season of the year Theie is a good deal 
of jealousy and no fuendly spirit between the English and 
French sailors , and the Duke of Richmond told me yesterday 
that the Deal pilots desned nothing so much as to get the 
French ships into a scrape Great excitement prevails about 
this Dutch question, which is so complicated that at this 
moment I do not understand its ments Matuscewitz, how- 
ever, who is opposed totis vimbus to the policy of England 
and Fiance, told me that nobody could have behaved worse 
than the King of Holland has done, shuffling and tricking 
throughout, but they say he is so situated at home that he 
could not give way if he would A few days must now de- 
cide the question of war or peace All the Ministers, except 
Brougham, Loid Holland, Grant, and Carlisle, were at the 
Council jesterday — the Archbishop of Canterbury foi a prayer 
(for we omit no opportunity of offering supplications or re- 
turning thanks to Heaven), and the new Loid Chief Justice 
to be sworn a Privy Councillor 

Lord Tenteiden died on Sunday night, and no time was 



330 REIGN OE WILLIAM IV [Chap XIX 

lost m appointing Denman as Ins successor Coming as lie 
does aftei four of the greatest lawyers who ever sat upon the 
Bench, this choice will not escape severe censure , for the 
reputation of Denman as a lawyer is not high, and he has 
been one of the most inefficient Attorneys- General who ever 
filled the office It has been a constant mattei of complaint 
on the part of the Government and their friends that the 
law officers of the Ciown gave them no assistance, but, on 
the contrary, got them into scrapes Denman is an honour- 
able man, and has been a consistent politician , latterly, of 
course, a Radical of considerable vehemence, if not of violence 
The other men who were mentioned as successors to 
Tenterden weieLyndhurst, Scarlett, and James Parke The 
lattei is the best of the puisne judges, and might have been 
selected if all political considerations and political connexions 
had been disregarded Lyndhurst will be overwhelmed with 
anguish and disappointment at finding himself for ever ex- 
cluded fiom the great object of Ins ambition, and m which 
his piofessional claims are so immeasurably superior to those 
of his successful competitor , nor has he lost it by any sacri- 
fice of interest to honoui, but merely from the unfoitunate 
issue of his political speculations When he was made Chief 
Baron a regular compact was made, a secret aitiele, that he 
should succeed on Tenteiden’s death to the Chief Justice- 
ship , which bargain was of couise cancelled by his declara- 
tion of war on the Reform question and his consequent 
breach with Lord Grey, though by far the fittest man, he 
was now out of the question It will be the more grating 
as he has just evinced his high capabilities by pronouncing 
m the Court of Exchequer one of the ablest judgments (m 
Small v Attwood) that were ever delivered [It was after- 
wards reversed by the House of Lords ] Scarlett, who had 
been a Whig for forty years, and who has long occupied the 
first place m the Court of Ring’s Bench, would have been 
the man if his political dissociation from his old connexions, 
and his recent hostility to them, had not also cancelled his 
claims , so that every rival being set aside fiom one cause 
01 anothei, Denman by one of the most extiaordmary pieces 



1832] 


DENMAN LORD CHIEF JUSTICE 


331 


of good foitune that evei happened to man finds himself 
elevated to this gieat office, the highest object of a lawyei’s 
ambition, and, in my opinion, one of the most enviable 
stations an Englishman can attain It is said that as a Com- 
mon Seijeant he displayed the qualities of a good judge, 
and his friends confidently assert that he will make a veiy 
good Chief Justice, but his legal qualifications aie admitted 
to be very inferior to those of his predecessors [He made 
a very bad one, but was peisonally popular and geneially 
respected for his high and honouiable moral charactei ] 
Tenterden was a remarkable man, and his elevation did 
great ciedit to the judgment which selected him, and which 
piobably was Eldon’s He had never led a cause, but he 
was a profound lawyer, and appears to have had a mind 
fraught with the spirit and genius of the law, and not nar- 
rowed and trammelled by its subtleties and technicalities 
In spite of his low birth, want of oratorical power, and of 
personal dignity, he was gieatly revered and dieaded on the 
Bench He was an austere, but not an lll-humouied judge , 
his manners were remarkably plain and unpolished, though 
not vulgar He was an elegant scholar, and cultivated clas- 
sical literature to the last Brougham, whose congenial 
tastes delighted m his classical attainments, used to bandy 
Latin and Greek with him from the Bar to the Bench , and 
he has more than once told me of his sending Tenterden 
Greek verses of John Williams’, of which the next day 
Tenterden gave him a translation m Latin verse He is 
supposed to have died very rich Denman was taken into 
the King’s closet before the Council, when he was sworn m , 
the Kmg took no particular notice of him, and the appoint- 
ment is not, probably, very palatable to his Majesty 

November 1 5th — Sheriff business at the Exchequer Court 
on Monday, saw Lyndhurst and Denman meet and shake 
hands with much politeness and gumace 

November 20 th — Dined at Holland House the day before 
yesterday , Lady Holland is unwell, fancies she must dme at 
five o’clock, and exerts hei powei over society by making every- 
body go out there at that hour, though nothing can be moie 



832 


EEIGX OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chip XDL 


inconvenient than thus shoitemng the day, and nothing moie 
tiresome than such lengthening of the evening Eogeis and 
Luttiell weie staying there The tableau of the house is 
this —Before dmnei, Lady Holland affecting illness and 
almost dissolution, but with a very respectable appetite, and 
aftei dmnei in high force and vigour , Lord Holland, with 
his chalkstones and unable to walk, l}ing on his couch in 
\eiy good spirits and talking away, Luttiell and Rogeis 
walking about, evei and anon looking despairingly at the 
clock and making short excursions fiom the drawing-room, 
Allen surly and disputatious, poring ovei the newspapeis, 
and replying m monosyllables (generally negative) to what- 
ever is said to him The giand topic of mteiest, far exceed- 
ing the Belgian or Poituguese questions, was the illness of 
Lady Holland’s page, who has got a tumour m his thigh 
This ‘ little cieatuie,’ as Lady Holland calls a great hulking 
fellow of about twenty, is called ‘ Edgar,’ his real name being 
Tom or Jack, which he changed on being elevated to his 
present dignity, as the Popes do when they aie elected to 
the tiara More rout is made about him than othei people 
aie permitted to make about then children, and the inmates 
of Holland House aie invited and compelled to go and sit 
with and amuse him Such is the social despotism of this 
stiange house, which piesents an oad mixtuie of luxuiy and 
constiamt, of enjoyment physical and intellectual, with an 
alloy of small desagrements Talleyrand generally comes at 
ten or eleven o’clock, and stays as long as they will let him 
Though everybody who goes there finds something to abuse 
01 to ridicule m the mistress of the house, or its ways, all 
continue to go, all like it moie or less, and whenever, by 
the death of either, it shall come to an end, a vacuum will 
be made m society which nothing will supply It is the 
house of all Europe , the world will suffer by the loss , and 
it may with truth be said that it will c eclipse the gaiety of 
nations ’ 

November 27th — At Roehampton fiom Saturday till 
Monday The Chancellor had been there a few days before, 
from whomLord Dover had picked up the gossip of the Govern- 



THE SPEAKEKSHIP 


333 


m2] 

ment There had been a fresh breeze with Durham, who it; 
seems has letumed from Russia more odious than ever His 
Molenee and insolence, as usual, were vented on Lord Grey, 
and the rest of the Cabinet, as heretofore, are obliged to 
submit I have since heard from the Duke of Richmond that 
the cause of this last storm was something relating to Church 
Reform, and that he had been forced to knock under I fancy 
he wanted to go much further than the others, probably to 
unfrock the Bishop of Durham and Bishop Phillpotts, the 
foimei because he is a greatei man m the county than him- 
self, and the latter fiom old and inextinguishable hatred and 
animosity 

There has been another dispute about the Speakership 
All the Cabinet except Althorp want to put Abercromby m 
the chair, and Althorp insists on having Littleton The 
former is m all respects the best choice, and the man whom 
they ought, from his long connexion with the Whigs and 
his consistency and respectability, to propose, but Althoip 
thought fit to commit himself m some way to Littleton, who 
has no claims to be compared with those of Aberciomb} 
(having been half his life m opposition to the piesent Govern- 
ment), and he obstinately insists upon the expectations held 
out to him being lealised Lord Grey, though very anxious 
foi Aberciomby, thinks it necessary to defer to the leadei of 
the House of Commons, and the consequence is a very dis- 
agieeable dispute on the subject Abercromby is greatly 
mortified at being postponed to Littleton, and not the less 
as Althoip has always been his fuend The language of 
Dover, who is a sort of jackal to Brougham, clearly indicates 
the desire of that worthy to get nd of Lord Giey and put 
himself m his place All these little squabbles elicit some 
disparaging remarks on Lord Grey’s weakness, folly, or 
cupidity Hceret laten — the offer of the Attorney- Genei alship, 
and the day of vengeance is intended to come 1 

After considerable delay Horne and Campbell were 
appointed Attorney- and Solicitor-General, the delay was 

1 [This refers to Lord Grey’s having offered the Attorney-Generalship 
to Brougham when Government was formed ] 



334 


ELIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIX 


occasioned by ineffectual attempts to dispose of Home else- 
where They wanted to get some puisne judge to resign, 
and to put Horne on the Bench, but they could not make 
any such airangement, so Horne is Attorney Pepys was to 
have been Solicitor if the thing could have been managed 
I don’t think I picked up anything else, except that the King 
was very averse to the Fiench attack upon Antweip, and 
consented to the hand-m-hand anangement between Fiance 
and England with eonsideiable leluctance The fact is 
he hates this Government so much that he dislikes all 
they do 

Lord Lansdowne is just come fiom Pans, and gives a 
flounshing account of the piospects of King Louis Philippe 
and his Government, but as he is the Due de Bioglie’s intimate 
fnend his opinion may be prejudiced The King appeals 
ceitamly to have lather gained than not by the attack which 
was made on him, from the coolness and courage he evinced, 
and it is a great point to have proved that he is not a coward 

Brighton , December 14 th — Came here last Wednesday 
week , Council on the Monday for the dissolution , place very 
full, bustling, gay, and amusing I am staying m De Eos’s 
house with Alvanley, Chesterfields, Howes, Lievens, Cow- 
peis, all at Brighton, and plenty of occupation m visiting, 
gossiping, dawdling, uding, and driving, a veiy idle life, and 
impossible to do anything The Couit very active, vulgar, 
and hospitable. King, Queen, Pnnces, Princesses, bastaids, 
and attendants constantly tiottmg about m every dnection 
the election noisy and dull — the Court candidate beaten and 
two KadicaJs elected Everybody talking of the siege of 
Antwerp and the elections So, with plenty of animation, and 
discussion, and cunosity, I like it very well Lord Howe 
is devoted to the Queen, and never away from her She 
receives his attentions, but demonstrates nothing m return , 
he is like a boy in love with this fiightful spotted Majesty, 
while his delightful vfafe is laid up (with a sprained ancle 
and dislocated joint) on her couch 

Brighton , December 17 th — On Sunday I heard Anderson 
pieach He does not write his sermons, but preaches fiom 



832] 


ME 0ULLY 


335 


notes , very eloquent, voice and manner perfect, one of the 
best I evei heaid, both preacher and reader 

The borough elections are nearly over, and have satisfied 
the Government They do not seem to be bad on the whole , 
the metropolitans have sent good men enough, and there 
was no tumult m the town At Hertford Duncombe was 
louted by Salisbury’s long purse He hired such a numerous 
mob besides that he earned all before him Some notorious 
characteis have been leturned, among them, Faithful here, 
Gronow at Stafford, Gully, Pontefract, Oobbett, Oldham, 
though I am glad that Cobbett is m Parliament Gully’s 
history is extraordinary He was put m training twenty- 
five or thnty years ago by Mellish to fight Pierce, surnamed 
the ‘Game Chicken,’ being then a butchei’s apprentice, 
he fought him and was beaten He afteiwaids fought 
Belchei (I believe), and Giegson twice, and left the prize- 
ring with the reputation of being the best man m it He 
then took to the turf, was successful, established himself at 
Newmarket, wheie m a few years he made some money At 
the same time he connected himself with Mr Watt in the 
north, by betting for him, and this being at the time when 
Watt’s stable was veiy successful, he won large sums of 
monej by his horses Having become uch he embaiked in 
a great coal speculation, which answered beyond his hopes, 
and his shares soon yielded immense profits His wife m 
the meantime died, and he aftei wards married the daughtei 
of an innkeeper, who proved as gentlewomanlike as the 
other had been the reverse, and who is veiy pietty besides 
He now gradually withdrew from the betting ring, still 
keeping horses, and betting occasionally m large sums, 
and about a year or two ago, having pieviously sold the 
Hare Park to Sir Maik Wood, where he lived for two or 
three years, he bought a property near Pontefract, and 
settled down (at Ackworth Paik) as John Gully, Esq, a 
gentleman of fortune At the Reform dissolution he was 
pressed to come forward as candidate for Pontefiact, but 



336 


KEIGN 0 F WILLIAM IV 


[CHAr XIX 


after some hesitation he declined Latterly he has taken 
great interest m politics, and has been an ardent Eeformer 
and a liberal subscnbei for the advancement of the cause 
When Parliament "was about to be dissolved, he was again 
invited to stand for Pontefract by a numerous deputation , 
he again hesitated, but finally accepted , Lord Mexborough 
withdrew, and he was elected without opposition In 
person he is tall and finely formed, full of strength and 
grace, with delicate hands and feet, his head set well on 
his shoulders, and remarkably graceful and even dignified 
mhis actions and manners , he has strong sense, discretion, 
reserve, and a species of good taste which has pi evented, 
m the height of his fortunes, his beliavioui fiom ever 
transgiessmg the bounds of modesty and respect, and he has 
gradually separated himself from the rabble of the betting 
ring, where he was once conspicuous, and tacitly asserted 
his own independence and acquit ed gentility without 
pver presuming towards those whom he has been accus- 
tomed to regard with deference His position is now 
more anomalous than ever, foi a member of Parliament 
is a great man, though theie appear no leasons whj 
the suffrages of Pontefract should place him m different 
social relations towards us than those m which we mutually 
stood before 

Peiworth , December 20 th — Came heie yesterday It is a 
very grand place , house magnificent and full of fine objects, 
both ancient and modem , the Sir Joshuas and Vandykes 
particularly interesting, and a gieat deal of all soits that is 
worth seeing Lord Egiemont was eighty-one the day before 
yesterday, and is still healthy, with faculties and memoiy 
apparently unimpaned He has reigned here foi sixty years 
with great authonty and influence He is shiewd, eccentric, 
and benevolent, and has always been munificent and charit- 
able m his own way, he patronises the arts and fosters 
nsmg genius Painters and sculptors find employment and 
welcome in his house , he has built a gallery which is full of 



1832 ] 


EARL OR EGREMONT 


337 


pictures and statues, some of which aie veiy fine, and the 
pictures scattered thiough the house are mteiesting and 
cunous Lord Egi emont hates ceiemony, and can’t bear to be 
personally meddled with , he likes people to come and go as 
it suits them, and say nothing about it, never to take leave of 
him The party here consists of the Oowpeis, his own family, 
a Lady E Romney, two nieces, Mrs Tiedcioft a neighbour, 
Ridsdale a parson, Wynne, Turnei, the gieat landscape 
painter, and a young artist of the name of Lucas, whom Lord 
Egiemont is bringing into notice, and who will owe his for- 
tune (if he makes it) to him Lord Egiemont is enormously 
rich, and lives with an abundant though not very refined 
hospitality The house wants modern comforts, and the 
servants are mstic and uncouth , but everything is good, and 
it all bears an air of solid and anstociatic grandeur The 
stud groom told me theie ne 300 hoises of different sorts 
here His course, however, is nearly lun, and he has the 
mortification of feeling that, though surrounded with children 
and giandchildren, he is almost the last of his race, and that 
his family is about to be extinct Two old bi others and one 
childless nephew are all that are left of the Wyndhams, and 
the latter has been many years marned All his own chil- 
dren are illegitimate, but he has everything in his power, 
though nobody has any notion of the manner m which he 
will dispose of his pioperty It is impossible not to reflect 
upon thepiodigious wealth of the Earls of Northumberland, 
and of the proud Duke of Somerset who married the last 
heiress of that house, the betrothed of three husbands All 
that Lord Egremont has, all the Duke of Northumberland’s 
property, and the Duke of Rutland’s Cambridgeshire estate 
belonged to them, which together is probably equivalent to 
between 200,000? and 300,000? a year Banks told me that 
the Northumberland property, when settled on Sir H Smith- 
son, was not above 12,000? a year 1 

1 [The eleventh Eail of Northumberland, Joscelyn Percy, died in 1670* 
leaving an only daughter, who married Chailes Seymour, ninth Duke of 
Somerset This lady is described as ‘the betrothed of three husbands * 
because she was marned at fourteen to Henry Cavendish, son of the Duke 

VOL II Z 



338 


REIGN OE "WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIX 


Brighton, December 81 st — Lady Howe gave me an account 
of the offer of the Chamberlamship to hex husband again 
They added the condition that he should not oppose Govern- 
ment, but was not to be obliged to support them This he 
refused, and he regarded the proposal as an insult , so the 
Queen was not conciliated the more She likewise told me 
that the cause of her former wrath when he was dismissed 
was that neither the King nor Lord Grey told her of it, and 
that if they had she would have consented to the sacrifice at 
once with a good grace, but m the way it was done she 
thought herself grossly ill-used It is impossible to ascertain 
the exact nature of this connexion Howe conducts himself 
towards her like a young aident lovei , he never is out of 
the Pavilion, dmes there almost every day, 01 goes every 
evening, rides with her, never quitting hei side, and never 
takes his eyes off her She does nothing, but she admits his 
attentions and acquiesces in his devotion , at the same time 
there is not the smallest evidence that she treats him as a 
lover If she did it would be soon known, for she is sur- 
rounded by enemies All the Fitzclarences dislike her, and 
treat her more or less disrespectfully She is aware of it, 
hut takes no notice She is very civil and good-humoured 
to them all , and as long as they keep within the bounds of 
decency, and do not break out into actual impertinence, she 
piobably will contmue so 

of Newcastle, who died m the following year She was then affianced to 
Thomas Thynne of Longleat, who was assassinated m 1682 , and at last 
married to the Duke of Somerset The eldest son of this marriage, Algernon 
Seymour, who succeeded to the Dukedom of Somerset m 1748, was cieated 
Earl of Northumberland on the 2nd of October, 1749, andEail of Egremont 
on the following day, with remainder (as legards the lattei title) to his 
nephew Sir Chailes Wyndham, who succeeded him. m Fehiuary 1750 The 
.Earldom of Northumberland passed at the same time to Sir Hugh Smithson, 
son-in-law of Dulse Algernon, who was cieated Duke of Northumberland 
in 1766 The titles and the vast property of the Duke of Somerset, Eail of 
Northumberland, thus came to be divided 

George O’Bnen Wyndham, third Earl of Egremont, to whom Mr Gie- 
ville paid this visit, was horn on the 18th of December, 1751 He was 
therefore eighty-two years o\d at this time , but he lived five years longer, 
and died m 1837, famous and beloved for his splendid hospitality and ior 
his liberal and judicious patronage of tbe arts, and likewise of the turf ] 



1833] 


NAMIK PACHA 


339 


Two nights ago there was a great assembly after a dinner 
for the reception of the Tuikish Ambassador, Namik Pacha 
He was brought down by Palmerston and introduced befoie 
dinner to the King and Queen He is twenty-eight years 
old, speaks Fieneh well, and has good manners , his dress 
very simple — a red cap, black vest, trousers and boots, a gold 
chain and medal round his neck He did not take out any 
lady to dinner, but was placed next the Queen After dmnei 
the King made him a ridiculous speech, with abundant 
flourishes about the Sultan and his fnendship for him, which 
is the more droll from his having been High Admiral at the 
time of the battle of Navarmo, to which the Pacha replied 
m a sonoious voice He admned everything, and conversed 
with great ease All the stupid, vulgar Englishwomen fol- 
lowed him about as a lion with offensive curiosity 


1833 

January 3rd — Lady Howe begged her husband to show 
me the correspondence between him and Sn Herbert Taylor 
about the Chambeilamskip It is long and confused , Taylor’s 
first lettei, m my opinion, very impel tment, for it reads him 
a pretty severe lecture about his behaviour when he held the 
office before Howe is a foolish man, but in this business he 
acted well enough, better than might have been expected 
Taylor, by the King’s desire, pioposed to him to resume the 
office, and aftei some cavilling he agreed to do so with 
liberty to vote as he pleased, but promising not to be violent 
So stood the mattei on the 9th of September He heard 
nothing more of it till the 5th of November, when young 
Hudson 1 wrote by the King’s orders to know definitely if 
he meant to take it, but that if he did he must be neutral ’ 
Howe wrote back woid that on such terms he declined it I 

1 [* Young Hudson ’ was the page of honour who was sent to Home in 
the following year to fetch Sn Robert Peel, when, as Mr Disraeli expressed 
it, ‘ the burned Hudson lushed into the chambers of his Vatican ’ He grew 
up to be a very able and distinguished diplomatist, Sir James Hudson, GOB, 
who rendered great services to the cause of Italian independence ] 



340 


FEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIX 


told lum my opinion of the whole business, and added my 
strenuous advice that he should immediately prevail on the 
Queen to appoint somebody else I could not tell him all 
that people said, but I uiged it as strongly as I could, hint- 
ing that theie weie veiy urgent reasons for so doing He 
did not relish this advice at all, owned that he clung tena- 
ciously to the ofiice, liked everything about it, and longed to 
avail himself of some change of circumstances to return , and 
that though he was no longer hei officer, he had ever since 
done all the business, and in fact was, without the name, as 
much her Chamberlain as ever Lady Howe, who is vexed to 
death at the whole thing, was enchanted at my advice, and 
vehemently uiged him to adopt it After he went away she 
told me how glad she was at what I had said, and asked me 
if people did not say and believe everything of Howe’s con- 
nexion with the Queen, which I told her they did I must 
say that what passed is enough to satisfy me that there is 
what is called * nothing m it 9 but the folly and vanity of 
being the confidential officer and councillor of this hideous 
Queen, for whom he has worked himself up into a soit of 
chivalrous devotion Yesterday Howe spoke to the Queen 
about it, and proposed to speak to the Km g , the Queen (he 
says) would not hear of it, and forbad his speaking to the 
King To-day he is gone away, and I don’t know what he 
settled, piobably nothing 

Lyndhurst dined here the day before yesteiday Finding 
I knew all that had passed about the negotiations foi a Tory 
Government m the middle of the Keform question, he told 
me his story, which diffeis very little from that which 
Arbuthnot had told me at Downham, and folly corroboiates 
his account of the duplicity of Peel and the extiaordmaiy 
conduct of Lyndhuist himself He said that as soon as he 
had left the King he went to the Duke, who said he must go 
directly to Peel Peel refused to join The Duke desned 
him to go back to Peel, and propose to him to be Prime 
Minister and manage evei y thing himself Peel still declined, 
on which he went to Baring Baring begged he might con- 



1633] LY^DHUKST AND &CANNEKS SUT10N 341 

suit Peel, winch was gi anted He came back, said he would 
take office, but that they must invite Manners Sutton also 
They did so, and Sutton refused Yesey Fitzgerald, how- 
evei, suggested to Lyndhurst that if they proposed to Sutton 
to be Prime Minister peihaps he would accept Another 
conversation ensued with Sutton, and a meeting was fixed at 
Apsley House on the Sunday In the meantime Lyndhurst 
went down to the King and told him what had taken place, 
adding that Sutton would not do, and that the Duke alone 
could foim a Government At Apsley House Sutton talked 
foi thiee hours, and such infernal nonsense that Ljndhurst 
was ready to go mad , nor would he decide They pressed 
him to say if he would take office or not He said he must 
wait till the next morning They said, 6 It must be very early, 
then 5 In the morning he put off deciding (on some frivolous 
pretext; till the afternoon He went to the House of Com- 
mons without having given any answei The famous debate 
ensued, and the whole game was up 

All this tallies with the other account, only he did not 
say that Peel had desired Baring to insist on Sutton, and 
had advised Sutton to take no place but the highest, nor 
that he had without the Duke’s knowledge offered Sutton 
that post, and concealed fiom Sutton his subsequent opinion 
-of his incapacity and determination that he should not 
have it I asked Lyndhurst how he managed with Sutton, 
and whethei he had not come to Apsley House with the 
impression on his mind that he was to be Piemier He 
said that ‘ he had evaded that question with Sutton 5 — that 
is, all paities weie deceived, while the Duke, who meant to 
act nobl) , suffered all the blame He showed gieat disregaid 
of personal interests and selfish views, but I shall always 
think his eirox was enormous It is lemaikable that this 
story is so little known 

They had a dmnei and dancing the night before last at 
the Pavilion for New Year’s Day, and the King danced a 
country dance with Lord Amelius Beauclerc, an old Admiral 

London , January 11th — Came to town with Alvanley the 
day befoie 3 esterday Howe plucked up courage, spoke to 



842 


BEIGN Oh WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIX 


the King and Queen, and settled Denbigh’s appointment, 1 * * 
though, not without resistance on the part of their Majesties 
Lord Grey came down, and was veiy well received by both 
At the commerce table the King sat by him, and was full of 
jokes, called him continually ‘ Loid Howe,’ to the great 
amusement of the bystanders and of Lord Grey himself 
Munster came down and was leeonciied, condescending 
moyennant a douceur of 2,5001 to accept the Constableship 
of the Round Tower The stones of the Kmg are uncom- 
monly ridiculous He told Madame de Ludolf, who had been 
Ambassadress at Constantinople, that he desired she would 
lecommend Lady Ponsonby to all her friends there, and she 
might tell them she was the daughter of one of his late 
brother’s sultanas (Lady Jeisey) His Majesty insisted on 
Lord Stafford’s taking the title of Sutherland, and ordered 
Gower to send him an expiess to say so One day at dinner 
he asked the Duke of Devonshire c where he meant to he 
huned ! 9 

I received a few days ago at Brighton the draft of a Bill 
of Brougham’s for transferring the jurisdiction of the 
Delegates to the Privy Council, or rather for creating a new 
Court and sinking the Privy Council m it Lord Lansdowne 
sent it to me, and desired me to send him my opinion upon 
it I showed it to Stephen, and returned it to Loid 
Lansdowne with some criticisms m which Stephen and I 
had agreed It is a very bungling piece of work, and one 
which Lord Lansdowne ought not to consent to, the object 
evidently being to make a Court of which Brougham shall 
be at the head, and to transfer to it much of the authority 
of the Crown, Parliament, and Privy Council, all from his 
ambitious and insatiable desire of personal aggrandisement 
I have no doubt he is playing a deep game, and pavmg the 
way for his own accession to power, striving to obtain popu- 
larity and influence with the Kmg , that he will succeed to a 
great degree, and for a certain time, is probable Manners 

1 [William Basil Percy, seventh Earl of Denbigh, was appointed Cham- 

berlain to Queen Adelaide at this time, and remained m the service of hei 

Majesty — a most excellent and devoted servant— to the close of her hfe ] 



* 833 ] 


STATE OF THE TORY PARTY 


843 


Sutton is to be again Speaker Althoip wrote him a very 
flummery lettei, and he accepted The Government wants 
to be out of the scrape they are m between Aberciomby and 
Littleton, and Sutton wants his peeiage Everything seems 
prosperous heie, the Government is strong, the House of 
Commons is thought respectable on the whole and safe, tiade 
is brisk, funds rising, money plentiful, confidence revivmg, 
Tones sulky 

January 17th — The Government don’t know what to do 
about the embargo on the Dutch ships Soon after they 
had laid it on the} made a second order allowing ships with 
perishable goods to gofiee, and thinking the whole thing 
would be soon over, they desired this might be construed 
indulgently, and accordingly many ships were suffered to 
pass (with goods moie oi less perishing) undei that ordex 
Now that the King of Holland continues obstinate they 
want to squeeze him, and to construe the ordei strictly. 
There have been many consultations what to do, whether 
they should make another older lescmdmg the last oi 
execute the formei moie strictly Both are liable to objec- 
tions The first will appeal like a cruel proceeding and evi- 
dence of uncertainty of purpose , the last will show a 
capricious variation m the piactice of the Privy Council, with 
which the mattei rests Their wise heads were to be put 
together last night to settle this knotty pomt 

Wharneliffe showed me a paper he has written, in which, 
affcei buefly recapitulating the present state of the Tory 
party and the condition of the new Parliament (particularly 
as to the mode m which it was elected, or rather under what 
influence), he proceeds to point out what ought to be the 
couise foi the Tones to adopt It is moderate and becoming 
enough, and he has imparted it to the Duke of Wellington, 
who concurs m his view I wonder, however, that he is not 
sick of writing papers and imparting views, aftei all that 
passed last year, after his fiuitless attempts, his false moves, 
and the treatment he received at the hands of the Tories , 
but he seems to have forgotten oi foi given everything, and 
is disposed to wriggle himself back amongst the party upon 



344 


REIGN OE WILLIAM IV 


[Chap 


any terms He acknowledges one tiling full} , and that is 
the despeiate and woebegone condition of the paity itself, 
and the impossibility of then doing anything now as a 
party 

Loid Lansdowne received veiy complacently my cnti- 
eisms on Brougham’s Bill, and has acknowledged since he 
came to town that it would not do at all as it now stands 
The King has been delighting the Whigs, and making him- 
self moie udiculous and contemptible by the most extrava- 
gant civilities to the new Peers — that is, to Western and 
about Lord Staffoid He now appears to be very fond of his 
Ministers 

Januai y 19 th — I have at last succeeded m stimulating 
Lord Lansdowne to something like resistance (or lathei the 
promise of it) to Brougham’s Bill I have proved to him 
that his dignity and his interest will both be eompiomised 
by this Bill, which intends to make the Chancellor President 
of the Court, and ergo of the Council, and to give him all the 
patronage theie will be Against these pioposals he kicks , 
at least he is lestive, and shows S} mptoms of kicking, though 
he will very likely be still again I sent the Bill to Stephen, 
who instantly and currente calamo drew up a senes of objec- 
tions to it, as comprehensive and acute as all his pioductions 
are, and last night I sent it to Leach (who hates the Chan- 
cellor), and he has returned it to me with a strong condem- 
natory reply Stephen having told me that Howiek would 
be too happy to oppose this Bill, on account of the influence 
it would have on Colonial matteis, particularly about Canada, 
I took it to him, but he declined mteifermg, though he con- 
curred m Stephen’s remarks 

January 22 nd — Dined with Talleyrand the day before 
yesterday Nobody there but his attaches Aftei dinnei he 
told me about his fix si lesidence m England, and his ac- 
quaintance with Pox and Pitt He always talks m a kmd 
of affectionate tone about the former, and is now meditating 
a visit to Mrs Pox at St Anne’s Hill, where he may see her 
surrounded with the busts, pictures, and lecollections of hei 
husband. He delights to dwell on the simplicity, gaiety, 



1833J 


VISIT TO HARTWELL 


345 


childishness, and piofoundness of Pox I asked lnm if lie 
had ever known Pitt He said that Pitt came to Rkeims to 
leam French, and he was theie at the same time on a visit 
to the Aichbishop, his uncle (whom I lemember at Haitwell , 1 

1 [Mr Gievillehad paid a visit with his father to the little Couit of 
Louis XVIII at Hartwell about two years be foie the Restoration, when he 
was eighteen jeais of age His nairative of this visit has been punted in 
the tilth % olume ot the 1 Miscellany of the Philobiblon Society/ but it may 
not be mappiopmtely mseited here ] 

A Visit to Hartwell 

April lith, 1814 

I have often determined to commit to paper as much as I can remember of mv 
visit to Hartwell , and, as the King is about to ascend the throne of his ancestors, 
it is not uninteresting to recall to mind the particulars of a visit paid to him while 
in exile and m poverty 

About two yeans ago my father and I went to Hartwell by invitation of the 
King We dressed at Aylesbury, and proceeded to Hartwell in the afternoon 
We had previously taken a walk m the environs of the town, and had met the 
Duchesse d’Angouleme on horseback, accompanied by a Madame Choisi At five 
o’clock we set out to Hartwell The house is large, hut m a droary, disagreeable 
situation The King had completely altered the interior, having subdivided almost 
all the apartments m order to lodge a gi eater number of people There were 
numerous outhouses, m some of which small shops had been established by the 
servants, interspersed with gardens so that the placo resembled a little town 

Upon entering the house we were conducted by the Due do Grammont mto the 
Kings private apartment He received us most graciously and shook hands with 
both of us This apartment was exceedingly small, hardly larger than a closet, 
and I remarked pictures of the late King and Queen, Madame Elizabeth, and the 
Dauphin, Louis XVII , hanging on the w alls The King had a manner of swing 
mg his body backwards and forwards, which caused the most unpleasant sensations 
m that s nail room, and made ray father feel something like being sea sick The 
room was just like a cabin, and tlie motions of Ins Majesty exactlj resembled the 
heaving of a ship After our audience with the King we were tal on to the salon 
a large room with a billiard table at one end Here the par tv assembled before 
dinner, to all of whom we were piesented — the Duchesse d 4ngouleme, Monueur 
the Due d’Angouleme, the Due de Bern, the Prince and Pmce<-s de Conde 
cideiant Madame de Monaco), and a vast number of dues Ac , Madame la 
Duchesse de Serron (a little old dame d'honnear to Madame d Angouleme),theDuc 
de Lorges, the Due d’Auray, the Arclieveque de Rbeims (an infirm old prelate, 
tortured with the tic douloureux) and many others whose names I cannot re 
member At a little after six dmnei was announced, when we went into the next 
room, the King walking ont first The dinner was extremely plain, consisting of 
very few dishes, and no wines except port and sherry His Majesty did the 
honours himself and was very civil and agreeable We were a very shor* time at 
table, and the ladies and gentlemen all got up together Each of the ladies folded 
up her napkin, tied it round with a bit of ribbon, and carried it away After 
dinner we returned to the drawing room and drank coffee The whole party 
remained m conversation about a quarter of an hour, when the King retired to 
his closet, upon which all repaired to their separate apartments Whenever the 



346 


ELIGN OP WILLIAM IV 


[Chap \IX 


a very old prelate with tlic ti c-d oulour eux) , and that he and 
Pitt lived togethei for neaily six weeks, reciprocally teaching 
each other French and English After Chanvelm had super- 
seded him, and that he’ and Chauvehn had disagreed, he 
went to live near Epsom (at Juniper Hall) with Madame de 
Stael, aftei wards they came to London, and m the mean- 
time Pitt had got into the hands of the emigi es, who per- 
suaded him to send Talleyiand away, and accordingly he 
received orders to quit England m t went} -four hours He 
embaiked on board a vessel foi Amenca, but was detained m 
the river off Greenwich Dundas sent to him, and asked 
him to come and stay with him. while the ship was detained, 
but he said he would not set his foot on English ground 
again, and remained three weeks on board the ship m the 
river It is strange to heai M de Talleyrand talk at 
seventy-eight He opens the stores of his memory and pours 
forth a stream on any subject connected with his past life 
Nothing seems to have escaped from that great treasury of 
bygone events 

January 24 th — I have at last made Loid Lansdowne 


King came m or went out of the room, Madame cl kngouleme made him a low 
curtsy, which he returned by bowing and kissing his hand This little ceremony 
never failed to take place After the party had separated we were taken to the 
Luc de Grammont’s apartments, where we drank tea After remaining there 
about three quarters o t an hour we went to the apartment of Madame d Angou 
leme, wbeie a great part of the company were assembled, and whole we staged 
about a quarter of an hour After this we descended again to the drawing room, 
where several card tables were laid out The King played at whist with the 
Prince and Prmcoss de Conde and my ^ather His Majesty settled the points of 
the game at *le quart d’un shelmg * The rest of the party played at billiards or 
ombre The King was so civil as to invite us to sleep there, instead of returning 
to the inn at Aylesbury When he invited us he said * Je ciams que vous serez 
tr&s mal log4s, mais on donne ce qu on pent * Soon after eleven the King retired, 
when we separated foi the night We weie certainly * tr&s mal log6s * In the 
morning when I got out of bed, I was alaimed by the appearance of an old woman 
on the leads before my window, who was hanging linen to diy I was forced to 
retreat hastily to bed, not to shock the old lady’s modesty At ten the next 
morning we breakfasted, and at eleven we took leave of the Kmg (who always 
went to Mass at that hour) and returned to London We saw the whole place 
before we came away , and they certainly had shown great ingenuity m contriving 
to lodge such a number of people m and about the house— it was exactly like a 
small rising colony We weie very much pleased with our expedition , and were 
invited to return whenever we could make it convenient 



1833] 


ABOLITION Or SLAVEKY 


347 


fire a shot at the Chancelloi about this Bill He has 
written hun a letter, m which he has embodied Stephen’s 
objections and some of his own (?s he says, for I did not see 
the letter) The Chancelloi will be very angiy, foi he can’t 
endure contradiction, and he has a piodigious contempt 
foi the Lord Piesident, whom he calls Mother Elizabeth * 
He probably ai lives at the sobnquet through Petty, Betty, 
and so on 

Dined with Talleyiand yesteiday , Pozzo, who said little 
and seemed low, Talleyiand talked after dinner, said that 
Cardinal Pleuiy was one of the greatest Mimsteis who ever 
governed Prance, and that justice had never been done him , 
he had maintained peace foi twenty years, and acquired 
Lorraine for Prance He said this d apropos of the library he 
formed 01 left, or whatever he did m that line, at Pans He 
told me he goes veiy often to the Butish Museum, and has 
lately made them a piesent of a book 

January 2 6 th — It seems that the Government project (or 
perhaps only the fact that they have one) about West Indian 
emancipation has got wind, and the West Indians are of 
course m a state of great alarm They believe that it will 
be announced, whatever it is to be, m the King’s Speech, 
though I doubt there being anything but a vague intention 
expressed in it Of all political feelings and passions — and 
such this rage for emancipation is, rather than a consideia- 
tion of interest — it has always stiuck me as the most extra- 
ordmaiy and lemarkable Theie can be no doubt that a 
great many of the Abolitionists are actuated by very pure 
motives, they have been shocked at the ciuelties which have 
been and still are verv often practised towards slaves, their 
mmds aie imbued with the hoirois they have read and 
heard of, and they have an invincible conviction that the 
state of slavery under any form is repugnant to the spirit of 
the English Constitution and the Chustian leligion, and 
that it is a stain upon the national character which ought 
to be wiped away These people, generally speaking, aie 
very ignorant concerning all the various difficulties which 
beset the question, their notions are superficial, they pity 



318 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XIX 


the slaves, whom they regaid as mjuied innocents, and they 
hate then masters, whom they treat as cnmmal baibanans 
Otheis are animated m this cause purely by ambition, and 
by finding that it is a capital subject to talk upon, and a 
cheap and easy species of benevolence , otheis have satisfied 
themselves that slaveiy is a mistaken system, that the 
cruelty of it is altogether gratuitous, and that free labour 
will answer the purpose as well or bettei, and get nd of the 
odium , and thousands more have mixed feelings and 
opinions, compounded of some 01 all of the above m vanous 
degrees and pioportions, accoidmg to the bent of individual 
charactei , but there are some peisons among the most 
zealous and able of the Abolitionists who avail themselves 
of the passions and the ignorance of the people to cairy this 
point, while they caiefully conceal their own sentiments as 
to the lesult of the experiment I say some because, though 
I only know (of my own knowledge) of one, fiom the sagacity 
of the man and the conformity of his opinions with those of 
others on this and othei topics, I have no doubt that there 
are many who view the matter m the same light I allude to 
Henry Tayloi , 1 who rules half the West Indies in the Colonial 
Office, though with an invisible sceptie Talking over the 
matter the othei day, he said that he was well aware of the 
consequences of emancipation both to the negioes and the 
planters The estates of the latter would not be cultivated, 
it would be impossible, for want of labour, the negioes 
would not woik — no inducement would be sufficient to make 
them, they wanted to be free meiely that they might be 
idle They would, on being emancipated, possess themselves 
of ground, the feitility of which m those regions is so gieat 
that very trifling laboui will be sufficient to provide them 
with the means of existence, and they will thus relapse 
rapidly into a state of barbarism , they will lesume the 
habits of their Afncan biethien, but, he thinks, without the 
ferocity and savageness which distinguish the latter Of 

1 [Afterwaids Sir Henry Taylor, I(MG, author of 'Philip van Arte- 
velde ’ Nearly forty years latei Sir H Taylor continued to til tho same 
position described by Mr Gieulle in 1833 lie resigned m 187 2 ] 



1833] HENRY TAYLOR ON ABOLITION OF SLAVERY 349 

couise the geims of civilisation and leligion which have 
been sown among them m their servile state will be speedily 
obliteiated, if not, as man must either rise or fall m the 
moral scale, the} will acquue strength, with it power, and 
as ceitamly the desne of using that powei for the amelioia- 
tion of their condition The island (for Jamaica may be 
taken foi example, as it was m our conversation) would not 
long be tenable for whites , indeed, it is difficult to conceive 
how any planters could lemain theie when their pioperty 
was no longer cultivable, even though the emancipated 
negroes should become as haimless and gentle as the ancient 
Mexicans Notwithstanding this view of the mattei, m 
which my fuend has the sagacity to perceive some of the 
piobable consequences of the measure, though (he admits) 
with much uncertainty as to its operation, influenced as it 
must be by circumstances and accidents, he is foi emanci- 
pating at once ‘ Fiat justitia ruat coelurn 5 — that is, I do 
not know that he is foi immediate, unconditional emancipa- 
tion , I believe not, but he is for doing the deed , whether 
he goes befoie or lags after the Government I do not at 
this moment know He is, too, a high-principled man, full 
of moral sensibility and of a grave, leflectmg, philosophical 
chaiactei, and neither a visionary m religion nor m politics, 
only of a somewhat austere and uncompromising turn of 
mind, and with some of the positiveness of a theoust who 
has a lofty opinion of his own capacity, and has nevei 
undergone that discipline of the world, that tumbling and 
tossing and jostling, which beget modesty and diffidence and 
prudence, from the necessity which they inculcate of con- 
stant compiomises with antagonist interests and hostile 
passions But what is the upshot of all this 9 Why, 
that m the midst of the uproar and confusion, the smoke 
and the dust of the controversy, one may believe that 
one sees a glimmering of the real futurity m the case — 
and that is a long series of tioubles and a wide scene of 
ruin 

January 30 th — The intentions of Government with le- 
gaid to the West Indies (or rather that they have mten- 



350 


KEIGN 03? WILLIAM IV 


[Chap IX 


tions of a nature veiy fatal to that mteiest) having got 
wind, the consternation of the West India body is gi eat A 
deputation, headed by Sir Alexandei Giant, waited upon 
Lords Grey and Goderich the other day, and put certain 
questions to them, stating that the prevalence of repoits, 
some of which had appeared m the newspapeis, had greatly 
alarmed them, and thev wished to ascertain if any of them 
had been authorised by Government Lord Grey said 
c certainly not, the Government had authorised nothing,’ 
They asked if he would reappoint the Committees He 
would give no pledge as to this, but they discussed the 
propriety of so doing, he seeming indisposed To all their 
questions he gave vague answers, lefusmg to communicate 
anything except this, that nothing was decided, but a 
plan was undei the consideration of the Cabinet m which 
the interests of all parties weie consulted He added that 
he could not pledge himself to give any pievious intimation 
of the intentions of Government to the West India body, 
noi to disclose the measure at all until it was proposed 
to Parliament There aie m the meantime no end of le- 
ports of the natuie and extent of the pioposed measure, 
and no end to the projects and opinions of those who are 
interested 

I dmed at Loid Bathurst’s yestei day, and sat next to Loid 
Ellenborough, who said that he was convinced the best thing 
the proprietors could do would be to agree instantly to stop 
their ordeis, which he believes would compel Government to 
arrest their course I am not enough acquainted with the 
subject to judge how fai they might opeiate, hut I doubt it, 
or that m the temper of the people of this country, or lathei 
of those zealots who lepresent it, and with the disposition 
of this Government to yield to every popular cry, the fear of 
any consequences would prevent then going on It would, 
I believe, only give them and the House of Commons a pre- 
text foi refusing them pecuniary compensation I was much 
amused with a piece of vanity of Ellenborough’s We weie 
talking of the war between the Turks and the Egyptians, 
and the resources of Egypt, &e , when he said, If I had 



1833] 


RUSSIA A .ND TURKEY 


Sol 


continued at the Boaid of Control I would have had Egypt, 
got at it from the Eed Sea , I had already ordered the forma- 
tion of a corps of Arab guides / 5 

February 1st — The Reformed Parliament opened heavily 
(on Tuesday), as Government think satisfactorily Cobbett 
took his seat on the Treasury Bench, and spoke thiee times, 
though the last time nobody would stay to hear lnm He 
was very twaddling, and said but one good thing, when he 
called O’Connell the membei for Ireland 

Saw Madame de Lieven the day before yesteiday, who fired 
a tirade against Govemnent , she vowed that nobody e\ er had 
been tieated with such personal incivility as Lieven, ‘ des 
injures, des reproches, 5 that Cobbett, Hunt, and all the 
blackguards m England could not use more offensive lan- 
guage , whatever event was coming was imputed to Russia — 
Belgium, Poitugal, Turkey, c tout etait la Russie et les 
intrigues de la Russie, 5 that she foiesaw they should be 
driven away from England With reference to the war 
m Asia Minor, she said the Sultan had applied to the 
Emperoi for assistance, ‘ et qu’il l’aurait, et que le Sultan 
n’avait pas un meilleur ami que lui, 5 that the Egyptians 
would advance no farther, and a great deal more of com- 
plaint at the injustice evinced towards them and on their 
political innocence In the evening I told all this to Mellish 
of the Foreign Office, who knows everything about foieign 
affairs, and he said it was all a lie, that Russia had offeied 
her assistance, which the Sultan had refused, and she was, m 
fact, mtiigumg and making mischief in every Couit in 
Europe George Villiers writes me woid that she has been 
for months past endeavouring to get up a war anywhere, and 
that this Turkish business is more likely than anything to 
bring one about 1 

February 2nd — Dinner at Lord Lansdowne’s for the 

1 [The state of the Ottoman Empire was most critical In the latter 
months of 1832 the victorious troops of Mehomet Ah had foiced then way 
across the Taunus , the peace of Komah was concluded eaily m 1833 with 
the Egyptians , and the Tieaty of Unkiar Skelessi with the Russians in 
July 1833 ] 



852 


EKIGN OF WILLIAM I? 


[Chap XIX 


Shenffs, soon over and not particularly disagieeable, though 
I hate dining with the Ministers , liad some conversation with 
Goderich about Jamaica , he says Mulgiave has done very well 
theie, perhaps rather too vigorously, that the dissolution of 
the Assembly under all cncumsfcances is questionable, but he 
must be suppoited, he hopes nothing fiom another assembly, 
noi does Mulgrave, who says that they aie mcomgible The 
fact is their conduct paralyses the exeitions of their friends 
heie, if, indeed, they have any fi lends who would make any 
exertions 

February 4th — At Couitforthe King’s Speech and the 
appointment of Sheriffs Loid Munstei and Lord Denbigh 
weie sworn Pi ivy Councillois The West Indians have taken 
such an attitude of despeiation that the Government is some- 
what alarmed, and seems disposed to pause at the adoption 
of its abolitionary measuies Geoige Hibbert told me last 
night that if they were driven to extremities there was 
nothing they were not ready to do, and that theie would be 
anothei panic if Government did not take care, and so 
Rothschild had told them 

I dmed with Madame de Lieven yesteiday, who is m the 
agonies of doubt about her remaining here It turns upon 
this Stratford Canning has been appointed Ambassador at St 
Petersbui g, and the Emperor will not receive him Palmei s- 
ton is indignant, and will not send anybody else If the 
Empeior peisists, we shall only have a Charg6 d’Affaires at 
his Court, and in that case he will not leave an Ambassador 
at ouis There seems to be at present no way out of the 
quarrel Stratfoid Canning’s mission to Madud cannot last 
for ever, and when it is ovei the point must be decided 

The people of Jamaica have piesented a petition to the 
King (I don’t know exactly in what shape, or how got up), 
pi ay mg to be released from their allegiance Goderich told 
me that it was veiy insolent Mulgrave’s recent coup de 
thedfa e is seveiely condemned Nothing can save those 
Unhappy colonies, for all parties vie with each othei m 
violence and folly— the people here and the people theie., 
the Government heie and the Government there 



1833] DEBATE ON THE ADDRESS 353 

Feh uary 10 th — Aftei four days’ debate m the House of 
Commons (quite unprecedented, I believe) the Address was 
earned by a large majonty 1 Opinions aie of course very 
various upon the state of the House and the chaiacter of 
the discussion The anti*Reformers, with a sort of melan- 
choly tiiumph, boast that their worst expectations have been 
fulfilled The Government were dining the first day or two 
very serious, and though on the whole they think they have 
reason to be satisfied, they cannot help seeing that they 
have m fact very little power of managing the House 
Everybody agrees that the aspect of the House of Commons 
was very difleient — the number of strange faces * the swagger 
of O’Connell, walking about incessantly, and making signs 
to, or talking with, his followers m various parts , the Tories 
few and scatteied , Peel no longei surrounded with a stout 
band of supporters* but pushed from his usual seat, which is 
occupied by Cobbett, O’Connell, and the Radicals , he is gone 
up nearer to the Speaker 

The whole debate tamed upon Ireland O’Connell pro- 
nounced a violent but powerful philippic, which Stanley 
answered veiy well* Macaulay made one of his brilliant 
speeches the second night* and Peel spoke the thud It was 
not possible to make a more dexterous and judicious speech 
than he did, foi finding himself in a very uncomfoi table 
position, he at once placed himself m a good one, and 
acknowledgmg that his situation was altogether different 
from what it had been* he conti ived to transfer to himself 
personally much of the weight and authonty which he 
previously held as the oigan and head of a great and power- 
ful party He pronounced an eulogium of Stanley, declared 
that his confidence m Government was not augmented* but 
that he would suppoit them if they would Suppoit law and 
ordei* The Government were extremely pleased at his 
speech, though I thmk not without a seciet misgiving that 
they aie likely to be more in his power than is pleasant 

1 [The first Reformed Failiament met and was foimally opened on the 
29fch of Janu$Ly, 1833 After the election of the Speaker (Manneis Sutton) 
tfce King delivered his Speech from the Throne on the 5th ot Febiuary ] 

VOL II A A 



354 


REIGN OE WILLIAM IV 


[Chap AIX 


But the benefit resulting fiom tJxe whole is that the Radicals 
all opposed the Government, while Peel supported them , so 
that we may hope that a complete line of separation is 
drawn between the two foimer, and that the Government 
will really and boldly take the Conservative side On the 
whole, peihaps, this bout may be deemed satisfactoiy 

February 14 th — The night before last Althoip brought 
forward his plan of Irish Church Reform, with complete suc- 
cess He did it well, and Stanley made a veiy bulliant 
speech The House received it with almost unanimous ap- 
plause, nobody opposing but Inglis and Goulbum, and Peel, 
in a very feeble speech, which scaicely deserves the name of 
opposition , it will be of great service to the Government 
O’Connell lauded the measuie up to the skies , but Shell said 
he would bite his tongue off with vexation the next morning 
for having done so, after he had slept upon it It was clear 
that Peel, who is courting the House, and exerting all his 
dexterity to bring men’s minds round to him, saw the stream 
was too strong for him to go against it, so he made a sort of 
temporising, moderate, unmeaning speech, which will give 
him time to determine on his best course, and did not commit 
him Poulett Thomson said to me yesterday that Peel’s 
prodigious superiority over eveiybody m the House was so 
evident, his talent for debate and thorough knowledge of 
Parliamentary tactics, gamed by twenty years of experience, 
so commanding, that he must draw men’s minds to him, and 
that he was evidently playing that game, throwing over the 
ultra-Tones and ingratiating himself with the House and 
the country He, in fact, means to open a house to all comers, 
and make himself necessary and indispensable Under that 
placid exterior he conceals, I believe, a boundless ambition, 
and hatred and jealousy lurk under his professions of esteem 
and political attachment His is one of those contradictory- 
characters, containing m it so much of mixed good and evil, 
that it is difficult to strike an accurate balance between the 
two, and the acts of his political life are of a corresponding 
description, of questionable utility and merit, though always 
marked by great ability It is very sure that he has been 



CHARACTER OR PLFL 


333 


1$°>3J 

the instrument of great good, or of enoimous evil, and ap- 
paiently more of the latter He came into life the child 
and champion of a political system which has been for a 
long time crumbling to pieces , and if the perils which are 
pioduced bj its fall are gieat, they are mainly attubutable 
to the manner m which it was upheld by Peel, and to his 
want of sagacity, m a wrong estimate of his means of de- 
fence and of the foice of the antagonist power with which 
he had to contend The leading principles of his political 
conduct have been constantly enoneous, and his dexterity 
and ability in suppoitmg them have only made the conse- 
quences of his errois moie extensively pernicious If we 
look back through the long course of Peel’s life, and enquire 
what have been the great political measuies with which his 
name is particularly connected, we shall find, fiist, the return 
to cash payments, which almost eveiybody now agrees was 
a fatal mistake, though it would not be fair to visit him with 
extraordmaiy censuie for a measuie which was sanctioned 
by almost all the great financial authorities , secondly, op- 
position to Eefoim m Parliament and to religious emancipa- 
tion of every kind, the maintenance of the exclusive sj stem, 
and suppoit, untouched and unco rrecied, of the Church, both 
English and lush His resistance to alteiations on these 
heads was conducted with great ability, and for a long time 
with success , bat he was endeavouring to uphold a system 
which was no longer supportable, and having imbibed m his 
career much of the liberal spirit of the age, he found himself 
in a state of no small perplexity between his old connections 
and his more enlarged propensities Still he was chained 
down by the formei, and consequently being beaten fiom all 
his positions, he was continually obliged to give way, but 
never did so till rather too late foi his own credit and much 
too late for the intei est at stake Notwithstanding, there- 
fore, the reputation he has acquned, the hold he has had of 
office and is probably destined to have again, his political 
life has been a considerable failure, though not such an one 
as to render it more piobable than not that his future life 



356 


KEIGN OP WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XTJ 


will be a failure too He has hitherto been encumbered with 
embarrassing questions and an unmanageable party Time 
has disposed of the first, and he is divorced fiom the last, 
if his gieat experience and talents have a fan field to act 
upon, he may yet, in spite of his selfish and unamiable cha- 
racter, be a distinguished and successful Minister 



857 


CHAPTER XX 

Appointment of Sn Stiatioid Canning 1 to the Russian Embassy — Cause of 
the Refusal — Slavery m the West Indies — The Reformed Parliament — 
Duke of Wellington’s View of Affairs — The Coercion Bill — The Privy 
Council Bill — Lord Durham made an Eail — Mr Stanley Secretary for the 
Colonies — The Russians go to the Assistance of the Porte — Lord Goderich 
has the Puvy Seal, an Earldom and the Gartei — Embarrassments of the 
Government — Hie Appeal of Drix v Giosvenor at the Privy Council 
— Hobhouse defeated in Westminster — Bill foi Negro Emancipation— 
The Russians on the Bosphoius — Mi Littleton Chief Secretary for 
Ireland — Respect shown to the Duke of Wellington — Moial of a ‘Book 
on the Derby’ — -The Oak« — A Betting Incident — Ascot — Government 
beaten in the Lords on Eoieign Policy — Vote of Confidence m the 
Commons — Drax v Giosvenoi decided — Lord Eldon’s Last Judgment — 
His Chaiaeter — Duke of Wellington as Leader of Opposition — West 
India Affairs — lush Church Bill — Appropriation Clause — A Fancy 
Bazaar — The King writes to the Bishops — Local Court Bill — Mirabeau 

February 1 6th — Madame de Lieven gave me an account 
(the day before yesterday) of the quairel between the two 
Courts about Stratford Canning When the present Ministry 
came in, Nesselrode wrote to Madame de Lieven and desired 
hei to beg that Lord Hey tesbury might be left there — c Con- 
servez-nous Heytesbury 9 She asked Palmerston and Lord 
Giey, and they both promised her he should stay Some 
time after he asked to be recalled She wrote word to 
Nesselrode, and told him that either Adair or Canning would 
succeed him He replied, Don’t let it be Canning , he is 
a most impracticable man, soupgonneux , pomtilleux , defiant , ’ 
that he had been personally uncivil to the Emperor when he 
was Grand Duke , m short the plain truth was they would 
not receive him, and it was therefore desirable somebody, 
anybody, else should be sent She told this to Palmerston, 
and he engaged that Stiatfoid Canning should not be named 



358 


RLIGN OP WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XX 


Nothing more was done till some time ago, when to her asto- 
nishment Palmerston told her that he was going to send 
Canning to St Petersburg She lemon strated, uiged all the 
objections of her Court, his own engagement, but in yam , the 
discussions between them grew bittei , Palmerston would not 
give way, and Canning was one day to her horror gazetted 
As might have been expected, Nesselrode positively refused 
to receive him Dm ham, who in the meantime had been to 
Russia and bien cornble with civilities, promised that Canning 
should not go there, trusting he had sufficient influence to 
prevent it , and since he has been at home it is one of the 
things he has been most violent and bitter about, because 
Palmerston will not letiact this nomination, and he has the 
moitification of finding m this instance his own want of power 
However, as there have been no discussions on it lately, the 
Princess still hopes it may blow over, and that some other 
mission may be found foi Canning At all everts it appeals 
a most curious piece of diplomacy to insist upon thrusting 
upon a Couit a man personally obnoxious to the Sovereign 
and his Minister, and not the best way of piesei vmg hai- 
momous relations or obtaining political advantages She 
says, however (and with all her anger she is no bad judge), 
that Palmerston ‘ est un tres-petit esput — lourd, obstme/ 
&c , and she is astonished how Lady C with hei finesse can 
be so taken with him 

Lady Cowper has since told me that Madame de Lieven 
has been to blame m all this business, that Palmeiston was 
provoked with her interference, that her temper had got the 
better of her, and she had thought to cany it with a high 
hand, having been used to have hex own way, and that he 
had thought both she and her Court wanted to he taken down 
a peg, that she had told Nesselrode she could pievent this 
appomtment, and, what had done moie harm than anything, 
she had appealed to Giey agamst Palmerston, and employed 
Durham to make a great clamour about it All this made 
Palmerston angry, and determined him to punish her, who 
he thought had meddled moie than she ought, and had made 
the mattei personally embarrassing and disagieeable to him 



1833] 


LORD GREY’S COERCION BILL 


359 


Last night Lord Grey mtioduced his coercive measures 
m an excellent speech, though theie are some people who 
doubt his being able to carry them through the House of 
Commons If he can’t, he goes of course , and what next ? 
The measures are sufficiently stiong, it must be owned — a 
consomme of insun ection-gaggmg Acts, suspension of Habeas 
Coipus, martial law, and one or two other little hards and 
sharps 1 

London, February 22nd — Dined yesterday with Eoriunatus 
Dwams, who was counsel to the Board of Health , one of 
those dinners that people m that class of society put them- 
selves in an agony to give, and generally their guests m 
as great an agony to partake of There were Goulburn, 
Serjeant ditto and his wife, Stephen, &c Goulburn men- 
tioned a carious thing a projpos of slavery A slave ran away 
from his estate m Jamaica many years ago, and got to 
England He (the man) called at his house when he was not 
at home, and Goulburn never could afterwaids find out where 
he was He remained m England, however, gaming his live 
lihood by some means, till after some years he returned to 
Jamaica and to the estate, and desired to be employed as a 
slave again 

Stephen, who is one of the great apostles of emancipation, 
and who resigned a profession worth 3,0002 a year at the 
Bar for a place of 1,5002 m the Colonial Office, principally in 

1 [In the debate on the Addiess O’Connell had denounced the coercive 
measures announced m the Speech fiom the Throne as 1 brutal, bloody, and 
unconstitutional ’ But the state of Ireland was so dreadful that it de- 
manded and justified the seveiest remedies Loid Grey stated in the House 
of Lords that between January 1st and December 31st 9,000 crimes had 
been committed — homicides 242, robberies 1,179, buiglanes 401, burnings 
£68, and so on The Bill gave the Lord-Lieutenant power to proclaim 
distuibed districts, to substitute couits-martial for the ordinary courts of 
justice, to prohibit meetings, and to punish the distributors of seditious 
papeis Such weie the powers which Lord Wellesley described as more 
formidable to himself than to the people of Ireland, for the greatei part of 
them were never exeicised The Act produced the desired effect In a 
year Ireland was pacified, and the abandonment of several of the most 
important clauses m the Act (conti ary to Lord Grey’s wishes) was the 
cause which led to the dissolution of the Ministry in the month of Jun^ 
1834] 



360 


BEIGrN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XX 


order to advance that object, owned that he had never known 
so great a problem nor so difficult a question to settle His 
notion is that compulsory labour may be substituted for 
slavery, and m some colonies (the new ones, as they are 
called — Demeiaia, &c ) he thinks it will not be difficult, m 
Jamaica he is doubtful, and admits that if this does not 
answei the slaves will lelapse into baibansm, noi is he at 
all clear that any disorders and evils may not be pioduced 
by the effect of despeiation on one side and disappointment 
on the other , still he does not hesitate to go on, but fully 
admitting the right of the proprietors to ample compensation, 
and the duty incumbent on the country to give it If the 
sentiments of justice and benevolence with which he is 
actuated were common to all who profess the same opinions, 
or if the same sagacity and resouice which he possesses weie 
likely to be applied to the piactical opeiation of the scheme, 
the evils which are dieaded and foreseen might be mitigated 
and avoided , but this is very far from the case, and the 
evils will, m all piobability, more than ovei balance the good 
which humanity aims at effecting , nor is it possible to view 
the settlement (as it is called, for all changes aie settlements 
now-a-days) of this question without a misgiving that it will 
only produce some other great topic for public agitation, 
some great interest to be overturned 01 mighty change to 
be accomplished The public appetite for discussion and 
legislation has been whetted and as insatiable , the millions 
of orators and legislators who have spiung up like mushrooms 
all over the kingdom, the bellowers, the chattereis, the 
knaves, and the dupes, who make such an universal hubbub, 
must be fed with fresh \ictims and sacrifices The Catholic 
question was speedily followed by Reform in Parliament, and 
this has opened a door to anj thing 

In the meantime the Reformed Parliament has been 
sitting for a fortnight 01 so, and begins to manifest its 
character and pretensions. The first thing that strikes one 
is its mferiouty in point of composition to preceding 
Houses of Commons, and the piesumption, impertinence, 
and self-sufficiency of the new membeis Founeily new 



J833] ASPECT OF THE NEW HOUSE OF COMMONS 361 

membeis appealed -with some modesty and diffidence, and 
with some appeal ance of respect for the assembly into which 
they weie admitted , these fellows behave themselves as if 
they had taken it by storm, and might riot m all the inso- 
lence of victoiy There exists no party but that of the 
Government, the lush act m a body undei O’Connell to the 
number of about foity, the Radicals are scattered up and 
down without a leader, numerous, restless, turbulent, and 
bold — Hume, Cobbett, and a multitude such as Roebuck, 
Faithfull, Buckingham, Major Beauelerck, &c (most of 
whom have totally failed m point of speaking) — bent upon 
doing all the mischief they can and incessantly active , the 
Tones without a head, fnghtened, angiy, and sulky, Peel 
without a paity, piudent, cautious, and dexteious, playing a 
deep waiting game of scrutiny and obseivation The feel- 
ings of these vanous elements of paity, rather than parties, 
may be thus summed up — The Radicals aie confident and 
sanguine, the Whigs uneasy, the Tones desponding, mode- 
rate men, who belong to no paity, but suppoit Government, 
senous, and not without alaim Theie is, m fact, enough 
to justify alaim, foi the Government has evidently no power 
over the House of Commons, and though it is piobable that 
they will scramble thiough the session without sustaining 
any senous defeat, or being reduced to the necessity of any 
gieat sacrifice 01 compromise, they are conscious of their 
own want of authority and of that sort of command without 
which no Government has been hitherto deemed secure 
The evil of this is that we are now reduced to the alterna- 
tive of Lord Grey’s Government or none at all , and should 
he be defeated on any great measure, he must eithei aban- 
don the country to its fate, or consent to cany on the 
Government upon the condition of a vntual transfer of the 
executive power to the House of Commons If this comes 
to pass the game is up, for this House, like animals who 
have once tasted blood, if it ever exercises such a powei as 
this, and finds a Mmistei consenting to hold office on such 
teims, will never iest till lfc has acquired all the authonty of 
the Long Parliament and reduced that of the Ciown to a 



362 


BLIGN 01 WILLIAM IY 


[Chii XX 


mere cypher It is curious, by-the-bye, that the example of 
the Long Parliament m a trivial matter has just been adopted, 
in the sittings of the House at twelve o’clock for the hearing 
of petitions 

Fehuary 2^1 th — Laid up ever since that dinner at 
Dwarns’s with the gout Piederick Fitzelarence has been 
compelled to lesign the situation at the Tower which the 
King gave him, they found it very piobable that the House 
of Commons would refuse to vote the pay of it — a tnfle m 
itself, but indicative of the spirit of the times and the total 
want of consideration for the King O’Connell made a 
speech of such violence at the Tiades Union the othei day — 
calling the House of Commons six hundred scoundiels — that 
there was a gieat deal of talk about taking it up m Pailia- 
ment and pioposmg his expulsion, which, however, they 
have not had the foil} to do The Irish Bill was to come on 
last night The sense of msecunty and uneasiness evidently 
increases , the Government assumes a high tone, but is not 
at all certain of its ability to pass the Coeicive Bills unaltered, 
and yesterday there appealed an article m the 4 Times 5 m a 
style of lofty repioof and seveie admonition, which was no 
doubt as appalling as it was meant to be This article 
made what is called a gieat sensation , always struggling, 
as this paper does, to take the lead of public opinion and 
watching all its turns and shifts with perpetual anxiety, it is 
at once regarded as undoubted evidence of its diiection and 
dreaded for the influence which its powerful writing and 
extensive sale have placed m its hands It is no small 
homage to the power of the press to see that an article like 
this makes as much noise as the declaration of a poweiful 
Minister oi a leadei of Opposition could do m either House 
of Parliament 

Yesterday morning the Duke of Wellington came here 
upon some private business, after discussing which he entered 
upon the state of the countiy I told him my view of the 
condition of the Government and of the House of Commons, 
and he said, 4 You have hit the two points that I have 
myself alwajs felt so stiongly about I told Loid Giev so 



1833] DUKE OF WELLINGTON S \IEW OF AFFAIRS 


363 


long ago, and asked him at the time how he expected to be 
able to carry on the Government of the country, to which he 
never could give any answei, except that it would all do very 
well However, things aie not a bit worse than I always 
thought they would be As they are, I mean to suppoit the 
Government — support them m every way The first thing I 
have to look to is to keep my house ovei my head, and the 
alternative is between this Government and none at all I 
am therefoie for suppoitmg the Government, but then there 
is so much passion, and piejudice, and folly, and vindictive 
feeling, that it is very difficult to get others to do the same 
I hear Peel had only fiffcj people with him the other night 
on some question, though they say that theie aie 150 of 
that party m the House of Commons 5 He thinks as ill of 
the whole thing as possible [While I am writing Poodle 
Byng is come m, who tells me what happened last night 
Althoip made a very bad speech and a wretched statement , 
other people spoke, pert and disagieeable, and the debate 
looked ill till Stanley rose and made one of the finest 
speeches that were ever heard, pounding O’Connell to dust 
and attacking him for his ‘six hundied scounchels/ from 
which he endeavouied to escape by a miserable and abortive 
explanation Stanley seems to have set the whole thing to 
rights, like a great man ] 

I told the Duke what Macaulay had said to Denison c that 
if he had had to legislate, he would, instead of this Bill, have 
suspended the laws for five years m Ireland, given the Lord- 
Lieutenant’s proclamation the force of law, and got the 
Duke of Wellington to go there 9 He seemed very well 
pleased at this, and said, i Well, that is the way I governed 
the provinces on the Garonne m the south of France I 
desired the mayors to go on administering the law of the 
land, and when they asked me m whose name criminal suits 
should be carried on (which were ordinarily m the name of 
the Emperor), and if they should be m the name of the 
King, I said no, that we were treating with the Emperoi at 
Chatillon, and if they put forth the King they would be m 
a scrape , neither should it be m the Empeioi’s name, be* 



384 KEIGN OF WILLIAM IT [Chap X\ 

cause we did not aclmowledge him, but m that of tbe 
Allied Powers 3 In this I think he was wrong (par paren- 
these), for Napoleon was acknowledged by all the Powers 
but us, and we were treating with him, and if he permitted 
the civil authonties to administer the law as usual, he should 
have allowed them to administer it m the usual legal form 
Their civil administration could not affect any political 
questions m the slightest degree 

March 4th — Sir Thomas Hardy told my biother he 
thought the King would certainly go mad, he was so excit- 
able, loathing his Mmisteis, particularly Graham, and dying 
to go to war He has some of the cunning of madmen, who 
fawn upon their keepers when looked at by them, and gim 
at them and shake their fists when their backs aie turned , 
so he is extravagantly civil when his Ministers aie with him, 
and exhibits every mark of aveision when they are away 
Peel made an admirable speech on Friday night, they 
expect a great majority 

March Vdth — The second reading of the Coeicive Bill has 
passed by a great majority after a dull debate, and the other 
night Althoip deeply offended Peel and the Tones by hunymg 
on the Church Reform Bill It was to be punted one day, 
and the second reading taken two days after They asked 
a delay of four or five days, and Althorp refused He did 
very wrong, he is either bullied or cajoled into almost any- 
thing the Radicals want of this sort, but he is stout against 
the Tories The delay is required by decency, but it ought 
to have been enough that Peel and the otheis asked it for 
him to concede it He ought to soften the asperities which 
must long survive the battles of last year as much as he can, 
and avoid shocking what he may consider the piejudices of 
the vanquished party It was worse than impolitic , it was 
stupid and uncouiteous, and missing an opportunity of being 
gracious which he ought to have seized 

I have been again worried with a new edition of 
Brougham’s Privy Council Bill, 1 and the difficulty of getting 

1 [This was the Bill for the establishment of a Judicial Committee of the 
Privy Council, which eventually became the Act 3 & 4 Will IV , cap 41, and 



1833J 


LORD BROUGHAM’S PRIVY COUNCIL BILL 


365 


Loid Lansdowne to do anything This is the way Brougham 
goes to work — He resolves to alter , he does not condescend 
to communicate with the Pi ivy Council, or to consult those 
who are conversant with its practice, 01 who have been m 
the habit of administering justice theie , he has not time to 
think of it himself, he tosses to one of his numerous employes 
(for he has people without end working for him) his rough 
notion, and tells him to put it into shape , the satellite goes 
to woik, always keeping m view the increase of the dignity, 
authonty, and patronage of the Chancellor, and caieless of 
the Council, the King, and the usages of the Constitution 
What is called the Bill is then, for form’s sake, handed over 
to the Lord Piesident (Lord Lansdowne), with injunctions to 
let nobody see it, as if he was conspiring against the Coun 
eil, secuie that if he meets with no resistance but what is 
engendered by Lord Lansdowne’s opposition he may enact 
anything he pleases Lord Lansdowne sends it to me (a 
long Act of Parliament), with a request that I will letum it 
‘ by the bearer ,’ with any remarks I may have to make on it 
The end is that I am left, quantum impar 9 to fight this with 
the Chancellor 

March Ihth * — Ministerial changes are go mg on , Durham 
is out, and to be made an earl Yesterday his elevation was 
known, and it is amusing enough that the same day an 
incident should have occurred m the House of Lords exhibit- 
ing in a good light the worthiness of the subject, and how 
much he merits it at the hands of Lord Grey 

* & * * 

March 2 9th — Loid Goderich is Privy Seal, 1 and Stanley 
Secretary for the Colonies, after much trouble Last year a 

definitively created that tribunal Mr Greville objected to several of the 
provisions of the measure, because he regarded them as an unnecessary 
interference of Parliament with the authority of the Sovereign in his 
Council The Sovereign might undoubtedly have created a Committee of 
the judicial members of the Privy Council but the Bill went further and 
by extending and defining the power of the Judicial Committee as a Couit 
of Appeal it undoubtedly proved a very useful and important measure ] 

1 [Down to this time Lord Godeuch had been Secietary for the Colonial 
Department m Lord Grey’s Government!, 



366 


REIGN OE -WILLIAM IV 


[Chat X\ 


positive pledge was given to Sfcanlej that he should not 
meet Parliament again but as Seeietaiy of State It was 
not, however, specified who was to mate room foi him 
The Cabinet settled that it should be Goderich, when 
Durham went out, and Palmerston was charged with the 
office of breaking it to Goderich with the offei of an earldom 
by way of gilding the pill, but Goderich would not hear of 
it, said it would look like lunnmg away from the Slave 
question, and, in short, flatly refused Stanley tin eatened to 
lesign if he was not promoted, and m this dilemma the Duke 
of Richmond (who was going to Windsor) persuaded Lord 
Grey to let him lay the case before the King, and inform him 
that if this airangement was not made the Government must 
he broken up He did so, and the King acquiesced, and at 
the same time a similar representation was made to Goderich, 
who after a desperate resistance knocked under, and said 
that if it must be so he would yield, but only to the King’s 
express commands 

March 30 th — Saw Madame de Lieven yesterday, who 
told me the story of the late business at St Petersburg The 
Sultan after the battle of Komah applied to the Emperor of 
Russia for succour, who ordered twelve sail of the line and 
30,000 men to go to the protection of Constantinople At 
the same time General Mouravieff was sent to Constantinople, 
with ordeis to proceed to Alexandria and inform the Pacha 
that the Emperor could only look upon him as a lebel, that 
he would not suffer the Ottoman Empire to be ovei turned, 
and that if Ibrahim advanced e ll auraxt affaire a l’Empereui 
de Russie 9 Orders were accordingly sent to Ibrahim to 
suspend his operations, and Mouravieff returned to Constanti- 
nople Upon the demand for succour by the Sultan, and 
the Emperor’s compliance with it, notification was made 
to all the Couits, and instructions were given to the 
Russian commanders to retire as soon as the Sultan should 
have no further occasion for their aid So satisfactory was 
this that Lord Giey expressed the greatest anxiety that the 
Russian armament should arrive m time to anest the pro- 
gress of the Egyptians They did arrive— at least the fleet 



1833] PRECARIOUS STATE OF THE GO-VEHEMENT 


367 


did — and dropped anchoi undei the Seraglio At this ]unc- 
tuie amved Admnal Eoussm m a ship of war, and as 
Ambassador of Fiance He immediately mfoimed the 
Sultan that the intei position of Eussia was supeifluous, that 
he would undertake to conclude a tieaty, and to answer foi 
the acquiescence of the Pacha and he sent a project one 
article of which was that the Eussian fleet should instantly 
withdraw To this pioposition the Sultan acceded, and 
without waiting for the Pacha’s confhmation he notified to 
the Eussian Ambassador that he had no longer any wish 
for the presence of the Eussian fleet, and they accordingly 
weighed anchor and sailed away This is all thatis known 
of the transaction, but Madame de Lieven was loud and vehe- 
ment about the insolence of Eoussm, she said the Emperor 
would demand c une satisfaction eclatante ’ — ‘ le rappel et le 
desaveu de Tamiral Eoussm/ and that if this should be re- 
fused the Eussian Ambassador would be ordered to quit Pans 
She waits with great anxiety to see the end of the business, 
foi on it appears to depend the question of peace or war 
with France She said that the day before Nannk went away 
intelligence of this event arrived, which Palmerston commu- 
nicated to him The Turk heard it veiy quietly, and then 
only said, 6 Et ou etait FAngletene dans tout ceci ^ 5 

I have heard to-night the Goderich version of his late 
tianslation He had agreed to lemam m the Cabinet with- 
out an office, but Lord Grey insisted on his taking the Privy 
Seal, and threatened to resign if he did not, he was at 
last lulhed into acquiescence, and when he had his audience 
of the King his Majesty offered him anything he had to 
give He said he had made the sacrifice to please and serve 
him, and would take nothing An earldom — he refused, 
the Bath — ditto, the Garter — that he said he would take 
It was then discovered that he was not of rank sufficient, 
when he said he would take the earldom m order to qualify 
himself for the Garter, and so it stands Theie is no Garter 
vacant, and one supernumerary already, and Castlereagh 
and Lord North, viscounts, and Sir Eobert Walpole (all 
Commoners) had blue nbands 1 



863 


REIGN OE WILLIAM IV 


[Ciup XX 


London, Apil 28 th — Came to town last mglit fiom New- 
market, and the intervening week at BucLenham Nothing 
but racing and hawking , a wretched life — that is, a life of 
amusement, but very unpiofitable and discreditable to any- 
body who can do better things Of politics I know nothing 
during this interval, but on coming to town find all in con- 
fusion, and everybody gaping fox c what next 9 Government 
was beaten on the Malt Tax* and Lord Grey proposed to le- 
sign , the Tones are glad that the Government is emnarrassed, 
no matter how, the suppoiters sorry and repentant, so that 
it is very clear the matter will be patched up , they won’t 
budge, and will probably get more regular support for the 
future Peihaps Altkorp will go, but where to find a 
Chancellor of the Exchequer will be the difficulty Poulett 
Thomson wants it, but they will not dare commit the 
finances of the country to him, so we go sci ambling on c du 
jour la journee 5 Nobody knows what is to happen next — no 
confidence, no security, gieat talk of a property tax, to 
which, I suppose, after wriggling about, we shall at last come 

May 2nd — The Government affair is patched up, and 
nobody goes but Hobhouse, 1 who thought fit to icsign both 
his seat m Parliament and his office, thereby ei eating another 
great embarrassment, which can only be lemoved by his 
re-election and re-appointment, and then, what a farce * 

There were two great majorities m the House of Commons 
the night before last The King was all graciousness and 
favour to Lord Grey, and so they aie set up again, and fancy 
themselves stronger than before But although everybody 
(except the fools) wished them to be re-established, it was 
evident that this was only because, at this moment, the time 
is not ripe foi a change, for they inspired no interest either 
individually or collectively It was easy to see that the 
Government has no consideration, and that people are 

1 [Sir John Hobhouse, who had consented to take the lush Seeietary- 
ship a month before, resigned now because he felt unable to oppose a 
resolution for the abolition of the window duties, and resigning office he 
resigned his seat for Westmmstei also, and was not re-elected See m the 
‘Edinburgh Beview/ April 1871 (No 272), an account of this trans* 
action ] 



1803] EMBARK VS^MLNT OF THE GOVERNMENT 3G9 

getting tned of their blunders and embarrassments, and 
begin to turn their eyes to those who are more capable, and 
know something of the business of Government — to Peel and 
to Stanley, for the formei, m spite of his cold, calculating 
selfishness and duplicity, is the ablest man there is, and we 
must take what we can get, and accept sei vices without 
troubling ourselves about the motives of those who supply 
them It must come to this conclusion unless the reign of 
Badicalism and the authority of the Humes c et hoc genus 
onme ’ is to be substituted That the present Government 
loses ground every day is perfectly clear, and at the same 
time that the fruits of the Eefoim Bill become more lament- 
ably apparent The scrape Government lately got into was 
owing partly to the votes that people were obliged to give to 
cuny favour with their constituents, and paitly to negligence 
and carelessness m whipping m Hobhouse’s resignation is 
on account of his pledges, and because he is forced to pledge 
himself on the hustings he finds himself placed m a situation 
which compels him to save his honoui and consistency by 
embairassmg the public service to the greatest degree at a 
very critical time Men go on asking one another how is it 
possible the country can be governed m this manner, and 
nobody can leply 

Since I have been out of town the appeal against the 
Chancellor’s judgment m the Drax (lunacy) case has been 
heard at the Privy Council, and will be finally determined on 
Saturday 1 Two years have nearly elapsed since that case 

1 [An appeal lies to the King m Council from orders of the Lord 
Chancellor m lunacy, but there aie very few examples of the prosecution 
of appeals of this nature This case of Diax v Grosvenor, which is re- 
poited in * Knapp’s Privy Council Cases/ was therefore one of great 
peculiarity The Bill constituting the Judicial Committee had not at this 
time become law, this appeal was therefore heard by a Committee oi the 
Lords of the Council, to which any member of the Pi ivy Council might be 
summoned Care was taken that the highest legal authorities should be 
piesent It was the last time Lord Eldon sat in a court of law Loid 
Brougham, the Chancellor, sat on the Committee, although the appeal was 
brought from an order made by himself this piactice had not been un- 
common m the House of Lords, but it had not been the practice of the 
Pnvy Council, where indeed the case could seldom anse ] 

VOL II B B 



370 


EEIGN OF WILLI YM IV 


[Chap XX 


was lodged, and the Chancellor has always found pietexts 
for getting the healing postponed, at length the paities 
became so clamorous that it was necessary to fix a day He 
then endeavoured to pack a committee, and spoke to Loid 
Lansdowne about summoning Lord Plunket, Loid Lyndhuist, 
and the Vice-Chancellor, but Leach, who hates Biougham, 
and is partieulaily nettled at his having xeveised some of his 
judgments, bestirred himself, and lepiesented to Lord Lans- 
downe the absolute necessity (in a case of such consequence) 
of having all the ex-Chancellois to heai it Plunket was 
gone to Ireland, so the Committee consisted of the Loid 
President, the Chancellor, Vice-Chancelloi , Master of the 
Bolls, Lords Eldon, Lyndhurst, and Manners They say the 
argument was very able — Sugden m suppoit of the Chan- 
cellor’s judgment, and Pemberton against it , they expect it 
will be reversed Leach, foolishly enough, by question and 
observation, exhibited a stiong bias against the Chancclloi, 
who never said a word, and appealed very calm and easy, 
but with rage in his heart, for he was indignant at these 
Lords having been summoned (as his secretary told Lennard 1 ), 
and said ‘ he was sure it was all Leach’s doing * What a 
man f how wonderful f how despicable ? carrying into the 
administration of justice the petty vanity, peisonal jealousy 
and pique, and shuffling arts that would reflect ridicule and 
odium on a silly woman of fashion. He has smuggled Ins 
Privy Council Bill through the House of Lords without the 
slightest notice or lemark 

May 16 th — On coming to town found the Westmmstei 
election lust over, and Evans returned They would not 
hear Hobhouse, and pelted him and his fi. lends No 
Secretary for Ireland is to be found, for the man must be 
competent, and sure of re-election Eew are the first and 
none the last Hobhouse is generally censured for having 
put Government in this great difficulty, but the Tories see it 
all with a sort of gnm satisfaction, and point at it as a happy 
illustration of the benefits of the Reform Bill I point too, 
but I don’t rejoice 

1 [John Bairett Lennaid, Esq , -was Chief Clerk of the Council Office ] 



SIAVE EMANCIPATION 


371 


1803] 


At the same time with Hobhouse’s defeat came forth 
Stanley’s plan for slave emancipation, which produced rage 
and fuiy among both West Indians and Saints, being too 
much for the former and not enough foi the latter, and both 
announced their opposition to it Practical men declare 
that it is impossible to cairy it into effect, and that the 
details are unmanageable Even the Government adherents 
do not pretend that it is a good and safe measuie, but the 
best that could be hit off under the circumstances, these 
ciieumstances being the old motive, ‘ the people will have it 9 
The night before last Stanley developed his plan m the 
House of Commons m a speech of three horns, which was 
veiy eloquent, but lather disappointing He handled the 
pielimmary topics of honors of slavery and colonial obstinacy 
and misconduct with all the vigour and success that might 
have been expected, but when he came to his measure he 
failed to show how it was to be put in operation and to work 
The peioiation and eulogy on Wilbei force were very brilliant 
Ho wick had pieviously announced his intention of opposing 
Stanley, and accordingly he did so m a speech of consider- 
able vehemence which lasted two hours He was not, how- 
ever, well received, his father and mother had m vain 
endeavoured to divert him from his resolution , but though 
they say his speech was clever, he has damaged himself by 
it His plan is immediate emancipation 1 

While such is the state of things here — enoimous interests 
under discussion, great disquietude and alaim, no feeling of 
security, no confidence m the Government, and a Parliament 
that inspires fear lather than hope — matters abroad seem to 
be no better managed than they are at home It is remark- 
able that the business m the East has escaped with so little 
animadversion, for there nevei was a fairer object of attack 
While Prance has been vapouring, and we have been doing 
nothing at all, Russia has established her own influence m 
Turkey, and made herself vntually mistress of the Ottoman 

1 [The result proved that Lord Howich was right The apprenticeship 
system proposed bv Loid Stanley was earned, but failed m execution, and 
w is eventually ab mdoned ] 


b b 2 



372 


BEIGN OP WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XX 


Empue At a time when our interests required that we 
should be well represented, and powerfully supported, we 
had neither an Ambassadoi nor a fleet in the Mediterranean, 
and because Lord Ponsonby is Loid Giey’s brother-in-law 
he has been able with impunity to dawdle on months aftei 
months at Naples for his pleasme, and leave affaus at 
Constantinople to be managed or mismanaged by a Ohaige 
d’Affanes who is altogether incompetent 

May 19 th — They have found a Secretaiy for Ireland m 
the person of Littleton, 1 * * * * which shows to what shifts they 
are put He is lich, which is his only qualification, being 
neither very able nor very populai The West India ques- 
tion is postponed The Duke of Wellington told me that he 
thought it would pass away foi this time, and that all parties 
would be convinced of the impracticability of any of the plans 
now mooted I said that nothing could do away the mis- 
chief that had been done by broaching it He thought 6 * * the 
mischief might he avoided , 9 hut then these people do nothing 
to avoid any mischief I was marvellously struck (we rode 
together through St James’s Paik) with the profound re- 
spect with which the Duke was treated, everybody we met 
taking off their hats to him, everybody in the park rising as 
he went by, and every appearance of his inspiring gieat 
reverence I like this symptom, and it is the moie remark- 
able because it is not popularity, but a much higher feeling * 
towards him He has forfeited his popularity more than 
once, he has taken a lme in politics duectly counter to the 

1 [The Bt Hon E J Littleton, M P foi Staffordshire, and afterwaids 
first Lord Hatherton 

It was Lord John Bussell who advised Lord Grey to make Littleton 
Irish Secretary He told me so m May 1871, hut added, ( 1 think I made 
a mistake ’ The appointment was wholly unsolicited and unexpected by 
Mi Littleton himself, who happened to be laid up at the time by an 

accident On the receipt of the letter from Loid Grey offering him the 

Secretarvship of Ireland, and requesting him to take it, Mr Littleton 

consulted Mi Eazakerly, who was of opinion that he ought to accept the 

offer This tbeietore he did, though not, as I know from hzs own journals 

without great diffidence and hesitation , and he intimated to Loid Grey 

that he would only retain his office until some other man could be found to 

accept it. 



RESPECT SHOWN TO WELLINGTON 


183o] 


373 


populai bias, but though in moments of excitement be is 
attacked and vilified (and bis bioken windows, wbicb I wish 
be would mend, still preserve a record of tbe violence of tbe 
mob), when tbe excitement subsides there is always a le- 
turamg* sentiment of admnation and respect for him, kept 
alive by tbe recollection of bis splendid actions, sucb as no 
one else ever inspired Much, too, as I bave regretted and 
censuied tbe enormous eirois of bis political career (at 
times), I believe that this sentiment is m a great degiee pro- 
duced by tbe justice wbicb is done to bis political cbaiacter, 
sometimes mistaken, but always high-minded and patriotic, 
and never mean, false, or selfish If be has aimed at powei, 
and overrated bis own capacity for wielding it, it has been 
with tbe purest intentions and tbe most conscientious views 
I believe firmly that no man bad ever at heart to a greater 
degree tbe bonoui and glory of bis country , and hereafter, 
when justice will be done to bis memoiy, and bis character 
and conduct be scanned with impartial eyes, if bis capacity 
for government appears unequal to tbe exigencies of tbe 
times m which be was placed at tbe bead of affairs, tbe 
purity of bis motives and tbe noble cbaractei of bis ambition 
will be amply acknowledged 

Tbe Duke of Orleans is here, and very well received by 
tbe Court and tbe world He is good-looking, dull, has good 
manners and little conversation, goes everywhere, and dances 
all night At tbe ball at Court tbe Queen waltzed with tbe 
two Dukes of Orleans and Brunswick 

Peel compelled old Cobbett to bring on bis motion for 
getting him erased from tbe Privy Council, which Cobbett 
wished to shirk from He gave him a terrible di easing, and it 
all went off for Peel in tbe most flattering way He gams every 
day more authority and influence in tbe House of Commons 
It must end m Peel and Stanley, unless everything ends 

May 2727& — All last week at Epsom, and now, thank God, 
these races are over I bave bad all tbe trouble and excite- 
ment and worry, and bave neither won nor lost , nothing but 
tbe hope of gam would induce me to go through this de- 
moralising diudgery, which I am conscious reduces me to 



■*74 


EEION OF WILLIAM IV 


[Ch u XX 


the level of all that is most disiepntable ai d despieiblo, fot 
my thoughts aie eternally absorbed by it Jockeys, tiaineis, 
and blacklegs aie my companions, and it is like diam-di ink- 
ing , having once entered upon it I cannot leave it off, though 
I am disgusted with the occupation all the tune Let no 
man who has no need, who is not m danger of losing all lie 
has, and is not obliged to grasp at eveiy chance, male a booh 
on the Deiby While the fevei it excites is raging, and the 
odds are varying, I can neither read, nor write, noi occupy my- 
self with anything else I went to the Oaks on Wednesday, 
where Lord Stanley kept house for the fust, and piobably (as 
the house is for sale) for the last time It is a very agreeable 
place, with an odd sort of house built at different times and 
by different people , but the outside is covered with ivy and 
creepers, which is pretty, and there are two good living- 
rooms m it Besides this, theie is an abundance of grass 
and shade , it has been for thirty or forty years the resoit 
of all our old jockeys, and is now occupied by the sporting 
portion of the Government We had Lord Giey and his 
daughter, Duke and Duchess of Richmond, Lord and Lady 
Errol, Althorp, Graham, Uxbridge, Chailes Grey, Duke of 
Grafton, Lichfield, and Stanley’s bi others It passed off very 

well — racing all the morning, an excellent dmnei, and whist 
and blind hookey m the evening It was curious to see 
Stanley Who would believe they beheld the oratoi and 
statesman, only second, if second, to Peel in the House of 
Commons, and on whom the destiny of the country peihaps 
depends ? There he was, as if he had no thoughts but for the 
turf, full of the horses, interest in the lottery, eager, blunt, 
noisy, good-humoured, c has meditans nugas et iotus m ilhs , ’ 
at night equally devoted to the play, as if his fortune depended 
on it Thus can a man relax whose existence is devoted to 
great objects and serious thoughts I had considerable hopes 
of winning the Deiby, but was beaten easily, my horse not 
being good An odd circumstance occurred to me before the 
race Payne told me m strict confidence that a man who 
could not appeal on account of his debts, and who had been 
much connected with turf robberies, came to him, and en- 



18531 


ANECDOTE 01 THE DERBY 


375 


ticated him to take the odds for him to 1 ,000? about a horse 
for the Derby, and deposited a note m his hand foi the pur- 
pose He told him half the horses were made safe, and that 
it was ananged this one was to win After much delay, and 
having got his promise to lay out the money, he told him it 
was my horse He did back the hoise for the man for 700? , 
but the same peison told him if my horse could not win Dan- 
geious would, and he backed the lattei likewise for 100? , by 
which his fuend was saved, and won 800? He did not tell 
me his name, nor anything moie, except that his object was, 
if he had won, to pay his creditors, and he had authonsed 
Payne to retain the money, if he won it, for that puipose 

We heaid, while at the Oaks, that M Dedel had signed 
the convention between Prance, England, and Holland, on 
which all the funds rose The King of Holland’s ratification 
was still to be got, and many people will not believe m that 
till they see it 

June 3rd — The Government are m high spirits The 
Saints have given m their adhesion to Stanley’s plan, and 
they expect to carry the West India question The Bank mea- 
suie has satisfied the directors, and most people, except Peel 
The Duke of Wellington told me he was very well satisfied, 
but that they had intended to make better terms with the 
Bank, and he thought they should have done so Melbourne 
says, tf How that we are as much hated as they were, we shall 
stay m for ever ’ 

As I came into town (having come by the steamboat from 
Margate very luxuriously) on Saturday I found a final meet- 
ing at the Council Office to dispose of the lunacy case It 
was so late when Horne finished his reply that I thought 
there was no chance of any discussion, and I did not go m , 
but I met the Master of the Polls afterwards, who told me 
they had delivered their opmions, Lord Eldon cautiously, he 
himself * broadly,’ which I will be bound he did (for he hates 
Brougham), and that, though no judgment had been yet 
given, the Chancellor’s decree would be reversed, so that 
after all Brougham’s wincing and wriggling to this he has 
been forced to submit at last 



376 


KEIGN 01 WILLIAM IV 


[Cii\p x\ 


London , June llth — At a place called Buckhurst all Pst 
week fox the Ascot races , a party at Lichfield’s, racing all the 
morning, then eating and dunking, and play at night 
I may say, with more truth than anybody, 6 Yideo meliora 
proboque, detenora sequoi * The weather was charming, the 
course crowded, the King leceived decently His household 
as now so ill managed that his grooms were diunk eveiy 
day, and one man (who was sober) was killed going home 
fiom the laces G-oodwm told me nobody exercised any 
authority, and the consequence was that the household all 
ran not 

The first day of the races ai rived the news that the Duke 
of Wellington, after making a strong muster, had beaten 
the Government m the House of Lords on the question of 
Portuguese neutrality and Don Miguel, that Loid Giey had 
announced that he considered it a vote of censure, and threw 
out «i sort of threat of resigning He and Brougham (after a 
Cabinet) went down to the King The King was very much 
annoyed at this fiesh dilemma into which the Tones had 
brought him, and consented to whatevei Lord Grey requued 
In the meantime the House of Commons flew to arms, and 
Colonel Dawes gave notice of a motion of confidence m 
Ministers upon their foieign policy This was carried by an 
immense majority after a weak debate, m which some very 
cowardly menaces were thrown out against the Bishops, and 
this settled the question Ministers did not resign, no Peeis 
were made, and everything goes on as before It has been, 
however, a disastrous business How the Duke of Welling- 
ton could take this course aftei the conversation I had with 
him m this room, when he told me he would support the 
Government because he wished it to be strong , I can’t con- 
ceive At all events he seems resolved that his Parlia- 
mentaiy victories should be as injurious as his military 
ones were glorious to his country Some ot his friends say 
that he was provoked by Lord Grey’s supercilious answer to 
him the other day, when he said he knew nothing of what 
was going on but from what he read m the newspapers, 
others that he ‘ feels so very strongly’ about Poitugal, 



183 >] 


TORY BLUNDERS 


377 


otlieis that he cannot manage the Tones, and that they 
weie detei mined to fight, m short, that he has not the same 
anthonty as leader of a paity that he had as geneial of an 
aimy, fox nobody would have forced him to fight the battle 
of Salamanca 01 Vittoria if he had not fancied it himself 
The effect, howevei, has been this the House of Lords has 
had a lap on the knuckles horn the King, then legislative 
functions are practically in abeyance, and his Majesty is 
more tied than ever to his Mmisteis The House of Lords 
is paralysed , it exists upon sufferance, and cannot venture 
to throw out or matenally altei any Bill (such as the India, 
Bank, Negro, Church Reform, &c ) which may come up to 
it without the certainty of being instantly swamped, and tlie 
measures, however obnoxious, crammed down its thioat 
This Government has lost ground m public opmion, they 
weie daily falling lower, and these predestinated idiots come 
and bolster them up just when they most want it Tavis- 
tock acknowledged to me that they were unpopular, and 
that this freak had been of vast service to them, conse- 
quently they aie all elated to the greatest degree The 
Tories are sulky and crestfallen, moderate men are vexed, 
disappointed, grieved , and the Radicals stand grinning by, 
chuckling at the sight of the Conservatives (at least those - 
who so call themselves, and those who must be so really ) 
cutting each others’ throats 

On Saturday, the day after I came back, I found a final 
meeting at the Council Office on the lunacy case, the appeal 
of Grosvenor against Drax There were Lord Lansdowne, 
the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, Master of the Rolls, Loid 
Manners, Lord Eldon, and Lord Lyndhurst The rule is 
that the President of the Council collects the opinions and 
votes, beginning with the junior Privy Councillor This 
was the Chancellor , 1 who made a sort of apology for his 

1 [This must he a mistake The Chancellor takes rank m the Privy 
Council after the Lord President and before everyone else Lord 
Brougham was junior Privy Councillor m mere seniority, but his office gave 
him lank over the others present His opmion was probably taken fiist out 
of compliment to him, as he had made the oidei under review ] 



378 


REI GN OF WILLUM IV 


[Chap \X 


judgment, stating that lie had made the older just after two 
or thr ee very flagrant cases of a similar description had been 
brought under his notice, and then he went into this case, 
and endeavoured to show that theie was fraud (and inten- 
tional fraud) on the pait of the Grosvenois, and he main- 
tained, without insisting on, and veiy mildly, his own former 
view of the case Leach then made a speech stiongly 
agamst the judgment, and Lord Eldon made a longish 
speech, very clear, and veiy decided against it, interlarded 
with professions of his ‘ sincere J respect for the person who 
delivered the judgment The Chancellor did not reply to 
Lord Eldon, but put some questions — some hypothetical, and 
some upon parts of the case itself — which, together with some 
remarks, brought on a discussion between him and Leach, 
m which the latter ended by lashing himself into a rage 
4 My Lord/ said he to the Chancellor, ‘ we talk too much, 
and we don’t stick to the point ’ Brougham put on one of 
his scornful smiles, and in leply to something (I foiget what) 
that the Vice-Chancellor said he dropped m his sarcastic 
tone that he would do so and so c if his Honour would per- 
mit 5 Eoi a moment I thought theie would be a bieeze, but 
it ended without any vote, m the adoption of a form of 
reversal suggested by Lord Eldon, which left it to the option 
of the respondent to institute other proceedings if he should 
thmk fit Afterwards all was harmony Eldon seemed 
tolerably fresh, feeble, but clear and collected He was in 
spirits about the dinner which had just been given him by 
the Templars, at which he was received with extraordinary 
honours He said he hoped never to be called to the Council 
Board again, and this was probably the last occasion on 
which he will have to appear m a judicial capacity It is 
remarkable that his last act should be to reverse a judgment 
of Brougham’s, Brougham being Chancellor and himself 
nothing I could not help looking with something like 
emotion at this extraordinary old man, and reflecting upon 
his long and laborious career, which is terminating gently 
and by almost insensible gradations, m a manner more 
congenial to a philosophic mmd than to an ambitious spirit* 



18 >3] LORD ELDON & GRE4J? C kKEiB 379 

As a statesman and a politician he has smvived and wit- 
nessed the mm of his put/ and the subveision of those 
paiticuln institutions to which he tenaciously clung, and 
which Ins piejudices oi Its wisdom made him think mdis- 
pens ible to the existence of the Constitution As an nidi- 
vidual Ins destiny has been happier, foi he has preseived the 
stiength of his body and the vigoui of his mind far beyond 
the oidmaiy period allotted to man, he is adorned with 
honouis and blessed with wealth sufficient for the aspira- 
tions oi pride and avarice, and while the lapse of time has 
silenced the voice of envy, and retirement from office has 
mitigated the rancour of political hostility, his great and 
acknowledged authority as a luminary of the law shines foith 
with puier lustie He enjoys, perhaps, the most perfect 
lewaid of his long life of labour and study — a foietaste 
of posthumous honoui and fame He has lived to see his 
name venerated and his decisions received with profound 
lespect, and he is departing m peace, with the proud assui- 
ance that he has left to his country a mighty legacy of law 
and seemed to himself an imperishable fame 

June Ihth — The day before yesterday I had occasion to 
see the Dube of Wellington about the business m which we 
are joint trustees, and when we had done I said, ‘ Well, that 
business m the House of Lords turned out ill the other day 5 
e H o , do you think so ? 9 he said, and then he went into the 
matter He said that he was compelled to make the motion 
by the answer Lord Grey gave to his question a few nights 
befoie , that his party m the House of Lords would not be 
satisfied without dividing — they had been impatient to 
attack the Government, and were not to be restrained , that 
on the question itself they were right , that so far from his 
doing harm to the Government, if they availed themselves 
wisely of the defeat they might turn it to account in the 
House of Commons, and so far it was of use to them, as it 
afforded a convincing proof to their supporters that the 
House of Lords might be depended upon for good purposes, 
and they might demand of their supporters m the other 
House that they should enable them to carry good measures. 



380 


BEIGN OF WILLIAM i\ 


[Chu \\ 


and tliey keep tlie House of Commons m haimony with the 
House of Lords He said the Government would make no 
Peeis, and that they could not , that the Tones weie by no 
means fughtened or disheartened, and meant to take the 
first oppoitunity of showing fight again , m shoit, he seemed 
not dissatisfied with what had alieady occuned, and resolved 
to pursue the same course He said the Tones were indig- 
nant at the idea of being compelled to keep quiet, and that 
if they weie to be swamped the sooner it was done the 
better, and that they would not give up their right to deal 
with any question they thought fit from any motive of expe- 
diency whatever 

I don’t know what to make of the Duke and his conduct* 
The Catholic question and the Com Laws and Canning rise 
up before me, and make me doubt whether he is so pure m 
his views and so fiee from vindictive feelings as I thought 
and hoped he was When Loids Grey and Brougham went 
down to the King aftei the defeat, they did not talk of 
Peers, and only proposed the shoit answer to the Loids, to 
which he consented at once His Majesty was very indig- 
nant with the Dube, and said it was the second tune he had 
got him into a scrape, he had made a fool of him last yeai, and 
now wanted to do the same thing again Some pretend that 
all this indignation is simulated , the man is, I believe, more 
foolish than false 

June 19 th — The King dined with the Duke at his 
Waterloo dinner yesterday, which does not look as if he had 
been so very angry with him as the Government people say 
The Duke had his windows mended for the occasion, whether 
m honour of his Majesty or m consequence of H B ’s cari- 
cature I don’t know 

I had a long conversation with Sir Willoughby Cotton 
on Sunday about Jamaica affairs He is "Commander-In- 
Chief, just come home, and just going out again He told 
me what he had said to Stanley, which was to this effect 
that the compensation would be esteemed munificent, greater 
by far than they had expected, that they had looked for a 
loan of fifteen millions at two per cent interest, but that the 



IRISH CHURCH BILL 


GS1 


18V5] 

plan would be impiacticable, and that sugar could not be 
cultivated aftei slaveiy ceased, that the slave would nevei 
understand the system of modified seivitude by which he 
was to be nominally iiee and actually kept to labour, and 
that he would lebel against the magistrate who tiled to foice 
linn to woik more fieicely than against his master, that the 
magistrate would never be able to persuade the slaves m 
then new chaiactei of apprentices to work as heretofore, and 
the military who would be called m to assist them could do 
nothing He asked Stanley if he intended, when the mili- 
tary were called m, that they should fire on or bayonet the 
refiactory apprentices He said no, they were to exhoit 
them He gave him to understand that m his opinion they 
could do nothmg, and that the more the soldieis exhorted 
the more the slaves would not woik With regaid to my own 
particular case he was lather encouraging than not, thought 
they would not molest me any more, 1 that the Assembly 
might try and get me out, but that the Council considered 
it matter of loyalty to the King not to force out the Clerk of 
his Pi ivy Council, but that if anything moie was said about 
it, and I went out to Jamaica, I might be suie of getting 
leave again in a month or six weeks 

June 2 6th — This morning at six saw my mother and 
Henry start for the steamboat which is to take them abroad 
I wish I was going with them, and was destined once more 
to see Rome and Naples, which I fear will never be Last 
week was marked by a division m the House of Commons 
which made a gieat noise It was on that clause of the 
Iiioh Church Bill which declared that the surplus should 
be appropriated by Parliament, and Stanley thought fit to 
leave out the clause The Tories supported him, the 
Radicals and many of the Whigs — Abercromby and C 
Russell among the number — opposed him The minority 
was strong — 148 — but the fury it excited among many of the 

t [This refers to Mr GrevQle’s holding the office of Secretary of the 
Inland of Jamaica with permanent leave of absence The work of the office 
^ as done by a deputy, who was paid by a share of the emoluments which 
weie m the shape of fees.] 



J82 


REIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Chap XX 


fuends of Government is mci edible, and the Tones were 
leiy triumphant without being at all conciliated The 
Speaker said he should not be sui prised to see the Bill 
thrown out by the junction of the Tones and Radicals on 
the thud leading, which is not likely, and the suppiession of 
this clause, which after all leaves the matter just as it was, 
will probably cany it thiough the House of Loids It is, 
however, very questionable whether they weie light m with- 
drawing it, and Tavistock told me that though he thought 
it was nght it was ill done, and had given gieat offence 
Somehow or other Stanley, with all his talents, makes a mess 
of everything, but this comes of being fvvhat the violent 
Whigs suspect him of being) half a Toiy Measuies aie 
concocted upon ultra pnnciples m the Cabinet, and then as 
his influence is exerted, and his wishes aie obliged to be 
consulted, they aie modified and alteied, and this gives a 
character of vacillation to the conduct of Government, and 
exhibits a degree of weakness and infirmity of puipose which 
prevents their being strong 01 populai or respectable No- 
body, however, can say that they aie obstinate, for thev aie 
eternally giving way to somebody In the House of Loids 
there was a sharp skiimish between Brougham n.n d Lynd- 
huist, and high Parliamentary woids passed between those 
‘noble friends’ on the Local Couits Bill The Tones chd 
not go down to suppoit Lyndhuist, which piovoked him, and 
Brougham was nettled by his and old Eldon’s attacks on the 
Bill 

There is great talk of a letter which the King is said to 
have written to the bishops — that is, to the Aichbishop for 
the edification of the episcopal bench It is haidly ciedible 
that he and Taylor should have been guilty of this folly, 
after the lettei which they wrote to the Peeis a jear and a 
half ago and the stir that it made 

I have got from Sir Henry Lushmgton Monk Lewis’s 
journals and his two voyages to the West Indies (one of 
which I read at Naples), with hbeity to publish them, which 
I mean to do if I can get money enough for him He says 
Murray offered him 500Z for the manuscupts some years 



18" 3] THR KING WHITES TO THE ARCHBISHOP 38 J 

ago I doubt getting so much now, but they are uncom- 
monly amusing, and it is the right moment for publishing 
them now that people aie full of intei est about the West 
India question ( I was very well amused last week at the 
bazaar m Hanover Squaie, when a sale was held on four 
successive days by the fine ladies for the benefit of the 
foieigners m distiess It was like a masqueiade without 
masks, foi everybody — men, women, and children — roved 
about wheie they would, eveiybody talking to everybody, 
and vast familiarity established between perfect strangers 
under the guise of barter The Queen’s stall was held by 
Ladies Howe and Denbigh, with her three prettiest maids of 
honour, Miss Bagot dressed like a soubiette and looking 
like an angel They sold all sorts of trash at enormous 
prices, and made, I believe, four or five thousand pounds I 
went on Monday to hear Lushmgton speak m the cause of 
Swift and Kelly He spoke foi three hours — an excellent 
speech I sat by Mr Swift all the time, he is not lll- 
lookmg, but I should think vulgar, and I’m suie impu- 
dent, foi the more Lushmgton abused him the moie he 
laughed 

June 28 th — The King did write to the Aiehbishop of 
Canterbury a severe reproof to be communicated to the 
bishops for having voted against his Government upon a 
question purely political (the Poituguese), in which the 
mteiests of the Church weie in no way concerned He sent 
a copy of the letter to Loid Grey, and Brougham told 
Sefton and Wharnekffe the contents, both of whom told me 
It is re mar kable that nothing has been said upon the subject 
m the House of Lords The Archbishop, the most timid of 
mankind, had the prudence (I am told) to abstain from com- 
municating the letter to the bishops, and held a long con- 
sultation with the Archbishop of York as to the mode of 
fle p lm g with this puzzling document If he had communi- 
cated it, he would as a Pnvy Councillor have been respon- 
sible for it, but what answer he made to the King I know 
not Never was there such a pi oceedmg, so unconstitutional, 
so foolish, but his Ministers do not seem to mind it, and are 



381 


EEIGN OF WILLIAM IV 


[Ciivp XX 


rather elated at such a signal pi oof of Ins disposition to sup- 
port them I think, as far as being a discomagement to 
the Tones, and putting an end to their notion that he is 
hankering after them, it may be of use, and it is probably 
true that he does not wish foi a change, but on the contraiy 
dreads it He n atui ally dieads whatevei is likely to raise a 
storm about his ears and interrupt his lepose 

Lyndhuist is m such a lage at his defeat m the House 
of Lords on the Local Courts Bill that he swore at fiist he 
would never come there again What he said— -that c if they 
had consideied it a party question the result would have 
been very different/ which Biougham unaccountably took foi 
a threat against the Government — was levelled at his own 
Tory friends for not supporting him On the thud leading 
they mean to have another fight about it I understand the 
lawyers that the Bill is very objectionable, and calculated to 
degrade the piofession I sat by Talleyiand at dmnei the day 
before yesterday, who told me a good deal about Mnabeau, 
but as he had a bad cold, m addition to his usual mode of 
pumping up his words fioni the bottom est pit of his stomach, 
it was next to impossible to understand him He said 
Mirabeau was really intimate with thiee people only — him- 
self, Narbonne, and Lauzun — that Auguste d’Aiemberg was 
the negotiator of the Couit and medium of its communica- 
tions with Mirabeau, that he had found (dm mg the pro- 
visional Government) a receipt of Mirabeau’s for a million, 
which he had given to Louis XVIII 


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Classical Dictionary, Chionology, Law 
Dictionar) , Synopsis of the Peeiage, 
Useful Tables, &c Fcp 8vo 6 s 

Maunder’s Biographical 

Treasury Latest Edition, lecon 
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above 1,600 additional Memons, by 
W L R Cates Pep 8vo 6 s 

Maunder’s Scientific and 

Literary Treasury, a Populai En 
cyclopaedia of Science, Literatuie, and 
Ait Latest Edition, partly re v ntten, 
with above 1,000 New Ai tides, by J 
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Maunder’s Treasury of 

Geography, Physical, Histoncal, 
Descriptive, and Political Edited by 
W Hughes, F R G S With 7 Maps 
and 16 Plates Fcp 3 vo 6 s 

Maunder’s Historical 

Treasury, Introductory Outlines of 
Umveisal History, and Separate His 
tones of all Nations Revised by the 
Rev Sir G W t Cox, Bait M A. 
Fcp Svo 6 s 

Maunder’s Treasury of 

Natural History , or, Popular Die 
tionary of Zoology Revised and 
collected Edition Fcp 8\o uith 
900 Woodcuts, 6 s 

The Treasury of Botany, 

or Popular Dictionaiy of the Vegetable 
Kingdom , with which is mcorpoiated 
a Glossary of Botanical Tenns Edited 
by J Lindley, F R S and T Moore, 
FLS With 274 WoodcuL and 20 
Steel Plates Tv 0 Parts, fcp 8vo 12s 


The Treasury of Bible 

Knowledge , being a Dictionaiy of 
the Books, Persons, Places, Events, 
and othei Mattel s of which mention is 
made m Holy Scnptiue By the Rev 
J Ayre, M A Maps, Plates & Wood 
cuts Fcp 8vo 6 s 

A Practical Treatise on 

Brewing , with FoimuLe for Public 
Bieweis 6 c Instiuctions for Private Fam- 
ilies By W Black Svo ioj- 6 d 

The Theory of the Mo- 

dem Scientific Game of Whist 
By W Pole, F R S Tenth Edition 
Fcp 8vo 2 s 6 d 

The Correct Card , or, 

How to Play at Whist , a Whist 
Catechism By Captain A Campbell * 
Walker, FRGb New Edition 
Fcp Svo 2s 6 d 

The Cabinet Lawyer, a 

Popular Digest of the Lav s of England, 
Civil, Criminal, and Constitutional 
Twenty Fifth Edition, coriected and 
extended Fcp 8vo gs 

Chess Openings ByFW 

Longman, Bailiol College, Oxfoid 
Second Edition Fcp Svo 2 s 6 d 

English Chess Problems 

Edited by J Pierce, M A and W 
T Pierce With 608 Diagrams 
Crown 8vo 12 s 6 d 

Pewtner’s Compre- 

hensive Specifier, a Guide to the 
Practical Specification of every kind of 
Building Aitificer’s Work Edited by 
W Young Crown 8vo 6 s 



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21 


A Handbook on Gold 

and Silver Ly -in IndiaxN Oi i iclr 
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The English Manual of 

Banking By Arthur Crump 
Second Edition, reused and enlarged 
8 vo 155- 

Modern Cookery for Pn- 

vate Families, i educed to a System 
of Easy Piacticem a Senes of caiefully 
tested Receipts By Eliza Acton 
With 8 Phtes and 150 Woodcuts Fcp 
Svo 

Hints to Mothers on the 

Management of their Health during 
the Peiiod of Piegnancy and 111 the 
Lying m Room By Thomas Bull, 
MD Fcp Svo, 6d 

The Maternal Manage- 

ment of Children m Health and 
Disease By Thomas Bull, M D 
Fcp 8vo 2s 6d 


Economics for Beginners 

By H D Macleod, MA Small 
ciown Svo 2? 6d 

The Elements of Bank- 

mg By H D Macleod, M A 
Thud Edition Ciown 8vo 7 s 6d 

The Theory and Practice 

of Banking By H D Macleod, 
M A. 2 vols 8\ o 2 6s 

The Resources of Mod- 

ern Countries , Essays towaids an 
Estimate of the Economic Position of 
Nations and Bntish Tiade Prospects 
By Alex Wilson 2 vols 8\o 24s 

Wilhch’s Popular Tables 

foi ascertaining, accoidmg to the Carlisle 
fable of Moitalitj, the value of Life 
hold, Leasehold, and Church Property, 
Renewal Fines, Reveisions, See Also 
Interest, Legacy, Succession Duty, and 
vanous other useful tables Eighth 
Edition Post Svo ioj 


INDEX. 


A bney s Photography 1 1 

Acton s Modem Cookery 21 

Alpme Club Map of Switzerland 17 

Alpine Guide (The) 17 

Amoss Jurisprudence 5 

Fnmer of the Constitution 5 

Anderson s Strength of Materials 1 1 

Armztages Childhood of the English 
Nation 3 

Armstrongs Organic Chemistry 11 

Arnold s (Dr ) Lectures onModern History 2 

* Miscellaneous Works 7 

— — Sermons 15 

y — — (T ) Manual of English Litera- 
ture 6 

Amotts Elements of Physics. 10 

Atelier (The) du Lys 18 

Atherstone Pnory 18 

Autumn Holidays of a Country Parson 7 

Ayre s Treasury of Bible Knowledge 20 

Bacon s Essays, by Abbott 6 

— by Whaiely 6 

Life and Letters by Shedding 5 

— Works 5 

Bailey s Festus a Poem 19 

Bam s Mental and Moral Science 6 

on the Senses and Intellect 6 

Emotions and Will 6 

Balers Two Works on Ceylon 18 


Ball s Guide to the Central Alps 17 

Guide to the Western Alps 17 

Guide to the Eastern Alps 17 

Barry on Railway Appliances it 

Barry & Bramwell s Lectures on Railways 
and Locomotives 14 

Beaconsfield s (Lord) Novels and Tales 18 

Beeslys Gracchi Marius and Sulla 3 

Black s Treatise on Brewing 20 

Blackley s German English Dictionary 8 

Blame s Rural Sports 19 

Bloxam s Metals 11 

Bolland and Lang s Aristotle s Politics 6 

Boultbee on 39 Articles 15 

Bourne s Catechism of the Steam Engine 14 

Handbook of Steam Engine 14 

* Treatise on the Steam Engine 14 

Improvements m the same 14 

Bowdler s Family Shakespeare X9 

Bramley-Moore s Six Sisters of the Valleys 18 

Brande s Dictionaryof Science Literature, 
and Art 12 

Brassey s Voyage of the Sunbeam 17 

Browne s Exposition of the 39 Articles 15 

Browni igs Modern England 3 

Buckles History of Civilisation 2 

Posthumous Remains 7 

Buckion s Health in the House 13 

Bulls Hints to Mothers 21 




22 


WORKS published by LONGMANS CO 


Bull s Material Management of Children 
Bullmger s Lexicon to the Greek Testament 
Burgomaster s Family (The) 

Built, s Vicissitudes of Families 
Cabinet Lawyer 
Campbells Norway 
Capes s Age of the Antonmes 

Early Roman Empire 

Carpenter on Mesmerism Spiritualism &c 
Cates s Biographical Dictionary 
Cayley s Iliad of Homer 
Changed Aspects of Unchanged Truths 
Chesney s Indian Polity 
Ckcsney s Waterloo Campaign 
Church s Beginning of the Middle \ges 
Colenso on Moabite Stone &c 

i Pentateuch and Book of Joshua 

Commonplace Philosopher m Town and 
Country 

Comte s Positive Polity 
Congreve s Politics of Anstotle 
Camngton s Translation of Virgil s ^Eneid 

— Miscellaneous Writings 

Contanseau s Two French Dictionaries 
Conybeare and Howson s Life and Epistles 

of St Paul 

Co dcrys Struggle against \bsolute Mon 
archy 

Cotta on Rocks by Lawrence 
Counsel and Comfort from a City Pulpit 
Cox s (G W ) Athenian Empire 

■ Crusades 

* — Gieeks and Persians 

Creighton s Age of Elizabeth 
England a Continental Power 

— Tudors and the Reformation 

Cresy s Encyclopaedia of Civil Engineering 
Critical Essays of a Country Parson 
Crookes s Anthracen 

Chemical Analyses 

— Dyemg and Calico printing 

Crump's Manual of Banking 
Culleys Handbook of Telegraphy 
Curie is s Macedonian Empire 
D Auhgnis Reformation 
De Caisne and Le Maout s Botany 
De TocqueviUe s Democracy m America 
Digby s Indian Famine Campaign 
Dobson on the Ox 
Dove s Law of Storms 
Dowell's History of Taxes 
Doyle s (R ) Fairyland 
D) ummonds Jewish Messiah 
Eastlakes Hints on Household Taste 
Edwards s Nile 

Year m Western France 


Elhcotts Scripture Commentaries 

— - Lectures on Life of Christ 

Elsa and her Vulture 
Epochs of Ancient History 

English History 

— Modem History 

Evans tj ) Ancient Stone Implements 
“ ~ (A J ) Bosnia & Illyrian Letters 

Ewala s History of Israel 

* Antiquities of Israel 

Faubaim s Applications of Iron 

Information for Engineers 

— 1 — Life , 


21 

8 

18 

4 

20 

17 

3 

6 

4 

19 

7 

2 

2 

3 

17 

17 

7 
6 

1 

8 

I S 

3 

12 

7 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

14 

7 

14 

13 

1 5 
21 

14 

3 

16 
12 

5 

2 


9 

5 

13 
I S 

14 
17 

17 

15 

15 

18 
3 
3 

3 
12 

17 

16 
16 
14 
14 

4 


ranbami s Mills and Millwoil 
Farrars Language and Languages 
Fitzwygram on Horses and Stables 
Fiampton s (Bishop) Life 
Francis s Fishing Book 
Frobisher s Life by Jones 
Fronde s English m Ireland 

-History of England 

Shoit Studies 

Gairdners Houses of Lancaster and York 

Richai d III & Perkin Warbeck 

Ganot s Elementary Physics 

Natural Philosophy 

Gardiner s Buckingham and Charles 

Personal Go\ernment of Charles I 

Hist I wo Stuarts 

Thirty Years War 

Gtffcken on Church and State 
German Home Life 
Goldzihers Hebrew Mythology 
Goodeve s Mechanics 

Mechanism 

Gore s Ait of Scientific Discovery 

* Llectro Metallurgy 

Grant s Ethics of Anstotle 
Graver Thoughts of a Country Parson 
Greville s J oumal 

Gnffin s Algebra and Tngonometry 
Grove (Sir W R ) on Correlation of Physi- 
cal Forces 

Gvnlt s Encyclopaedia of Architecture 
Hale s Fall of the Stuarts 
Handbook on Gold and Silver 
Hartley on the Air 
Hartwigs Aerial Worlds 

Polar World 

— Sea and its Living Wonders 

— Subterranean World 

Tropical World 

Haughton s Animal Mechanics 
Heers Primeval World of Switzerland 
Heme s Life and Works by Stigand 
Helmholt L on Tone 
HelmholL s Scientific Lectures 
Hemsleys Trees and Shrubs 
Herschel s Outlines of Astronomy 
H mchhff s Over the Sea and Far Away 
Hobson s Amateur Mechanic 
Hodgson s Philosophy of Reflection 
H oskold s Engineer s Valuing Assistant 
Haworths Mongols 
Hullak s History of Modern M usi c 

* Transition Period 

Hume s Essays 

~ - Treatise on Human Nature 

Ihne s Rome to its Capture 

* History of Rome 

Indian Alps 

Ingelow s Poems 

Jameson s Legends of the Saints & Martyrs 

Legends of the Madonna 

Legends of the Monastic Orders 

* Legends of the Saviour 

Memoirs 


14 

7 

19 

4 

19 * 
4 
1 

1 
6 
3 
3 

10 

10 

2 

2 

3 
3 
7 
7 

16 

11 
11 

13 
11 

6 

7 

1 

11 

10 

14 

3 
21 

9 

11 
11 
11 

11 
ri 
10 

12 

4 
10 
10 

12 
9 

17 

13 

5 

14 
2 

12 

12 


1 


Yenkzn s Electricity and Magnetism 
ferrold s Life of Napoleon 
fohnson s Normans m Europe 
Johnston s Geographical Dictionary 
fonson s (Ben) Every Man m his Humour 


17 

19 

13 

13 

13 

13 

4 

11 

1 

3 

8 

6 



WORKS published by LONGMANS 6 - CO 


n 


'Jukes s Types of Genesis 

■ on Second Death 

Kahsch s Bible Studies 

* Commentary on the Bible 

Keith s Evidence of Prophecy 
Keller s Lake Dwellings of Switzerland 
KerTs Metallurgy by Crookes and Rohng 
Kmgsett s Alkali Trade 

^cr Animal Chemistry 

Kirby and Spence s Entomology 
Knatchbull Hugessen s Fairy Land 

*- Higgledy Piggledy 18 

Kuenen s Prophets and Prophecy m Israel 15 
Landscapes Churches &c 
Latham s English Dictionaries 

— Handbook of English Langurge 

Leckys History of England 

European Morals 

Rationalism 

Leaders of Public Opinion 

Lefroy s Bermudas 
Leisure Hours m Town 
Lessons of Middle Age 
Lewes s Biographical History of Philosophy 
Lewis on Authority 

Liddell and Scott s Greel English Lexicons 
Lmdley and Moore s Treasury of Botany 
Lloyd s Magnetism 

Wave Theory of Light 

London Series of English Classics 
Longman s (F W ) Chess Openings 

• * German Dictionary 

(W ) Edward the Third 

■ Lectures on History of 

England 

Old and New St Paul s 


7 

7 

8 
1 
3 

3 

4 
18 

7 

7 
3 
6 

8 

20 

10 

10 

6 

20 

8 


13 

Loudon s Encyclopaedia of Agriculture 15 

* Gardening 15 

• — Plants 12 

Lubbock s Origin of Civilisation 12 

Ludlow s Amencan War 3 

Lyra Germamca 17 

Macaulay s (Lord) Cli\ e by Bowen 6 

Essays x 

History of England 1 

Lays of Ancient Rome 13 

Life and Letters 4 

Miscellaneous Writings 7 

- — — Speeches 7 

. Works 1 

Writings Selections from 7 

McCulloch s Dictionary of Commerce 8 

Macfarren on Musical Harmony 13 

Macleods Economical Philosophy 5 

Economics for Beginners 21 

Theory and Practice of Banking 2t 

* Elements of Banking 21 

Mademoiselle Mon 18 

Maguire s Pope Pius IX 4 

Malet s Annals of the Road 19 

Mannings Mission of the Holy Spirit 17 

Mai lowe s Doctor Faustus by Wagner 6 

Marshman s Life of Havelock 4 

Martmeau s Christian Life 17 

Hours of Thought 17 

— Hymns 16 

Maunder s Biographical Treasury 20 

Geographical Treasury 20 

— Historical Treasury 20 


Maunders Scientific and Litei ary Treasury 

Treasury of Knowledge 

Treasury of Natural History 

Maxwell s Theory of Heat 
May s History of Democracy 

History of England 

Melville s Digby Grand 

General Bounce 

— Gladiators 

Good for Nothing 

Holmby House 

Interpreter 

Kate Co\ entry 

Queen s Maries 

Memorials of Charlotte W ilhams- Wynn 

Mendelssohn s Letters 

Menvales Fall of the Roman Republic 

General History of Rome 

Roman Triumvirates 

Romans under the Empire 

Marndelds Arithmetic and Mensuration 
Miles on Horse s Toot and Horse Shoeing 

on Horse s Teeth and Stables 

Mill (J ) on the Mind 
MiUs (J S ) Autobiography 

Dissertations & Discussions 

Essays on Religion 

Hamilton s Philosophy 

Liberty 

Political Economy 

Representative Government 

Subjection of Women 

System of I ogic 

Unsettled Questions 

Utilitarianism 

Miller s Elements of Chemistry 

Inorganic Chemistry 

Mitchell s Manual of Assaying 

Milton s Paradise Regained by Jen am 

Modem Novelist s Library 

Monsell s Spmtual Songs 

Moore s Irish Melodies Illustrated Edition 

Lalla Rool h Illustrated Edition 

Mo? 1 is s Age of Anne 

Mozarts Life by Nohl 

Mullers Chips fiom a German Workshop 

Science of Language 

Science of Religion 

Mulhnger s Schools of Charles the Great 
Ncison on the Moon 
Nevilc s Horses and Riding 
Newman s Apologia pro Vitd Sua 
Nicols s Puzzle of Life 
Northcott s Lathes & Turning 
0 Conor s Scripture Commentary 
One Hundred Holy Songs &c 
Owens E\emngs with the SI eptics 

(Prof ) Comparative Anatomy and 

Physiology of Vertebrate Animals 
Packe s Guide to the Pyrenees 
Pattison s Casaubon 
Payen s Industnal Chemistry 
Pewtners Comprehensive Specifier 
Pierce r Chess Problems 
Pole s Game of Whist 
Pope s Select Poems by Arnold 
Powells Early England 
Pj eece & Siaewt ight s Telegraphy 
Present-Day Thoughts 


20 

20 

20 

11 

1 

1 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

4 

4 

2 

2 

3 

2 

11 
20 
20 

5 

4 

5 
15 

5 

S 

s 

5 

5 

5 

5 

3 

12 
it 

15 

6 
18 

16 

13 
13 

3 

4 
7 
7 


9 

19 

4 

12 

14 

15 

16 
6 


11 

17 

4 

14 

20 

20 

20 

6 

3 

11 

1 



WORKS published by LONGMANS v* CO 


Proctor s Astronomical Essays 9 

Cycloid 9 

Moon 9 

Orbs around Us 9 

Other Worlds than Ours 9 

Saturn 9 

Scientific Essays (Two Series) 19 

— - Sun 9 

— - — — Transits of Venus 9 

Two Star Atlases 9 

Universe of Stais 9 

Profhet os De Montfort 2 

Public Schools Atlas of Ancient Geography 8 

— At] as of Modern Geography 8 

Rawlmson s Parthia 3 

— Sassannns 3 

Recreations of a Country Parson 7 

Reynardson s Down the Road 19 

Rich s Dictionary of Antiquities 8 

Rivers s Rose Amateur s Guide 12 

Rogers s Eclipse of Faith 15 

Defence of Eclipse of Faith 15 

Rogets Thesaurus of English Words and 

Phrases 8 

Ronald s Fly Fisher s Entomology 12 

Rothschild 1 s Israelites 15 

Roduley s Rise of the People 3 

Settlement of the Constitution 3 

Sandars s Justinian s Institutes 5 

Sankey s Sparta and Thebes 3 

Sckellen s Spectrum Analysis 9 

Seaside Musing 7 

Seebohm s Oxford Reformers of 1498 2 

— — Protestant Revolution 3 

Sewells History of Fiance 2 

Passing ThdUghts on Religion 16 

Preparation for Communion 16 

Stories and Tales 18 

Thoughts for the Age 16 

Shelley s Workshop Appliances 1 1 

Shipley s Ritual of the Altar 16 

Shorts Church History 3 

Smith s (Sydney) Essays 7 

Wit and Wisdom 7 

(Dr R A ) Air and Rain 9 

(R B )Carthage & the Carthaginians 2 

Southey s Poetical W orks 1 9 

Stanley s History of British Birds 1 1 

Stephen s Ecclesiastical Biography 4 

Stonehenge on the Dog 19 

on the Greyhound 19 

Stoney on Strains 14 

Stubbs s Early Plantagenets 3 

Sunday Afternoons by A K H B 7 

Supernatural Religion 16 

Swmbourne s Picture Logic 6 

Tancock s England during the Wars 

1778-1820 3 

Taylor s History of India 2 

- Ancient and Modern History 4 


Ta\Iors (Jeremy) Works edited by Eden 

Text Books of Science 

Thom l s Botany 

Thornton r Laws of Thought 

Thai pe s Quantitative Anal} sis 

Thorpe and Muirs Qualitative Analysis 

Tilden s Chemical Philosophy 

Todd on Parliamentary Government 

Trench s Realities of Insh Life 

Trollope s Barchester Towers 

Warden 

Twi v Law of Nations 

Tyndall s American Lectures on Light 

Diamagnetism 

Fragments of Science 

Heat a Mode of Motion 

T) ndall s Lectures on Electricity 

Lectures on Light 

Lectures on Sound 

I essons m Electricity 

— Molecular Physics 

Unawares 

Unwin s Machine Design 
Uses Dictionary of Arts Manufactuies, 
and Mines 

Vauikans Trident Crescent and Cross 

Walker on Whist 

Walpoles History of England 

Warburton s Edward the Third 

Watson s Geometeiy 

Watts s Dictionary of Chemistry 

Webb s Objects for Common Telescopes 

Wcinhold s Evpcrimntal Physics 

Wellington s Life by Gleig 

Whatcly s English Syr^nymcs 

Logic 

Rhetoric 

White s Four Gospels m Greel 

and Riddle s Latin Dictionaries 

Wilcocks s Sea-Fisherman 

Williams s Aristotle s Ethics 

W illicit s Popular Tables 

Wilson s Resources of Modern Countnes 

Wood s (J G ) Bible Animals 

Homes without Hands 

insects at Home 

• Insects Abroad 

Out of Doors 

Strange Dwellings 

(J T ) Ephesus * 

Wood jo ai d s Geology 

Yonge s English Greek Lexicons 

Horace 

Youatt on the Dog 

on the Horse 

Zeller s Plato 
Socrates 

Stoics Epicureans and Sceptics 

Zimmern s Lessmg 
Schopenhauer 


16 

11 

11 

6 

11 

11 

11 

2 


it 


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LONDON 1 PINTFD PY 

WOttiswoodr and co new s rrrrr 

AND P*RLIAMF\T SI rrPT